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The advent of multiple orbital and in situ missions to planetary bodies beyond Earth has enabled characterization of extraterrestrial shallow crustal processes. We describe examples of interpreting geochemical, isotopic, and radar properties from multiple remote datasets, supplemented with in situ observations from rovers and landers, meteorites, and lunar samples. Given the availability of distinct data types and the relevance to bulk-silicate bodies in the Solar System, we present five case studies for the Moon and Mars. The first involves lunar magmatic processes in relation to TiO2 and radargram-derived physical properties. Next, O and Fe isotope variations relative to the Mg number provide insight into the degree of fractional crystallization in lunar lava flows. Physical mixing of endmembers and chemical weathering processes in Gusev crater soil on Mars are discussed. Effective use of the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) is also considered by comparing mineralogic observations across Mars with terrestrial references. Lastly, the nature of bulk soil hydration on Mars is described by assessing chemical variations with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This chapter describes in situ analyses and mapping across local and regional scales. Data synthesis also involves contrasting depth scales from tens of microns to multiple kilometers.
This research offers a post-mortem on political advertising in 2018, providing important context for 2018’s “blue wave.” In a majority of US House of Representatives races, there were more pro-Democratic than pro-Republican ads, including in the most competitive contests. The one theme that united pro-Democratic advertising was health care, which was mentioned in nearly three of every five Democratic ads in the fall campaign. Contrary to the narrative that television is declining, a record number of television ads aired in the 2018 midterms, whereas digital spending still constituted a small percentage of overall advertising spending for most candidate campaigns. Finally, there was a healthy volume of outside-group spending in 2018, with “dark-money” groups increasing their involvement—especially in support of Democratic candidates.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
The transition from the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) to the final white dwarf (WD) stage is arguably the least understood phase in the evolution of single low- and intermediate-mass stars (0.8 ≲ MZAMS/M⊙ ≲ 8…10). Here we briefly review the progress in the last 50 years of the modeling of stars during the post-AGB phase. We show that although the main features, like the extreme mass dependency of post-AGB timescales were already present in the earliest post-AGB models, the quantitative values of the computed post-AGB timescales changed every time new physics was included in the modeling of post-AGB stars and their progenitors. Then we discuss the predictions and uncertainties of the latest available models regarding the evolutionary timescales of post-AGB stars.
We carried out simultaneous observations of H2O and OH masers, and radio continuum at 1.3 cm with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) towards 4 water-fountain candidates. Water fountains (WFs) are evolved stars, in the AGB and post-AGB phase, with collimated jets traced by high-velocity H2O masers. Up to now, only 15 sources have been confirmed as WFs through interferometric observations. We are interested in the discovery and study of new WFs. A higher number of these sources is important to understand their properties as a group, because they may represent one of the first manifestations of collimated mass-loss in evolved stars. These observations will provide information about the role of magnetic fields in the launching of jets in WFs. Our aim is to ascertain the WF nature of these candidates, and investigate the spatial distribution of the H2O and OH masers.
The synthesis of dust grains mostly takes place in the circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. What are the precursor seeds of condensation nuclei and how do these particles evolve toward the micrometer sized grains that populate the interstellar medium? These are key questions of the NANOCOSMOS project. In this study, we carried out an observational study to constrain what the main gas-phase precursors of dust in C-rich AGB stars are.
Based on hydrostatic models we discuss the effects of molecular opacities and abundance changes concerning C, N or O on the atmospheric structures, spectra and photometric properties of C/M AGB giants.
Herschel PACS imaging observations of carbon stars show well-resolved spherically symmetric detached shells around several objects. In the case of U Hya the shell is additionally detected in scattered visible light and in the far UV. The remarkable spherical symmetry justifies a straightforward application of 1D models to constrain the properties of the dust envelope, whose modulation in density is a consequence of short epochs of highly increased mass loss and/or wind-wind interaction between outflows of different velocity. We perform dust radiative transfer calculations, first based on a parametrised density distribution, and in a more sophisticated approach on a combination of stationary wind models. The impact of dust properties, particularly grain geometry, on the results is highlighted.
The chemical enrichment of the Universe is considerably affected by the contribution of cool evolved stars. We studied the O-rich star R Peg and the C-rich star V Oph, using respectively the VLTI/GRAVITY and VLTI/MIDI instruments. We interpret the data using grids of 1-D and 3-D dynamic model atmospheres.
We present ALMA band 7 data of the extreme OH/IR star, OH 26.5+0.6. In addition to lines of CO and its isotopologues, the circumstellar envelope also exhibits a number of emission lines due to metal-containing molecules, e.g., NaCl and KCl. A lack of C18O is expected, but a non-detection of C17O is puzzling given the strengths of H217O in Herschel spectra of the star. However, a line associated with Si17O is detected. We also report a tentative detection of a gas-phase emission line of MgS. The ALMA spectrum of this object reveals intriguing features which may be used to investigate chemical processes and dust formation during a high mass-loss phase.
We present very detailed images of the photosphere of an AGB star obtained with the PIONIER instrument, installed at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). The images show a well defined stellar disc populated by a few convective patterns. Thanks to the high precision of the observations we are able to derive the contrast and granulation horizontal scale of the convective pattern for the first time in a direct way. Such quantities are then compared with scaling relations between granule size, effective temperature, and surface gravity that are predicted by simulations of stellar surface convection.
Barium (Ba) stars form via mass-transfer in binary systems, and can subsequently interact with their white dwarf companion in a second stage of binary interaction. We used observations of main-sequence Ba systems as input for our evolutionary models, and try to reproduce the orbits of the Ba giants. We show that to explain short and sometimes eccentric orbits, additional interaction mechanisms are needed along the RGB.
