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Fat deposition and lipid metabolism are closely related to the morphology, structure and function of mitochondria. The morphology of mitochondria between fusion and fission processes is mainly regulated by protein posttranslational modification. Intermittent fasting (IF) promotes high expression of Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) and induces mitochondrial fusion in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, the mechanism by which Sirt3 participates in mitochondrial protein acetylation during IF to regulate mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics remains unclear. This article demonstrates that IF promotes mitochondrial fusion and improves mitochondrial function in HFD mouse inguinal white adipose tissue. Proteomic sequencing revealed that IF increased protein deacetylation levels in HFD mice and significantly increased Sirt3 mRNA and protein expression. After transfecting with Sirt3 overexpression or interference vectors into adipocytes, we found that Sirt3 promoted adipocyte mitochondrial fusion and improved mitochondrial function. Furthermore, Sirt3 regulates the JNK-FIS1 pathway by deacetylating malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2) to promote mitochondrial fusion. In summary, our study indicates that IF promotes mitochondrial fusion and improves mitochondrial function by upregulating the high expression of Sirt3 in HFD mice, promoting deacetylation of MDH2 and inhibiting the JNK-FIS1 pathway. This research provides theoretical support for studies related to energy limitation and animal lipid metabolism.
In this paper, a Pythagorean-Hodograph (PH) curve-based pick-and-place operation trajectory planning method for Delta parallel robots is proposed, which realizes the flexible control of pick-and-place operations to meet the requirements of various practical scenarios. First, according to the geometric relationship of pick-and-place operation path, different pick-and-place operations are classified. Then trajectory planning is carried out for different situations, respectively, and in each case, the different polynomial motion laws adopted by the linear motion segment and the curved motion segment are solved. Trajectory optimization is performed with the motion period as optimization objective. The proposed method is easier to implement, and at the same time satisfies the safety, optimization, mobility, and stability of the robot; that is, the proposed method realizes obstacle avoidance, optimal time, flexible control of the robot trajectory, and stable motion. Simulations and experiments verify the effectiveness of the method proposed in this paper. The proposed method can not only realize the fast, accurate, and safe operation in intelligent manufacturing fields such as rapid classification, palletizing, grasping, warehousing, etc., but its research route can also provide a reference for trajectory planning of intelligent vehicles in logistics system.
A multistep pulse compressor (MPC) based on a single-pass single-grating pair (SSGP) is proposed to simplify the entire multi-petawatt (PW) compressor. Only one grating pair with relatively long perpendicular distance is used to generate the same amount of spectral chirp compared with a four-grating main compressor. As SSGP compressor induces the largest spatial chirp, it can introduce the best beam-smoothing effect to the laser beam on the last grating. When considering the diffraction loss of only two gratings, the total compression efficiency of the SSGP compressor is even larger than that of a four-grating main compressor. Furthermore, the wavefront aberration induced by the SSGP compressor can be better compensated by using deformable mirrors; however, it is difficult or complicated to be well compensated in a four-grating compressor. Approximately 50–100 PW laser pulses can be obtained using this SSGP-based multistage-smoothing MPC with a single laser beam.
High-performance 86 μJ, 11.2 fs pulses with a spectrum range of 800–1050 nm are generated based on 1030 nm, 190 fs Yb femtosecond pulses by using multi-plate-based spectral broadening and filtering. Taking advantage of single beam configuration, the obtained pulses have excellent power and spectral stabilities. Since the output spectrum is obtained by spectrally filtering the broadened components, the temporal contrast of the output pulses is enhanced by at least four orders of magnitude. Together with the robust and simple setup, the proposed method is expected to be a competitive option for the generation of seed pulses for 10s–100s petawatt lasers.
This study aimed to analyse the temporal and spatial trends in the burden of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder related to bullying victimisation on global, regional and country scales.
Data were from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study. We assessed the global disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, per 100 000 population) of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder attributable to bullying victimisation by age, sex and geographical location. The percentage changes in age-standardised rates of DALYs were used to quantify temporal trends, and the annual rate changes across 204 countries and territories were used to present spatial trends. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between the sociodemographic index (SDI) and the burden of anxiety disorders as well as major depressive disorder attributable to bullying victimisation and its spatial and temporal characteristics globally.
