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In this paper, we propose a numerical model to simulate gas–liquid–solid interaction problems, coupling the lattice Boltzmann method and discrete element method (LBM–DEM). A cascaded LBM is used to simulate the liquid–gas flow field using a pseudopotential interaction model for describing the liquid–gas multiphase behaviour. A classical DEM resorting to fictitious overlaps between the particles is used to simulate the multiple-solid-particle system. A multiphase fluid–solid two-way coupling algorithm between LBM and DEM is constructed. The model is validated by four benchmarks: (i) single disc sedimentation, (ii) single floating particle on a liquid–gas interface, (iii) sinking of a horizontal cylinder and (iv) self-assembly of three particles on a liquid–gas interface. Our simulations agree well with the numerical results reported in the literature. Our proposed model is further applied to simulate droplet impact on deformable granular porous media at pore scale. The dynamic droplet spreading process, the deformation of the porous media (composed of up to 1277 solid particles) as well as the invasion of the liquid into the pores are well captured, within a wide range of impact Weber number. The droplet spreading dynamics on particles is analysed based on the energy budget, which reveals mechanisms at play, showing the evolution of particle energy, surface energy and viscous dissipation energy. A scaling relation based on the impact Weber number is proposed to describe the maximum spreading ratio.
Breast milk leptin plays a potential role in preventing childhood obesity. However, the associations of breast milk leptin with maternal metabolism in pregnancy and dietary patterns during lactation are still unclear. We aimed to explore associations of breast milk leptin with maternal metabolic profiles in pregnancy and dietary patterns during lactation. A total of 332 participants were recruited for this retrospective cohort study. Breast milk samples were collected at approximately 6 weeks postpartum. Breast milk leptin and twenty-three metabolic profiles in pregnancy were measured in this study. A semi-quantitative FFQ was used to gather dietary information during lactation. Both principal component analysis and the diet balance index were used to derive dietary patterns. Among twenty-three maternal metabolic profiles, maternal serum glucose (β = 1·61, P = 0·009), γ-glutamyl transferase (β = 0·32, P = 0·047) and albumin (β = −2·96, P = 0·044) in pregnancy were correlated with breast milk leptin. All dietary patterns were associated with breast milk leptin. Given the joint effects of maternal metabolism in pregnancy and dietary patterns during lactation, only diet quality distance was significantly associated with leptin concentrations in breast milk (low level v. almost no diet problem: β = −0·46, P = 0·011; moderate/high level v. almost no diet problem: β = −0·43, P = 0·035). In conclusion, both maternal metabolism in pregnancy and dietary patterns during lactation were associated with breast milk leptin. Maternal diet balance during lactation was helpful to improve breast milk leptin concentration.
This study aimed to evaluate the recent prevalence and the distributions of morphological subtypes of anaemia in the rural population.
Anaemia was defined according to the WHO and the Chinese criteria, and the morphological subtypes of anaemia were classified based on the erythrocyte parameters. The age-standardised prevalence was calculated according to the data of the Population Census 2010 in China.
A cross-sectional study in Henan Province.
33 585 subjects aged 18–79 years old.
The standardised prevalence of anaemia across the WHO and the Chinese definitions was 13·63 % and 5·45 %, respectively. Regardless of which criteria was used, the standardised prevalence of anaemia was higher among women than among men and that increased with age in men, while markedly decreased after menopause in women. There were shifts in morphological patterns of anaemia using the WHO and the Chinese criteria that the standardised prevalence of microcytic anaemia was 3·74 % and 2·97 %, normocytic anaemia was 9·20 % and 2·34 %, and macrocytic anaemia was 0·75 % and 0·14 %, respectively. Besides, there were differences in the influencing factors of anaemia according to different criteria or gender. However, age, education level and renal damage were consistently significantly associated with anaemia in all participants.
Anaemia may still be a serious health problem in rural China. It is necessary to reformulate prevention and management strategies to reduce the disease burden of anaemia.
