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Background: There are uncertainties regarding the optimal management of acutely symptomatic carotid stenosis (“hot carotids”). We sought to explore the approaches of stroke physicians to anti-thrombotic management, imaging, and revascularization in patients with “hot carotids”. Methods: We used a qualitative descriptive methodology to examine decision-making approaches of physicians regarding the management of hot carotids. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 stroke physicians from various specialties in 16 centers across 4 continents. Results: Important themes regarding anti-thrombotic included limitations of existing clinical trial evidence, competing physician preferences, antiplatelet therapy while awaiting revascularization and various regional differences. Timely imaging availability, breadth of information gained, and surgeon/interventionalist preferences were important themes influencing the choice of imaging modality. The choice of revascularization intervention was influenced by healthcare system factors such as use of multidisciplinary review and operating room/angiography suite availability, and patient factors like age and infarct size. Many themes related to uncertainties in the management of hot carotids were also discussed. Conclusions: Our study revealed themes that are important to international stroke experts. We highlight common and divergent practices while underscoring important areas of clinical equipoise and uncertainty. Teams designing international carotid trials may wish to accommodate identified variations in practice patterns and areas of uncertainty.
A common problem in otological surgeries is the persistence of ear discharge in a patient who has undergone middle-ear reconstructive surgery, despite an intact graft. There is a dearth of knowledge in the literature on treatment strategies in such post-operative cases of recalcitrant otorrhoea.
This was a retrospective observational descriptive study conducted on 45 patients who fitted the criteria for recalcitrant post-operative otorrhoea. All 45 patients showed no response to conservative treatment for 14 days from onset of discharge. Therefore, these patients were then given antiseptic ear drops.
Thirty patients out of 45 showed a good response to antiseptic ear drops and achieved a dry ear at the end of the treatment.
In patients with recalcitrant otorrhoea with or without granulations after middle-ear reconstruction surgery, this study found that topical antiseptic ear drops, particularly those using boric acid powder, are more effective than topical antibiotic drops.
Background: Whereas the beneficial effect of antiplatelet therapy for recurrent stroke prevention is well-established, uncertainties remain regarding the optimal anti-thrombotic regimen for acutely symptomatic carotid stenosis (“hot carotid”), particularly as patients await revascularization. We sought to explore the approaches of stroke physicians to peri-procedural anti-thrombotic management of patients with “hot carotids”. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews regarding “hot carotid” management with purposive sampling of 20 stroke physicians from 14 centres in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. We identified key themes using conventional qualitative content analysis. Results: Important themes revealed from our discussion included limitations of existing clinical trial evidence, competing surgeon versus neurologist/internist preferences, and single vs dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) while awaiting revascularization. Areas of uncertainty included the management of stroke while on aspirin, implications of non-stenotic features of carotid disease (intraluminal thrombus, plaque morphology), the role of newer anti-platelet agents or anticoagulants, platelet aggregation testing, and how soon to start DAPT. Conclusions: Our qualitative analysis revealed themes that were important to stakeholders in stroke care. Teams designing international trials will have to accommodate identified variations in anti-thrombotic practice patterns and take into consideration areas of uncertainty, such as newer anti-thrombotic agents, and the implication of non-stenotic features of carotid disease.
Background: Evidence informing the choice between endarterectomy and stenting for acutely symptomatic carotid stenosis (“hot carotid”) is dated, and uncertainties remain regarding the optimal imaging modality. We sought to explore the thoughts of stroke physicians regarding the perioperative management of patients with acute symptomatic carotid stenosis. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews regarding “hot carotid” management with purposive sampling of 20 stroke physicians from 14 centres in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. We identified key themes using conventional qualitative content analysis. Results: Timely imaging availability, breadth of information gained, and surgeon/interventionalist preference emerged as important themes informing the choice of imaging modality. Multidisciplinary decision making, operating room/angiography suite availability, and implications of patient age and infarct size were important themes related to the choice of revascularization. Areas of uncertainty included utility of carotid plaque imaging, timing of revascularization, and the role of intervention with borderline stenosis or intraluminal thrombus. Conclusions: Our qualitative analysis revealed themes that were important to stroke experts. Teams designing international trials will have to accommodate identified variations in practice patterns and take into consideration areas of uncertainty, such as timing of revascularization, imaging of carotid plaque and non-stenotic features of carotid disease (intraluminal thrombus, plaque morphology).