From 1990 to 2019, the global DALY rates of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder attributable to bullying victimisation increased by 23.31 and 26.60%, respectively, with 27.27 and 29.07% for females and 18.88 and 23.84% for males. Across the 21 GBD regions, the highest age-standardised rates of bullying victimisation-related DALYs for anxiety disorders were in North Africa and the Middle East and for major depressive disorder in High-income North America. From 1990 to 2019, the region with the largest percentage increase in the rates of DALYs was High-income North America (54.66% for anxiety disorders and 105.88% for major depressive disorder), whereas the region with the slowest growth rate or largest percentage decline was East Asia (1.71% for anxiety disorders and −25.37% for major depressive disorder). In terms of SDI, this study found overall upward trends of bullying-related mental disorders in areas regardless of the SDI levels, although there were temporary downward trends in some stages of certain areas.
The number and rates of DALYs of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder attributable to bullying victimisation increased from 1990 to 2019. Effective strategies to eliminate bullying victimisation in children and adolescents are needed to reduce the burden of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder. Considering the large variations in the burden by SDI and geographic location, future protective actions should be developed based on the specific cultural contexts, development status and regional characteristics of each country.
In view of the cooperative guidance problem with time delay, this paper proposes a two-stage time-delay prescribed-time cooperative guidance law in the three-dimensional (3D) space. In the first stage, by introducing a time scaling function and time-delay consensus, the proposed cooperative guidance law can overcome the negative influence of time delay to guaranteed the desired convergence performance. Derived from the Lyapunov convergence analysis, the time-delay stability of the first stage can be ensured and the convergence time can be described as the relationship between delayed time and mission-assigned convergence time. Then, taking the prescribed-time-related convergence time as the switching point, the second stage begins with suitable initial conditions and all interceptors are governed by proportional navigation guidance. Finally, comparative simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed time-delay guidance law.
Instrument delivery is critical part in vascular intervention surgery. Due to the soft-body structure of instruments, the relationship between manipulation commands and instrument motion is non-linear, making instrument delivery challenging and time-consuming. Reinforcement learning has the potential to learn manipulation skills and automate instrument delivery with enhanced success rates and reduced workload of physicians. However, due to the sample inefficiency when using high-dimensional images, existing reinforcement learning algorithms are limited on realistic vascular robotic systems. To alleviate this problem, this paper proposes discrete soft actor-critic with auto-encoder (DSAC-AE) that augments SAC-discrete with an auxiliary reconstruction task. The algorithm is applied with distributed sample collection and parameter update in a robot-assisted preclinical environment. Experimental results indicate that guidewire delivery can be automatically implemented after 50k sampling steps in less than 15 h, demonstrating the proposed algorithm has the great potential to learn manipulation skill for vascular robotic systems.
An experimental investigation of the stereocamera's systematic error is carried out to optimize three-dimensional (3-D) dust observation on the HL-2A tokamak. It is found that a larger 3-D region occupied by all calibration points is able to reduce the 3-D reconstruction systematic error of the stereocamera. In addition, the 3-D reconstruction is the most accurate around the region where the calibration points are located. Based on these experimental results, the design of the stereocamera on the HL-2A tokamak is presented, and a set of practical procedures to optimize the 3-D reconstruction accuracy of the stereocamera are proposed.
Exploring reliable hydrogenation catalysts to remove trace olefins in aromatic hydrocarbons through hydrogenation is an important topic. In this paper, a bimetallic Cu–Ru/montmorillonite (Cu–Ru/M) catalyst was prepared using a step-by-step impregnation method, and the effects of bimetallic catalysts on removing olefins were assessed. The catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller specific surface area, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and temperature-programmed reduction of H2. The results show that there is a strong interaction between Cu and Ru on the Cu–Ru/M catalyst, which improves the dispersion of the metals on the surface of the support M. The hydrogen spillover phenomenon of Cu–Ru/M enhances its activity and adsorption capacity for hydrogen species. The catalytic performance test confirmed that the bimetallic catalyst has significantly greater activity and stability. The optimal loadings are 5% copper and 1% ruthenium, and the performance of this catalyst is comparable to those of noble-metal Pt/M catalysts.
