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In the 2015 review paper ‘Petawatt Class Lasers Worldwide’ a comprehensive overview of the current status of high-power facilities of
was presented. This was largely based on facility specifications, with some description of their uses, for instance in fundamental ultra-high-intensity interactions, secondary source generation, and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). With the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics being awarded to Professors Donna Strickland and Gerard Mourou for the development of the technique of chirped pulse amplification (CPA), which made these lasers possible, we celebrate by providing a comprehensive update of the current status of ultra-high-power lasers and demonstrate how the technology has developed. We are now in the era of multi-petawatt facilities coming online, with 100 PW lasers being proposed and even under construction. In addition to this there is a pull towards development of industrial and multi-disciplinary applications, which demands much higher repetition rates, delivering high-average powers with higher efficiencies and the use of alternative wavelengths: mid-IR facilities. So apart from a comprehensive update of the current global status, we want to look at what technologies are to be deployed to get to these new regimes, and some of the critical issues facing their development.
Rice is widely grown in rainfed lowlands during the wet season in the Mekong region. Limited nutrient availability is a common constraint on crop yield, and the optimal rate of fertilizer application depends on the soil type. The objective of our study was to evaluate rice productivity and the economic feasibility of various nutrient management regimes in Cambodia. We conducted field experiments on three soil types (Prey Khmer, Prateah Lang, and Toul Samroung, equivalent to Psamments, Plinthustalfs, and Endoaqualfs, respectively) in four provinces (Battambang, Kampong Thom, Pursat, and Siem Reap) during the 2016 and 2017 wet seasons to compare nine (2016) and seven (2017) N–P–K combinations. Grain yield ranged from 0.9 to 4.8 t ha−1 in 2016 and from 1.0 to 5.2 t ha−1 in 2017, depending on soil type and nutrient management. The Prey Khmer soil contained around 80% sand, and rice yield responded most weakly to nutrient management. The moderate fertilizer input in the current soil-specific recommendation was effective on this soil type. However, on more fertile soils with a higher clay content and a higher cation-exchange capacity (Toul Samroung and Prateah Lang), an additional 20 kg N ha−1 combined with adding 15 kg ha−1 of P2O5 or 20 kg ha−1 of K2O significantly increased yield and economic return. Although P and K use during Cambodia’s wet season is uncommon, our results demonstrate the importance of these nutrients in improving the country’s rice production.
More than 10 Sub1 rice varieties carrying the submergence-tolerance gene have been released for flood-prone environments in tropical Asia. Improved management practices have been shown to enhance yields of these varieties. The objective of this study was to dissect the growth response of IR64-Sub1 to integrated crop management in a flash flood at the late vegetative stage. Field experiments were conducted at the International Rice Research Institute, Philippines in the dry and wet seasons of 2013. Complete submergence was imposed for 14 days starting at 37 days after transplanting. Integrated management practice (IMP) consisting of: (i) application of fertilizer (compared with no fertilizer use in conventional practice), (ii) use of lower seeding rate (400 vs. 800 kg ha−1) in the nursery bed, (iii) use of slightly older seedling for transplanting (30 vs. 18 day-old), and (iv) higher planting density (33.3 vs. 25.0 hills m−2) gave yields higher by 8–87% compared with the conventional practice (1.3–2.4 t ha−1) in both seasons. This was attributable to higher shoot biomass after water recession, more tillers m−2, greater leaf area expansion and shoot biomass accumulation during the recovery period, and higher filled-grain percentage at maturity. The improved management had no positive effect on panicle formation, spikelets panicle−1, and harvest index since stress was imposed at the transition period between vegetative and reproductive phases. Our results suggest the appropriate nursery management, for submergence-resilient seedlings to further alleviate damage caused by flash floods and increase the yield of Sub1 varieties in flood-prone rainfed lowlands.
Rutile grains occur extensively in host phases of biotite and quartz-feldspar aggregate in high-temperature paragneisses of the Mogok metamorphic belt of Myanmar. They occur as an isolated phase and sometimes show intergrowth texture with ilmenite. Most rutile grains contain up to 3.7 wt.% Nb2O5, which shows positive correlations with Fe and trivalent elements. Niobium substitutes for Ti by a coupled substitution with the trivalent cations (M3+) of Nb5+M3+Ti4+-2. Fine-grained rutile grains included in ilmenite are distinctly poor in Nb (<0.1 wt.% as Nb2O5) and contain Fe of 1.7–3.2 wt.% as Fe2O3, suggesting vacancybearing substitution of Fe3+4 Ti4+-3□–1, where □ indicates a vacancy. The rutile grains in the felsic phases contain high Zr contents of up to 4200 ppm, suggesting equilibrium temperatures over 800°C using the Ti-in-rutile geothermometer. These high-temperature conditions are consistent with those estimated by conventional methods reported in the literature and suggest widespread occurrences of the upperamphibolite and granulite facies metamorphic rocks in the middle segment of the Mogok metamorphic belt. In contrast, the Zr contents of rutile grains in biotite are usually <1000 ppm, implying equilibrium temperatures lower than 750°C. Most of the rutile grains poorer in Zr might have been included in biotite and were isolated from the zircon-bearing system during an early stage of prograde metamorphism. Some other rutile grains poorer in Zr might have been an exsolved phase from Ti-rich biotite during retrograde metamorphism, which was furthered by the infiltration of metamorphic fluid under lower-amphibolite facies conditions.