The objective of the present study was to elucidate whether resveratrol could facilitate the survival of boar sperm during liquid preservation and fast cooling processes. Boar semen were diluted with Modena extender containing different concentrations of resveratrol. Sperm motility was evaluated by visual estimation. Membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and mitochondrial membrane potentials were measured by SYBR-14/PI, FITC-PNA and JC-1 staining, respectively. Moreover, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malonaldehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were measured using commercial assay kits. B-cell lymphoma protein-2 (BCL2) content was determined by western blotting. During liquid preservation at 17oC, the addition of 50 μM resveratrol to the Modena extender significantly improved sperm motility, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, and sperm mitochondrial membrane potentials. Similar results were also observed in the 150 μM resveratrol group during the fast cooling process. Furthermore, addition of resveratrol led to a decrease of ROS and MDA, and an increase in the content of T-AOC and BCL2. These observations suggest that addition of resveratrol to Modena extender protects boar sperm against oxidative stress. The optimal concentrations of resveratrol are 50 μM and 150 μM during liquid preservation and fast cooling process, respectively.
In late December 2019, patients of atypical pneumonia due to an unidentified microbial agent were reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Subsequently, a novel coronavirus was identified as the causative pathogen which was named SARS-CoV-2. As of 12 February 2020, more than 44 000 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been confirmed in China and continue to expand. Provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions of China have launched first-level response to major public health emergencies one after another from 23 January 2020, which means restricting movement of people among provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between the migration scale index and the number of confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and to depict the effect of restricting population movement. In this study, Excel 2010 was used to demonstrate the temporal distribution at the day level and SPSS 23.0 was used to analyse the correlation between the migration scale index and the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases. We found that since 23 January 2020, Wuhan migration scale index has dropped significantly and since 26 January 2020, Hubei province migration scale index has dropped significantly. New confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Wuhan gradually increased since 24 January 2020, and showed a downward trend from 6 February 2020. New confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Hubei province gradually increased since 24 January 2020, and maintained at a high level from 24 January 2020 to 4 February 2020, then showed a downward trend. Wuhan migration scale index from 9 January to 22 January, 10 January to 23 January and 11 January to 24 January was correlated with the number of new confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Wuhan from 22 January to 4 February. Hubei province migration scale index from 10 January to 23 January and 11 January to 24 January was correlated with the number of new confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Hubei province from 22 January to 4 February. Our findings suggested that people who left Wuhan from 9 January to 22 January, and those who left Hubei province from 10 January to 24 January, led to the outbreak in the rest of China. The ‘Wuhan lockdown’ and the launching of the first-level response to this major public health emergency may have had a good effect on controlling the COVID-19 epidemic. Although new COVID-19 cases continued to be confirmed in China outside Wuhan and Hubei provinces, in our opinion, these are second-generation cases.
The surface energy budget over the Antarctic sea ice from 8 April 2016 through 26 November 2016 are presented. From April to October, Sensible heat flux (SH) and subsurface conductive heat flux (G) were the heat source of surface while latent heat flux (LE) and net radiation flux (Rn) were the heat sink of surface. Our results showed larger downward SH (due to the warmer air in our site) and upward LE (due to the drier air and higher wind speed in our site) compared with SHEBA data. However, the values of SH in N-ICE2015 campaign, which located at a zone with stronger winds and more advection of heat in the Arctic, were comparable to our results under clear skies. The values of aerodynamic roughness length (z0m) and scalar roughness length for temperature (z0h), being 1.9 × 10−3 m and 3.7 × 10−5 m, were suggested in this study. It is found that snow melting might increase z0m. Our results also indicate that the value of log(z0h/z0m) was related to the stability of stratification. In addition, several representative parameterization schemes for z0h have been tested and a couple of schemes were found to make a better performance.
Endometrial injury is an important cause of intrauterine adhesion (IUA), amenorrhea and infertility in women, with limited effective therapies. Recently, stem cells have been used in animal experiments to repair and improve injured endometrium. To date, our understanding of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in endometrial injury repair and their further therapeutic mechanisms is incomplete. Here, we examined the benefit of ADSCs in restoration of injured endometrium by applying a rat endometrial injury model. The results revealed by immunofluorescence showed that green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled ADSCs can differentiate into endometrial epithelial cells in vivo. At 30 days after ADSCs transplantation, injured endometrium was significantly improved, with increased microvessel density, endometrial thickness and glands when compared with the model group. Furthermore, the fertility of rats with injured endometrium in ADSCs group was improved and had a higher conception rate (60% vs 20%, P = 0.014) compared with the control phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group. However, there was no difference in the control group compared with the sham group. In addition, expression levels of the oestrogen receptor Eα/β (ERα, ERβ) and progesterone receptor (PR) detected by western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were higher in the ADSCs group than in the PBS group. Taken together, these results suggested that ADSC transplantation could improve endometrial injury as a novel therapy for IUA.