Whether starchy and non-starchy vegetables have distinct impacts on health remains unknown. We prospectively investigated the intake of starchy and non-starchy vegetables in relation to mortality risk in a nationwide cohort. Diet was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls. Deaths were identified via the record linkage to the National Death Index. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI were calculated using Cox regression. During a median follow-up of 7·8 years, 4904 deaths were documented among 40 074 participants aged 18 years or older. Compared to those with no consumption, participants with daily consumption of ≥ 1 serving of non-starchy vegetables had a lower risk of mortality (HR = 0·76, 95 % CI 0·66, 0·88, Ptrend = 0·001). Dark-green and deep-yellow vegetables (HR = 0·79, 95 % CI 0·63, 0·99, Ptrend = 0·023) and other non-starchy vegetables (HR = 0·80, 95 % CI 0·70, 0·92, Ptrend = 0·004) showed similar results. Total starchy vegetable intake exhibited a marginally weak inverse association with mortality risk (HR = 0·89, 95 % CI 0·80, 1·00, Ptrend = 0·048), while potatoes showed a null association (HR = 0·93, 95 % CI 0·82, 1·06, Ptrend = 0·186). Restricted cubic spline analysis suggested a linear dose–response relationship between vegetable intake and death risk, with a plateau at over 300 and 200 g/d for total and non-starchy vegetables, respectively. Compared with starchy vegetables, non-starchy vegetables might be more beneficial to health, although both showed a protective association with mortality risk. The risk reduction in mortality plateaued at approximately 200 g/d for non-starchy vegetables and 300 g/d for total vegetables.
To investigate the spiritual care needs and their attributes among Chinese elders hospitalized for severe chronic heart failure (CHF) based on the Kano model, in order to provide a reference for improving the quality and satisfaction of spiritual care.
An observational design was implemented, and the STROBE Checklist was used to ensure quality reporting of the study. The demographic characteristics questionnaire, the Nurse Spiritual Therapeutics Scale, and the Kano model–based Nurse Spiritual Therapeutics Attributes Scale were used. A convenience sample of 451 patients were selected from 2 hospitals. Descriptive statistics, and Kano model were used to analyze the data.
The total score of spiritual care needs was 29.95 ± 7.51. Among the 12 items, 3 items were attractive attributes, all of which were located in Reserving Zone IV; 5 items were one-dimensional attributes, of which 3 were located in Predominance Zone I and 2 were located in Improving Zone II; 2 items were must-be attributes, all of which were located in Improving Zone II; and 2 items were indifference attributes, all of which were located in Secondary Improving Zone III.
Significance of results
The spiritual care needs among Chinese elders hospitalized for severe CHF were moderate. The must-be and one-dimensional attributes mainly focus on “creating a good atmosphere” and “sharing self-perception” dimensions, while attractive attributes mainly focus on “sharing self-perception” and “helping thinking” dimensions. It is suggested that hospital authority should develop and innovate attractive attributes on the basis of maintaining and perfecting must-be and one-dimensional attributes, and objectively analyze and optimize indifference attributes.
Treatment non-response and recurrence are the main sources of disease burden in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about its neurobiological mechanism concerning the brain network changes accompanying pharmacotherapy. The present study investigated the changes in the intrinsic brain networks during 6-month antidepressant treatment phase associated with the treatment response and recurrence in MDD.
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired from untreated patients with MDD and healthy controls at baseline. The patients' depressive symptoms were monitored by using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD). After 6 months of antidepressant treatment, patients were re-scanned and followed up every 6 months over 2 years. Traditional statistical analysis as well as machine learning approaches were conducted to investigate the longitudinal changes in macro-scale resting-state functional network connectivity (rsFNC) strength and micro-scale resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) associated with long-term treatment outcome in MDD.