Using the OPAL opacity, we have calculated the post-AGB evolutions of low mass stars. It is newly found that optically thick wind occurs for Mcore > 0.55M⊙ and the evolutionary time scale is drastically shortened.
We calculate the blue-red-blue evolution of the progenitor of SN 1987A in the HR diagram by adopting the Schwarzschild criterion for convection and by choosing appropriate parameters for mass loss and mixing [Fig. 1 (left) where metallicity is Z = 0.005]. During helium burning, the star moves from the blue to the red due to mass loss from 23 M⊙ to 16 M⊙. Figure 2 (right) shows the lifetime in effective temperature bins normalized to unity (solid) compared with the number of supergiants with −8 < Mboi < � 9 in the LMC, which is also normalized to unity (dashed). The model is qualitatively consistent with the observed histogram.
The Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN) is composed by four ground cosmic ray detectors distributed around the Earth: Nagoya (Japan), Hobart (Australia), Sao Martinho da Serra (Brazil) and Kuwait city (Kuwait). The network has operated since March 2006. It has been upgraded a few times, increasing its detection area. Each detector is sensitive to muons produced by the interactions of ~50 GeV Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) with the Earth′s atmosphere. At these energies, GCR are known to be affected by interplanetary disturbances in the vicinity of the earth. Of special interest are the interplanetary counterparts of coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and their driven shocks because they are known to be the main origins of geomagnetic storms. It has been observed that these ICMEs produce changes in the cosmic ray gradient, which can be measured by GMDN observations. In terms of applications for space weather, some attempts have been made to use GMDN for forecasting ICME arrival at the earth with lead times of the order of few hours. Scientific space weather studies benefit the most from the GMDN network. As an example, studies have been able to determine ICME orientation at the earth using cosmic ray gradient. Such determinations are of crucial importance for southward interplanetary magnetic field estimates, as well as ICME rotation.
We report on the formation of shallow junctions with high activation in both n+/p and p+/n Ge junctions using ion implantation and Flash Lamp Annealing (FLA). The shallowest junction depths (Xj) formed for the n+/p and p+/n junctions were 7.6 nm and 6.1 nm with sheet resistances (Rs) of 860 ohms/sq. and 704 ohms/sq., respectively. By reducing knocked-on oxygen during ion implantation in the n+/p junctions, Rs was decreased by between 5% and 15%. The lowest Rs observed was 235 ohms/sq. with a junction depth of 21.5 nm. Hall measurements clearly revealed that knocked-on oxygen degraded phosphorus activation (carrier concentration). In the p+/n Ge junctions, we show that ion implantation damage induced high boron activation. Using this technique, Rs can be reduced from 475 ohms/sq. to 349 ohms/sq. These results indicate that the potential for forming ultra-shallow n+/p and p+/n junctions in the nanometer range in Ge devices using FLA is very high, leading to realistic monolithically-integrated Ge CMOS devices that can take us beyond Si technology.
Polarization measurements of the radio Arc were made with the VLA at 15 GHz. High frequency polarimetry made with high spatial resolution minimizes Faraday depolarization and reveals polarized filaments which correspond to the predominant filaments of the radio Arc. We notice a peculiar linear feature in the polarization map (“thorns”) which suggests the presence of a second magnetic field system. The total intensity maps show no evidence for an interaction between the two field systems, so the thorns may be foreground magnetized structures. However, if the two magnetic field systems do interact, it would allow a model in which the acceleration of relativistic particles takes place at their intersection. The accelerated particles would flow toward both ends of the radio Arc, and account for the intrinsic polarization observed along the entire length of the system. Thermal electrons responsible for the Faraday depolarization occuring at longer wavelengths may be supplied by the interaction of the streams of relativistic particles with relatively dense, ambient thermal clouds.