Female drug dependants (n = 171) and controls (n = 1137) were studied to search for psychiatric morbidity in them. The psychiatric morbidity was found to be 36.3% and 6.9%, respectively. The most common psychiatric disorder found was dysthymic disorder followed by adjustment disorder, anxiety disorder and borderline personality disorder. The diagnosis was significantly dependent on the type of drug used (P < 0.001) and HIV seropositivtty status of the patients (P = 0.04). The findings highlight the relationship of the psychiatric morbidity to the HIV status and female drug users.
Pneumonia is a leading cause of death in New York City (NYC). We identified spatial clusters of pneumonia-associated hospitalisation for persons residing in NYC, aged ⩾18 years during 2010–2014. We detected pneumonia-associated hospitalisations using an all-payer inpatient dataset. Using geostatistical semivariogram modelling, local Moran's I cluster analyses and χ2 tests, we characterised differences between ‘hot spots’ and ‘cold spots’ for pneumonia-associated hospitalisations. During 2010–2014, there were 141 730 pneumonia-associated hospitalisations across 188 NYC neighbourhoods, of which 43.5% (N = 61 712) were sub-classified as severe. Hot spots of pneumonia-associated hospitalisation spanned 26 neighbourhoods in the Bronx, Manhattan and Staten Island, whereas cold spots were found in lower Manhattan and northeastern Queens. We identified hot spots of severe pneumonia-associated hospitalisation in the northern Bronx and the northern tip of Staten Island. For severe pneumonia-associated hospitalisations, hot-spot patients were of lower mean age and a greater proportion identified as non-Hispanic Black compared with cold spot patients; additionally, hot-spot patients had a longer hospital stay and a greater proportion experienced in-hospital death compared with cold-spot patients. Pneumonia prevention efforts within NYC should consider examining the reasons for higher rates in hot-spot neighbourhoods, and focus interventions towards the Bronx, northern Manhattan and Staten Island.
The Zika virus was largely unknown to many health care systems before the outbreak of 2015. The unique public health threat posed by the Zika virus and the evolving understanding of its pathology required continuous communication between a health care delivery system and a local public health department. By leveraging an existing relationship, NYC Health+Hospitals worked closely with New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene to ensure that Zika-related processes and procedures within NYC Health+Hospitals facilities aligned with the most current Zika virus guidance. Support given by the public health department included prenatal clinical and laboratory support and the sharing of data on NYC Health+Hospitals Zika virus screening and testing rates, thus enabling this health care delivery system to make informed decisions and practices. The close coordination, collaboration, and communication between the health care delivery system and the local public health department examined in this article demonstrate the importance of working together to combat a complex public health emergency and how this relationship can serve as a guide for other jurisdictions to optimize collaboration between external partners during major outbreaks, emerging threats, and disasters that affect public health. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:689-691)
Investigations of the natural history of the virus of Kyasanur Forest disease since its discovery during 1957 in Shimoga District, Mysore State, south India have concentrated much attention on ticks of the genus Haemaphysalis in the region, as virus has repeatedly been isolated from them.
Keys are provided for larvae, nymphs and adults of both sexes of the 14 species of Haemaphysalis that have been taken in the area, with supplementary comments on six other species of the genus recorded, or likely to occur, elsewhere in south India. Illustrations are given showing the characters of the larvae and nymphs that are used in the keys.
The production rates of bacteria have been measured in the rumen of zebu calves and buffalo calves. The animals were fed green oat continuously at 2 h intervals. [35S]sodium sulphate was fed to the animals for 5 days at 2 h intervals by mixing in the feed. On the sixth day the radioactive feed was stopped and replaced by non-radioactive feed. The decline in the specific radioactivity of bacterial cells in the rumen as a function of time was taken for calculating t/2. Simultaneously rumen volume was determined and pool size of bacterial cells was calculated in the rumen. A mathematical equation was applied to calculate the production rates of bacteria. The production rates of bacteria, on average, were 100·5 and 72·3 mg/min for buffalo calves and zebu calves, respectively.
The theory of particle aspect analysis is extended to a drift wave in the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field and an applied electric field parallel to the ambient magnetic field. The effect of a parallel electric field is included in the zeroth-order distribution function through modification of the particle thermal velocity in that direction. The plasma under consideration is assumed to be anisotropic and with low β. The dispersion relation and growth rate are evaluated and discussed for particular plasma parameters. The limitations of the theory are also pointed out.
Results of an investigation to select intercrops showed that cotton can be grown with more profit with groundnut or gora paddy than when grown alone. Growing food or cash crops along with cotton enables an early crop to be produced and the practice may help to extend cotton cultivation in Chotanagpur and Santhal Parganas, a potential cotton belt of the future.