We hypothesize that the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) may play a role in disturbing the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on the striatal connectivity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
We performed a longitudinal observation by combining resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and biochemical analyses to identify the abnormal striatal connectivity in MDD patients, and to evaluate the effect of TNF-α level on these abnormal connectivities during SSRI treatment. Eighty-five rs-fMRI scans were collected from 25 MDD patients and 35 healthy controls, and the scans were repeated for all the patients before and after a 6-week SSRI treatment. Whole-brain voxel-wise functional connectivity (FC) was calculated by correlating the rs-fMRI time courses between each voxel and the striatal seeds (i.e. spherical regions placed at the striatums). The level of TNF-α in serum was evaluated by Milliplex assay. Factorial analysis was performed to assess the interaction effects of ‘TNF-α × treatment’ in the regions with between-group FC difference.
Compared with controls, MDD patients showed significantly higher striatal FC in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and bilateral middle/superior temporal cortices before SSRI treatment (p < 0.001, uncorrected). Moreover, a significant interaction effect of ‘TNF-α × treatment’ was found in MPFC-striatum FC in MDD patients (p = 0.002), and the significance remained after adjusted for age, gender, head motion, and episode of disease.
These findings provide evidence that treatment-related brain connectivity change is dependent on the TNF-α level in MDD patients, and the MPFC-striatum connectivities possibly serve as an important target in the brain.
The addition of vegetable to carbohydrate-based meals was shown to contribute to glycaemic management. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of homogenisation on vegetables added to rice meals in terms of acute glycaemic responses (GR). In a randomised crossover trial, sixteen healthy volunteers completed thirteen test sessions, which included two sessions for glucose control, two for rice and nine for different vegetable-rice mixed meals: cooked pak choi and cooked rice (CP+R); cooked cauliflower and cooked rice (CC+R); cooked eggplant and cooked rice (CE+R); and their homogenised counterparts, both raw or cooked. Postprandial GR tests, in vitro carbohydrate digestion and chemical analyses were carried out for each test meal. Compared with pure rice, CE+R, CP+R and CC+R meals achieved significantly lower glycaemic indexes (GI) of 67, 71 and 73, whereas their homogenised counterparts failed to show significant difference with rice. The hydrolysis indexes (HI) of CE+R, CP+R and CC+R were 69·6, 83·8 and 80·6 % of the HI of the rice control. CE had the greatest effect on lowering the GI, the incremental area under the blood glucose curve from 0 to 120 min, the peak glucose value, the maximum amplitude of glucose excursion in 0–120 min (MAGE0–120), the HI and rapid available starch. Both in vitro and in vivo tests demonstrated that incorporating non-homogenised cooked vegetables into a rice meal could slow the carbohydrate digestion and improve postprandial GR. Texture properties of vegetable may play an important role in underlying glycaemic control mechanisms.
Concerns have been raised about the benefits of Fe-containing supplements on infant birth weight among women with normal/high Hb levels at baseline. Thus far, no clinical trials have examined whether the effects of prenatal Fe-containing supplements on birth weight vary by maternal Hb levels. We compared the effects of Fe–folic acid (IFA) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) with folic acid (FA) supplements on birth weight among pregnant women with mild/no anaemia or high Hb levels. A double-blind randomised controlled trial was conducted in 2006–2009. In total, 18 775 pregnant women with mild/no anaemia (<100 g/l) were enrolled from five counties in north China. During the period from before 20 weeks of gestation to delivery, the women randomly received a daily supplement containing the following: (1) FA (400 μg); (2) IFA (FA, 400 μg; Fe, 30 mg); or (3) MMN (FA, Fe and thirteen additional vitamins and minerals). Birth weight was measured within the 1st hour of birth. Maternal Hb concentration was determined at enrolment. Among women with normal (≤132 g/l) or high (133–145 g/l) baseline Hb levels, IFA or MMN supplementation had no effect on birth weight. Among women with very high (>145 g/l) baseline Hb levels, IFA and MMN supplements increased birth weight by 91·44 (95 % CI 3·37, 179·51) g and 107·63 (95 % CI 21·98, 193·28) g (P<0·05), respectively, compared with the FA group. No differences were found between the IFA and the MMN group, regardless of maternal Hb concentration. In conclusion, the effects of Fe-containing supplements on birth weight depended on baseline Hb concentrations. The Fe-containing supplements improved birth weight in women with very high Hb levels before 20 weeks of gestation.