We present 22 and 49 GHz interferometric observations of Hyd A (3C218). The source was found to have a very large Faraday rotation measure (RM) (Kato et al. 1987), and to be a dominant member of a luminous X-ray cluster with a large cooling flow (David et al. 1988). These characteristics are very similar to those of Cyg A which is suggested to produce a large RM within a dense sheath around the radio lobes as a result of somehow an interaction between dense intracluster medium (ICM) and radio jets and/or lobes (Dreher et al. 1987). Hyd A is the second example of Cyg A type source. In case of Cyg A, hot spots are the place where the interaction between jets and ICM occurs (Carilli et al. 1988). We then expect in Hyd A that similar interaction also occurs to form hot spots, and consequently that high frequency observations reveal structures of the interaction.
The overview of the recent results for discovery and investigations of a very exotic phenomenon – optical mirage in the X-ray spectral range – is presented. It was found that the mirage could be created in the form of coherent virtual point source, emerging in the vicinity of the second plasma in two-stage oscillator-amplifier X-ray laser. The X-ray source-mirage, rigidly phased with the initial radiation of generator, occurs only when amplification takes place in the amplifier plasma and leads to the appearance of the interference pattern in the form of concentric rings in the spatial profile of the output X-ray laser beam. The equation describing the emergence of X-ray mirage was found, numerical solution of which shows that its formation is similar to that of the optical mirages observed at propagation of light rays through an inhomogeneously heated air. Obtained results have already demonstrated novel comprehension into the physical nature of amplification of X-ray radiation, opening additional opportunities for X-ray interferometry, holography, and other applications, which require multiple rigidly phased sources of coherent radiation.
We are currently conducting three kinds of IR surveys of star forming regions (SFRs) in order to seek for very low-mass young stellar populations. First is a deep JHKs-bands (simultaneous) survey with the SIRIUS camera on the IRSF 1.4m or the UH 2.2m telescopes. Second is a very deep JHKs survey with the CISCO IR camera on the Subaru 8.2m telescope. Third is a high resolution companion search around nearby YSOs with the CIAO adaptive optics coronagraph IR camera on the Subaru. In this contribution, we describe our SIRIUS camera and present preliminary results of the ongoing surveys with this new instrument.
We have made a 12CO(J = 1−0) survey of the LMC with NANTEN. A sample of 55 giant molecular clouds has been identified and comparisons with stellar clusters, HII regions and SNRs are presented. The connection between the clouds and cluster formation is discussed.
The optically thin, advection-dominated accretion flows are thermally stable against global perturbations. In addition, they have high temperatures because of inefficient radiative cooling. They are thus promising candidates of models to explain the high energy emission of X-ray stars and AGNs. So far, models, however, take no account of the advective heat transport in determining the thermal structure of the electron system. The validly of this neglect, however, must be checked by integrating the electron energy equation globally as well as the ion energy one.
More than 4000 stars observed in both MOA and DENIS projects showing periodic or quasi-periodic light curves are studied. Almost all Mira stars are located on the classical period-luminosity relation, and the multiplicity of the period-luminosity relation is confirmed for small-amplitude stars. The colour-magnitude diagrams based on the MOA red band, Rm, and Ks constructed for the sequences, form a single strip with small successive shifts.
Two large sinusoidal variations with periods of 3.337 hrs and 2.018 hrs and other smaller variations have been detected from the period analysis of Hel Λ 6678 spectra obtained by our multi-site campaign for ζ Oph in May, 1993. The resultant periodgram is considerably improved (aliasing free) from those in previous publications. The periodicity may be consistent with previous studies except ambiguities of aliasing. It is surprising that almost all detected periods have a common superperiodicity of about 10.05 hrs. We emphasise the importance of multi-site campaign for the study of line-profile variations (lpv) in early-type stars.
Basic features of observed Type I X-ray bursts are thought to be interpreted in terms of helium shell-flash near the surface of the accreted neutron stars (Lewin and Joss 1981). Numerical models of the helium shell-flash show that the luminosity grows very close to the Eddingotn luminosity just after the peak of energy generation.
This paper describes an overview of our recent discovery – clear
demonstration that LiF crystals can be efficiently used as a high-performance neutron
imaging detector based on optically stimulated luminescence of color centers
generated by neutron irradiation. It is shown that the neutron images we have
obtained are almost free from granular noise, have a spatial resolution of
and a linear response with a dynamic range of at least
. The high contrast and good sensitivity of LiF crystals allow us to
distinguish two holes with less than 2% transmittance difference. We propose to use
such detectors in areas where high spatial resolution with high image gradation
resolution is needed, including diagnostics of different plasma sources such as laser
and z-pinch produced plasmas.