The chemistry within the outflow of an AGB star is determined by its elemental C/O abundance ratio. Thanks to the advent of high angular resolution observations, it is clear that most outflows do not have a smooth density distribution, but are inhomogeneous or “clumpy”. We have developed a chemical model that takes into account the effect of a clumpy outflow on its gas-phase chemistry by using a theoretical porosity formalism. The clumpiness of the model increases the inner wind abundances of all so-called unexpected species, i.e. species that are not predicted to be present assuming an initial thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry. By applying the model to the distribution of cyanopolyynes and hydrocarbon radicals within the outflow of IRC+10216, we find that the chemistry traces the underlying density distribution.
We present ALMA observations of the circumstellar envelope around the AGB carbon star TX Psc in molecular CO(2–1) emission, and detect a previously unknown detached shell with filamentary structure and elliptical shape. Up to now, all observed detached shells are found around carbon AGB stars and are of remarkable spherical symmetry. The elliptical shell around TX Psc is the first clear exception to that rule, with TX Psc being classified as rather ’’fresh’’ carbon star, that most likely has only experienced very few thermal pulses yet. We investigate and discuss the 3D structure of the CSE and its most likely formation scenarios, as well as the link of this peculiar detached shell to the AGB evolutionary status of TX Psc.
The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with the reddest colors have the largest amounts of circumstellar dust. AGB stars vary in their brightness, and studies show that the reddest AGB stars tend to have longer periods than other AGB stars and are more likely to be fundamental mode pulsators than other AGB stars. Such stars are difficult to study, as they are often not detected at optical wavelengths. Therefore, they must be observed at infrared wavelengths. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have observed a sample of very dusty AGB stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) over Cycles 9 through 12 during the Warm Spitzer mission. For each cycle’s program, we typically observed a set of AGB stars at both 3.6 and 4.5 μm wavelength approximately monthly for most of a year. We present results from our analysis of the data from these programs.
The mass loss process along the AGB phase is crucial for the formation of circumstellar envelopes (CSEs), which in the post-AGB phase will evolve into planetary nebulae (PNe). There are still important issues that need to be further explored in this field; in particular, the formation of axially symmetric PNe from spherical CSEs. To address the problem, we have conducted high S/N IRAM 30 m observations of 12COJ = 1−0 and J = 2−1, and 13COJ = 1−0 in a volume-limited unbiased sample of semi-regular variables (SRs). We also conducted Yebes 40 m SiO J = 1−0 observations in 1/2 of the sample in order to complement our 12CO observations. We report a moderate correlation between mass loss rate and the 12CO(1−0)−to−12CO(2−1) line intensity ratio, introducing a possible new method for determining mass loss rates of SRs with short analysis time. We also find that for several stars the SiO profiles are very similar to the 12CO profiles, a totally unexpected result unless these are non-standard envelopes.
We present the results from the abundance analysis of 21 primary stars in Sirius-like systems with various masses of white dwarf companions and orbital separation to understand the origin and nature of Ba stars. Three new Ba dwarfs are found for which masses are relatively low compared to Ba giants. Large fraction of the sample are found to be non-Ba stars, however, some of them have required WD mass and/or close orbital separation. Observed s-process abundances in Ba dwarfs are in good agreement with AGB models of respective WD companion mass, however, it required different pollution factors.
Silicon carbide together with amorphous carbon are the main components of dust grains in the atmospheres of C-rich AGB stars. Small gaseous Si-C bearing molecules (such as SiC, SiCSi, and SiC2) are efficiently formed close to the stellar photosphere. They likely condense onto dust seeds owing to their highly refractory nature at the lower temperatures (i.e., below about 2500 K) in the dust growth zone which extends a few stellar radii from the photosphere. Beyond this region, the abundances of Si-C bearing molecules are expected to decrease until they are eventually reformed in the outer shells of the circumstellar envelope, owing to the interaction between the gas and the interstellar UV radiation field. Our goal is to understand the time-dependent chemical evolution of Si-C bond carriers probed by molecular spectral line emission in the circumstellar envelope of IRC+10216 at millimeter wavelengths.
Using the VLT-SPHERE/ZIMPOL adaptive optics imaging polarimeter, images of a sample of nearby red supergiants (RSGs) were obtained in multiple filters. From these data, we obtain information on geometrical structures in the inner wind, the onset radius and spatial distribution of dust grains as well as dust properties such as grain size. As dust grains may play a role in initiating and/or driving the outflow, this could provide us with clues as to the wind driving mechanism.
We report on the Bulge Asymmetries and Dynamic Evolution (BAaDE) survey which has observed 19 000 MSX color selected red giant stars for SiO maser emission at 43 GHz with the VLA and is in the process of observing 9 000 of these stars with ALMA at 86 GHz in the Southern sky. Our setup covers the main maser transitions, as well as those of isotopologues and selected lines of carbon-bearing species. Observations of this set of lines allow a far-reaching catalog of line-of-sight velocities in the dust-obscured regions where optical surveys cannot reach. Our preliminary detection rate is close to 70%, predicting a wealth of new information on the distribution of metal rich stars, their kinematics as function of location in the Galaxy, as well as the occurrence of lines and line ratios between the different transitions in combination with the spectral energy distribution from about 1 to 100 μm. Similar to the OH/IR stars, a clear kinematic signature between disk and bulge stars can be seen. Furthermore, the SiO J = →10 (v=3) line plays a prominent role in the derived maser properties.