Repeated measures of the general linear model demonstrated a significant difference in the default mode network (DMN) rsFNC change before and after the 6-month antidepressant treatment between remitters and non-remitters. The difference in the rsFNC change over the 6-month antidepressant treatment between recurring and stable MDD was also specific to DMN. Machine learning analysis results revealed that only the DMN rsFC change successfully distinguished non-remitters from the remitters at 6 months and recurring from stable MDD during the 2-year follow-up.
Our findings demonstrated that the intrinsic DMN connectivity could be a unique and important target for treatment and recurrence prevention in MDD.
Shock-tube experiments on various two-bubble and two-spike interfaces are performed to examine the dependence of bubble competition and spike competition on the initial spectra and density ratio of the interface. The differences in the influences of bubble competition and spike competition on the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability are highlighted for the first time. The bubble-competition effect is mainly dependent on the initial spectra of the two-bubble configuration. In contrast, the spike-competition effect is determined by both the initial spectra and density ratio. The extended buoyancy–drag model is adopted to explain the variation of the drag force imposed on the long-wavelength and short-wavelength structures as the initial conditions change. Based on the spectrum analysis, it is found that the constituent modes of two-bubble and two-spike interfaces have different contributions to the long-wavelength and short-wavelength perturbation growths. A generalised, nonlinear, analytical model is then established to quantify the bubble-competition effect and spike-competition effect considering arbitrary initial spectra and density ratio. The bubble-competition effect is believed to be stronger than the spike-competition effect at a high density ratio because it suppresses the high-frequency perturbation growth more evidently.
To investigate spiritual care perceptions, spiritual well-being, and empathy, examine the correlations among spiritual care perceptions, spiritual well-being, and empathy, and explore the mediating role of spiritual well-being between other two variables of Chinese nursing students.
A cross-sectional design was implemented, and the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Checklist was used to ensure quality reporting of the study. A cluster sample of 2,718 nursing students was selected from 7 universities and colleges in China. The demographic characteristics questionnaire, the Chinese Version of the Spiritual Care-Giving Scale (C-SCGS), the Spiritual Health Scale Short Form (SHS-SF), and the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy-Nursing Student (JSPE-NS) were used. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and process plug-in mediation effect analyses were used to analyze the data.
The total score of spiritual care perceptions, spiritual well-being, and empathy were 173.83 ± 25.62, 98.74 ± 12.87, and 105.04 ± 21.34, respectively. Spiritual care perceptions were positively correlated with spiritual well-being (r = 0.617, p < 0.01) and empathy (r = 0.528, p < 0.01). And spiritual well-being played a partial mediating role between the other two variables (accounting for 28.1%).
Significance of results
Spiritual care perceptions, spiritual well-being, and empathy were quite moderate, which need in improving. It is suggested that nursing educators pay attention to the spiritual care education of nursing students, perfect the spiritual care education system, and take targeted measures according to nursing students’ individual personality traits and differences, improve their spiritual well-being and empathy in multiple ways, so as to improve their spiritual care perceptions and competence.
Effective searching for target objects in indoor scenes is essential for household robots to perform daily tasks. With the establishment of a precise map, the robot can navigate to a fixed static target. However, it is difficult for mobile robots to find movable objects like cups. To address this problem, we establish an object search framework that combines navigation map, semantic map, and scene graph. The robot updates the scene graph to achieve a long-term target search. Considering the different start positions of the robots, we weigh the distance the robot walks and the probability of finding objects to achieve global path planning. The robot can continuously update the scene graph in a dynamic environment to memorize the position relation of objects in the scene. This method has been realized in both simulation and real-world environments. The experimental results show the feasibility and effectiveness of this method.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been widely prevalent among older men (aged ≥50 years old) in Sichuan Province. The study aimed to discover associated factors with the new HIV infection in older men, and provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in this group. A cross-sectional survey study of newly reported HIV/AIDS and general male residents aged 50 years and older was conducted between April and June 2019, with a resample of respondents to identify cases and controls, followed by a case–control study. Logistic regression was applied to analyse the association between the selected factors and new HIV infection among older men. At last, 242 cases and 968 controls were included. The results of multiple logistic regression suggested that many factors including living alone/concentrated (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.20–2.04, P = 0.001), have a history of migrant worker (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.61–2.73, P < 0.001), have commercial sexual behaviour (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.32–2.22, P < 0.001), married (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.37–0.64, P < 0.001), have a history of HIV antibody testing (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56–0.96, P = 0.026), HIV-related knowledge (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.42–0.72, P < 0.001) were associated with new HIV infection among older men. The present study revealed some potential risky/protective factors altogether. The results highlighted the direction of HIV/AIDS prevention and control among older men, and it is a social issue that requires the joint participation of the whole society.