Objective: To understand the underlying mechanism of gastric symptoms in patients with depressive disorder.
Methods: This study tested in the rat depression model evoked with chronic mild stress whether the microstructure gastric mucosa is injured using scanning electronic microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). In addition, the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) proteins in the gastric mucosa were measured by Western blotting.
Results: We found that the gastric epithelial cells were ruptured and the gastric pits were widened in rats with depression. The amount of mucous granules was also reduced in the surface mucous cells. Moreover, parietal cells became active, and the secretory canaliculi were magnified. Expression of HSP70 and FGF2 was reduced in the gastric mucosa.
Conclusions: These findings suggested that gastric symptoms in rats with depressive-like behaviour were caused by the injury of the gastric mucosa, AQ1 and HSP70 and FGF2 may be key molecules in the pathogenesis.
We have studied the LME phenomenon for the Cu/Hg couple, from an experimental and a computational point of view. We compared the LME behavior of standard oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) copper with Grain Boundary Engineered (GBE) copper (containing a high fraction of special Σ3 GBs). Experimentally, we find that special Σ3 GBs in copper are less prone than general GB to LME by liquid mercury. In parallel, we have investigated the difference in LME induced fracture between the symmetric Σ3(111)70.5° tilt GB and the symmetric Σ5(210)36.87° tilt GB by ab-initio calculations. The Hg segregation trend has been evaluated for these 2 GBs. Ab-initio tensile tests on the Σ3(111) GB with and without segregated Hg atoms have been performed. Finally solid/liquid interfaces have been modeled using ab-initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) in order to calculate solid-liquid surface energies (γSL). Using a Griffith approach, we have evaluated the energy difference γGB - 2 γSL. The LME mechanism in Cu/Hg is discussed.
Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films with flat surfaces and with 27nm, 190nm, 300nm, 400nm, and 520nm surface features were synthesized using a template method with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds. The nano patterns were transferred from the self-assembled polystyrene beads to the PLGA films through PDMS molds. After synthesis, the nano patterns were confirmed by AFM height scans. In order to investigate the influence of the materials on bone cells, healthy human osteoblasts were cultured on the PLGA films. The 27nm PLGA surface showed the maximum osteoblast adhesion density and a significant increase compared with the other surface features. For these reasons, and since previous studies have highlighted that similar nanometer surface features on PLGA decreased functions of other cancer cells, this study suggests that PLGA with 27nm surface features should be further studied for bone cancer applications where healthy bone cell functions need to be promoted and cancerous bone cell functions inhibited.
An electronic imaging system using a curved image sensor can use a faster lens, and cover a greater field of view, than an imaging system using a planar sensor. The simpler lens systems also weight less, a decisive advantage in portable applications.
This paper describes a method to fabricate a curved silicon substrate from a flat wafer containing appropriate circuits. To curve the substrate, the processed wafer is diced, by dry-etching from the backside, into 1x1cm tiles. The tiles are separated by 0.5mm gaps, which are bridged, in turn, by a dense array of 45x100μm gold leads formed by electroplating using lithographically defined leads as seeds. Two methods were used to curve the wafer. In the first one, the wafer was bonded with epoxy to a PMMA disk, and then curved by heating the sandwich, under a load of ∼ 230gr, for 1.5 hrs at 130°C in a concave metal mold with a radius of curvature of 7.8cm. In the second method, the wafer was put into a curved metal mold, radius 14cm, loaded with 230gr, and heated to 290°C for 2 hrs. The normal and shear strains accommodated by the flexible interconnects were measured by analyzing their deformation. The experimentally measured strains are compared with a model that calculates the deformation required to deform a flat sheet into a spherical surface.
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