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We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
The overarching aim of biomimetic approaches to materials synthesis is to mimic simultaneously the structure and function of a natural material, in such a way that these functional properties can be systematically tailored and optimized. In the case of synthetic spider silk fibers, to date functionalities have largely focused on mechanical properties. A rapidly expanding body of literature documents this work, building on the emerging knowledge of structure–function relationships in native spider silks, and the spinning processes used to create them. Here, we describe some of the benchmark achievements reported until now, with a focus on the last five years. Progress in protein synthesis, notably the expression on full-size spidroins, has driven substantial improvements in synthetic spider silk performance. Spinning technology, however, lags behind and is a major limiting factor in biomimetic production. We also discuss applications for synthetic silk that primarily capitalize on its nonmechanical attributes, and that exploit the remarkable range of structures that can be formed from a synthetic silk feedstock.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
Peaks in northern bottlenose whale, Hyperoodon ampullatus, strandings are found between August and September in the UK and August and November in The Netherlands, consistent with a hypothesized southward migration. However, results on diet suggest that several whales stranded during these months were not travelling from northern latitudes prior to stranding. We analysed the stomach contents of ten whales stranded in the north-east Atlantic (Scotland, N = 6, England, N = 1, Ireland, N = 2 and The Netherlands, N = 1). All but one of the analysed whales (live-stranded in the River Thames in January 2006) stranded between August and October. Food remains consisted almost entirely of cephalopod mandibles. Twenty-one cephalopod species (16 families) were recorded, the most abundant taxa being Gonatus spp., Teuthowenia spp. and Taonius pavo. No fish and few crustacean remains were found. Small amounts of cephalopod flesh were found in three of the stomachs and none in the others. Given that cephalopod beaks can remain within the stomach for several days, and that there was no evidence of inshore feeding (no coastal species were present among the prey), the whales may not have fed for several days prior to stranding. Three whales had remains of warm-temperate water cephalopods (e.g. Vampyroteuthis infernalis, Heteroteuthis sp.) in their stomachs, while three individuals showed a high diversity of prey in their stomachs, suggesting that several of the whales could have been either travelling north or consistently feeding in temperate latitudes prior to stranding. As previously recorded in other deep diving teuthophagous cetaceans, two animals had ingested small amounts of plastic debris.
Information on the incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is essential for models of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening programmes. We developed two independent estimates of CT incidence in women in England: one based on an incidence study, with estimates ‘recalibrated’ to the general population using data on setting-specific relative risks, and allowing for clearance and re-infection during follow-up; the second based on UK prevalence data, and information on the duration of CT infection. The consistency of independent sources of data on incidence, prevalence and duration, validates estimates of these parameters. Pooled estimates of the annual incidence rate in women aged 16–24 and 16–44 years for 2001–2005 using all these data were 0·05 [95% credible interval (CrI) 0·035–0·071] and 0·021 (95% CrI 0·015–0·028), respectively. Although, the estimates apply to England, similar methods could be used in other countries. The methods could be extended to dynamic models to synthesize, and assess the consistency of data on contact and transmission rates.
A positive relationship between the number of locations where a species occurs and the average density of individuals across those locations has been found in a wide variety of taxa and has been described as one of the most general and widespread relationships in macro-ecology. However, exceptions to this general rule have been found and this study tested whether abundance–occupancy relationships exist within the cetacean community of the west coast of Scotland. Data were collected in 2003–2006 and occupancy rates were calculated and compared to two density indices (relative density of groups per km2 surveyed and relative density of individuals per km2 surveyed) for four cetacean species (harbour porpoise, bottlenose dolphin, common dolphin and minke whale). Significant positive intraspecific abundance–occupancy relationships were found for both relative density of groups per km2 and relative density of individuals per km2 for two out of the four cetacean species tested (harbour porpoise and minke whale). When the relationships between the different species were compared, all four were found to conform to the same interspecific relationship when relative density of groups was used as the density index. However, some species were found to conform to different relationships when relative density of individuals was used as the density index, potentially due to differences in social structure between cetacean species. These relationships mean that when cetaceans are at a higher density within an area, they also occupy a greater number of locations and vice versa. The existence of positive abundance–occupancy relationships in cetaceans has a number of potential implications for their conservation and management. In particular, it means that when a potential impact is likely to positively or negatively affect the size of the range of a species or population, such as noise pollution or climate change, it is likely to also affect the species' or population's abundance in the same direction. It also has implications for the design and extent of protected areas, such as marine protected areas; as such relationships could be used to determine the area required to maintain a viable population size.
Patient adherence with emergency department (ED) referral has not been well studied in Canada, and there are no Canadian studies assessing patient follow-up for evaluation of cardiovascular disease. Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of patients who adhered with an ED referral to a cardiac evaluation and risk assessment (CERA) clinic in Calgary, Alta. Secondary objectives included determining the final diagnoses and outcomes for patients attending CERA appointments. We also assessed the association between adherence and various system and patient factors.