Thailand is one of 22 countries designated by the World Health Organization as “high burden” with regard to tuberculosis. Preventing nosocomial tuberculosis transmission remains an important, unmet need. We investigated the adequacy of current practices to evaluate hospitalized patients for tuberculosis, which is critical in preventing delayed diagnosis and nosocomial tuberculosis transmission.
Thailand conducts active, population-based surveillance for pneumonia in 2 rural provinces. Case report forms are completed for all persons who are hospitalized and meet a case definition of having clinical pneumonia. We analyzed how frequently patients had an adequate diagnostic evaluation for infectious pulmonary tuberculosis, in accordance with national guidelines. We conducted multivariate analyses to determine patient and health-system factors associated with an inadequate diagnostic evaluation for tuberculosis and with tuberculosis disease.
Of 8,853 cases of clinical pneumonia between September 2003 and March 2006,73% were in patients not adequately evaluated for tuberculosis. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB)–positive tuberculosis was diagnosed in 188 cases, which was 2% of all pneumonia cases and 12% of pneumonia cases in patients adequately evaluated for tuberculosis. Diagnostic evaluations for tuberculosis were less commonly performed among those who were younger than 25 years of age, were female, and lacked cough, sputum production, hemoptysis, and dyspnea. Among patients adequately evaluated, a clinical syndrome of no cough, no hemoptysis, and normal chest radiography findings had a 95% negative predictive value.
The prevalence of AFB-positive, pulmonary tuberculosis was high among adults hospitalized with clinical pneumonia in Thailand. Most patients were not adequately evaluated for tuberculosis. Efforts are needed to improve identification and diagnosis of infectious tuberculosis cases in hospitalized patients.
Active surveillance for laboratory-confirmed Salmonella serotype Enteritidis (SE) infection revealed a decline in incidence in the 1990s, followed by an increase starting in 2000. We sought to determine if the fluctuation in SE incidence could be explained by changes in foodborne sources of infection. We conducted a population-based case-control study of sporadic SE infection in five of the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) sites during a 12-month period in 2002–2003. A total of 218 cases and 742 controls were enrolled. Sixty-seven (31%) of the 218 case-patients and six (1%) of the 742 controls reported travel outside the United States during the 5 days before the case's illness onset (OR 53, 95% CI 23–125). Eighty-one percent of cases with SE phage type 4 travelled internationally. Among persons who did not travel internationally, eating chicken prepared outside the home and undercooked eggs inside the home were associated with SE infections. Contact with birds and reptiles was also associated with SE infections. This study supports the findings of previous case-control studies and identifies risk factors associated with specific phage types and molecular subtypes.
Whole body exposure to the chemical warfare agent, mustard gas, bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, or its laboratory model compound, half mustard, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), induces cutaneous, respiratory and ocular impairments. Of these, ocular damage causes the most immediate incapacitation with initial symptoms evident within minutes. This incapacitation is a result of irritation and edema of eyelids, conjunctiva and especially cornea. Development of corneal epithelial lesions and edema leads to deterioration of corneal transmissive and refractive properties with untoward effects on visual acuity. Heretofore, there has been no specific pretreatment, or antidotal therapy for mustard gas-induced ocular impairment. In the present study, we describe morphological correlates of the apparent attenuation of such damage by a mixture compound developed by Varma et al. Varma mixture (VM) consists of compounds known to provide bio-energetic support, prevent oxidative stress, modulate membrane permeability and support tissue metabolism. The mustard agent used in this study was CEES.
This study in North India compared acute brief psychosis – defined by acute onset, brief duration and no early relapse – with other remitting psychoses, over a 12-year course and outcome.
In a cohort of incident psychoses, we identified 20 cases of acute brief psychosis and a comparison group of 43 other remitting psychoses based on two-year follow-up. Seventeen people (85%) in the acute brief psychosis group and 36 (84%) in the comparison group were reassessed at five, seven and 12 years after onset, and were rediagnosed using ICD–10 criteria.
At 12-year follow-up, the proportion with remaining signs of illness was 6% (n=1) for acute brief psychosis versus 50% (n=18) for the comparison group (P=0.002). Using ICD–10 criteria, the majority in both groups were diagnosed as having schizophrenia.
Acute brief psychosis has a distinctive and benign long-term course when compared with other remitting psychoses. This finding supports the ICD– 10 concept of a separable group of acute and transient psychotic disorders. To effectively separate this group, however, the ICD–10 criteria need modification.