A retrospective review of 385 patients who were referred to CERA from EDs in the study region between June 1, 2004, and Apr. 7, 2005, was performed. Hospital charts and the database at the medical examiner's office were reviewed for patients who did not attend their CERA appointment.
The majority of patients (345/385, 89.6%) followed through with their referral to CERA. No deaths were identified from hospital records or from the medical examiner's office for nonadherent patients. Of the 315 patients who completed their follow-up, 225 (71.4%) were diagnosed with noncardiac or low-risk cardiac disease, whereas 90 (28.6%) were diagnosed with cardiovascular disease. The referring hospital was the only variable significantly associated with adherence with the referral (p = 0.004).
The great majority of patients referred to CERA from Calgary EDs were adherent with the referral. Future studies may identify factors impairing adherence that are amenable to intervention. Implementation of a referral model similar to the one used by CERA may improve adherence with attendance at other outpatient clinics.
The white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) and short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) are two of the most abundant delphinid species in shelf waters around the United Kingdom (UK) and Republic of Ireland (ROI) in the summer season (May–October). As these two species have similar habitat preferences and diets, it might be expected that they would partition their otherwise shared niche to reduce the potential for competition at this time of year. This study used 569 sightings of the two species, collected from shelf waters (<200 m water depth) in the summer season between 1983 and 1998, to investigate whether there is evidence of widespread niche partitioning based on water temperature in this area. Below 13°C, white-beaked dolphins were dominant with 96% of sightings comprising this species. In contrast, above 14°C, 86% of sightings comprised common dolphins. A classification tree analysis found that of the four eco-geographical variables analysed (water depth, seabed slope, seabed aspect and sea surface temperature), temperature was the most important variable for separating the occurrence of the two species. These results are consistent with widespread temperature-based niche partitioning between white-beaked and common dolphins in shelf waters around the UK and ROI. As temperature is important in determining the relative distribution of these species, the range of the white-beaked dolphin might be expected to contract in response to increasing sea temperature resulting from global climate change, while that of the common dolphin may expand.
The relationships of N input or protein status and the concentrations of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), plasma fibronectin (FN) and total protein (TP) were examined in three experiments with steers and sheep nourished by intragastric infusion of nutrients. In Expt 1, three steers (340 kg live weight) were infused with three levels of volatile fatty acids (0, 300 and 600 kJ/kg metabolic weight (W0.75) per d) and six levels of casein (0, 200, 400, 650, 1500 and 2500 mg N/kg W0.75 per d). Each N treatment was imposed for 5 d. In Expts 2 and 3, five groups of sheep (about 35 kg live weight) were infused with casein at 500 mg N/kg W0.75 per d for 2 weeks followed by 1500, 500 or 50 mg N/kg W0.75 per d in Expt 2, and in Expt 3, with 100 mg N/kg W0.75 per d for 6 weeks or 10 mg N/kg W0.75 per d for 4 weeks. Non-protein energy was maintained constant at 500 kJ/kg W0.75 per d throughout. Daily N balance and total body N content at the end were measured, and protein status was defined as a percentage of cumulative N accretion or depletion in relation to the total body N content at maintenance. It was found that IGF-1 and FN responded rapidly and substantially to altered N input, and that when daily N input was maintained constantly at sub-maintenance, their continuous declines were related closely to progressive protein depletion in the sheep. Plasma TP concentration was independent of N input when N input was altered acutely in the steers, but declined significantly and gradually with severe, chronic body protein depletion in the sheep. Plasma content of TP in the sheep however reduced acutely with a reduction in N input. Plasma volume fell substantially over the first 2 weeks of protein depletion, compensating for the declines in TP content and maintaining TP concentration plateau. The possible implications of the changes in TP concentration and content (concentration x volume) to body protein loss in sheep are discussed.
Background. Previous research has shown that
parasuicides' view of the future is characterized
by an absence of anticipation of positive experiences rather than the
presence of anticipation of
negative experiences. The present study aimed to replicate this
finding and examine whether it
would also be found in parasuicides who were not depressed.
Method. Depressed parasuicides (N=27), non-depressed
parasuicides (N=17) and matched
controls (N=34) were assessed on their anticipation of
future positive and negative experiences
using an adapted fluency paradigm, where they were given a set time
to generate future positive and negative anticipated experiences.
Results. Consistent with previous findings,
parasuicides showed an overall reduced anticipation
of positive experiences and no overall increased anticipation
of negative experiences. However,
the parasuicides did show evidence of increased negative anticipation
for the immediate future.
The results for depressed and non-depressed parasuicides
were essentially the same.
Conclusion. Lack of positive anticipation in the absence
of increased negative anticipation is a
feature of parasuicide. Although this lack of positive anticipation
can occur in depression, it
appears to be an independent feature of parasuicide.
The effect of long-term dietary protein excess and deficit on whole-body protein-N turnover (WBPNT) was examined in lambs nourished by intragastric infusions of nutrients. Ten sheep were given 500 mg N/kg metabolic weight (W0.75) per d from casein for 2 weeks and then either 50 (L), 500 (M) or 1500 (H) mg N/kgW0.75 per d for 6 weeks. Volatile fatty acids were infused at 500 kJ/kgW0.75 per d. Daily WBPNT was measured by continuous intravenous infusion of [l-13C]leucine 3 d before, and on days 2, 21 and 42 after the alteration in protein intake. Whole-body protein-N synthesis (WBPNS) was calculated as the difference between WBPNT and the protein-N losses as urinary NH3 and urea. Whole-body protein-N degradation (WBPNS) was then estimated from WBPNS minus protein gain determined from N balance. Fractional rates of WBPNS and WBPND were calculated against fleece-free body N content. WBPNS rates at the L, M and H intakes were respectively 35·1, 41·5 amd 6·37 g/d (P < 0.001) on average over the 6 weeks and WBPND rates were 39·5, 41·1 and 56·8 g/d (P < 0.001). The fractional rates of WBPNS were 5·01, 6·37 and 7·73% per d (P < 0.001) while those of WBPND were 5·64, 6·29 and 6·81% per d (P < 0.005) respectively. On days 2, 21 and 42, WBPNS rates at intake H were 54·0, 61·8 and 75·4 g/d (P = 0·03) respectively, and WBPND rates were 43·2, 56·4 and 70·9 g/d (P = 0.03); at intake L the amounts were 38·2, 34·2 and 32·8 g/d for WBPNS (P = 0.003) and for WBPND were 43·4, 38·0 and 36·9 g/d (P = 0·016) respectively. There were no significant (P > 0·05) differences in fractional rates of WBPNS and WBPND with time at either the L or H intake. We concluded that absolute protein turnover was affected both by dietary protein intake and by body condition while the fractional rate of turnover was predominantly influenced by intake.
Four sheep sustained by intragastric nutrition were used to study saliva secretion and the relationship between osmotic pressure in the rumen and net water transport across the rumen wall. Different concentrations of buffer were infused into the rumen to change the rumen osmotic pressure. Salivary secretion was estimated from entrance of P into the rumen. Net water transport across the rumen wall was calculated as the difference between water inflow and water outflow from the rumen. A negative linear relationship between the rumen osmotic pressure (X, mOsm/kg) and the water absorption across the rumen wall (Y, ml/h) was found: Y = (394 SE 8·3)–(l·22 SE 0·03) X, r20·83, (P < 0·001), and a positive linear relationship was found between the rumen osmotic pressure (X, mOsm /kg) and the outflow rate of rumen fluid (Y, ml/h): Y = (34·0 SE 8·0) + (0·97 SE 0·03), X, r2 0·56, (P < 0·001). The implication is that rumen osmotic pressure can be a key factor in the control of the net water transport across the rumen wall, the outflow of rumen fluid to omasum and the rumen liquid dilution rate. A method is suggested by which salivary secretion in sheep may be calculated from the water balance in the rumen.
1. Two experiments are reported in which the effect of the intragastric infusion of non-protein energy on fasting nitrogen losses was studied. Expt 1 was a preliminary trial with two 35 kg lambs given 0, 144, 288 or 432 kJ/kg live weight (W)0.75 per d as lipid or glucose infused into the abomasum for periods of 3 d. Expt 2 was of a 4 x 4 Latin square design with four sheep of about 30 kg live weight. The four treatments were control (fasted with water infusion), or the infusion of 144 W/kg W0.75 per d as glucose or lipid into the abomasum or as acetic acid into the reticulo-rumen.
2. Compared with the fasted control, glucose infusion reduced (P < 0.05) N excretion to about 0.6 of that of the control, increased (P < 0.05) plasma glucose, decreased (P < 0.05) plasma urea and β-hydroxybutyrate, and was without effect on plasma amino-N or creatinine excretion.
3. Lipid and acetate infusions were without statistically significant effect on N or creatinine excretion or any of the blood indices measured, with the exception of plasma glucose which was reduced (P < 0.05) with acetate infusion.
1. Two dairy cows were maintained by intragastric infusion of volatile fatty acids and casein. Except when fasting, the casein-nitrogen was held constant, while total gross energy supply was varied from zero during fasting to 650 kJ/kg body-weight (W)0·75.
2. One cow was estimated to attain zero N balance at an energy intake of 255 kJ/kg W0·75 and the other at 307 kJ/kg W0·75, which was calculated to be substantially below the estimated energy required for zero energy balance.
3. When the cows were later given an N-free infusion for a period preceding the trial, N balance occurred at 98 kJ/kg W0·75 for one cow and 115 kJ/kg W0·75 for the other.
4. Four steers were similarly nourished by intragastric infusion and the energy nutrient increased from 0 at fasting to 450 kJ/kg W0·75. The protein was held constant at 1 g N/kg W0·75 except at fasting. The energy level at which N balance occurred was 154 (SE 38) kJ/kg W0·75 or approximately equal to the energy content of the protein. The practical implications of these findings are discussed.