Baseline data on local status of threatened species are often limited, and alternative information sources such as local ecological knowledge (LEK) have potential to provide conservation insights but require critical evaluation. We assess the usefulness of LEK to generate conservation evidence for the Hainan Peacock-pheasant Polyplectron katsumatae, a poorly known threatened island galliform. Interview surveys in rural communities across eight forested landscapes on Hainan provided a new dataset of sightings of Peacock-pheasants and other galliforms. Fewer respondents had seen Peacock-pheasants compared to other species across most landscapes, although Peacock-pheasant sightings showed significant across-landscape variation, with substantially more total and recent sightings from Yinggeling National Nature Reserve. However, validation of interview data with camera trapping data from Houmiling Provincial Nature Reserve, a landscape with few reported sightings, suggests a more optimistic possible status for Peacock-pheasants, which were detected as frequently as Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus and Silver Pheasant Lophura nycthemera during systematic camera trap placement. Hainan Peacock-pheasant sighting rates might be influenced by various factors (e.g. restricted local access to forests), with absolute abundance possibly greater than expected from limited sightings. Conversely, relative across-landscape abundance patterns from LEK are likely to be valid, as similar detection biases exist across surveyed landscapes.
We report the experimental results of the commissioning phase in the 10 PW laser beamline of the Shanghai Superintense Ultrafast Laser Facility (SULF). The peak power reaches 2.4 PW on target without the last amplifying during the experiment. The laser energy of 72 ± 9 J is directed to a focal spot of approximately 6 μm diameter (full width at half maximum) in 30 fs pulse duration, yielding a focused peak intensity around 2.0 × 1021 W/cm2. The first laser-proton acceleration experiment is performed using plain copper and plastic targets. High-energy proton beams with maximum cut-off energy up to 62.5 MeV are achieved using copper foils at the optimum target thickness of 4 μm via target normal sheath acceleration. For plastic targets of tens of nanometers thick, the proton cut-off energy is approximately 20 MeV, showing ring-like or filamented density distributions. These experimental results reflect the capabilities of the SULF-10 PW beamline, for example, both ultrahigh intensity and relatively good beam contrast. Further optimization for these key parameters is underway, where peak laser intensities of 1022–1023 W/cm2 are anticipated to support various experiments on extreme field physics.
In offshore offloading operations, two vessels in a side-by-side configuration experience actions of both ambient water waves and liquid sloshing in internal tanks. Under the excitation of water waves, complex multibody motions are induced, resulting in liquid sloshing in tanks, and concurrently liquid sloshing can feedback to affect the vessels’ motions. The interaction between waves and two barges in a side-by-side configuration coupled with liquid sloshing effects is investigated for a fixed–free arrangement. A numerical model is developed based on the boundary element method to deal with complex wave induced multibody motions coupled with liquid sloshing in internal tanks. Due to the presence of a narrow gap between two vessels, gap resonance may occur, and a damping surface is introduced to suppress an unrealistic response near resonance. Concurrently, physical experiments with and without liquid sloshing effects are carried out. In-depth discussions on motion characteristics are given, and Stokes and non-Stokes natural frequencies associated with liquid sloshing are discussed. The significance of the present study is twofold. Firstly, the experimental measurements provide reference results for validations of numerical simulations. Secondly, this work gives an insight into wave induced motions with liquid sloshing effects under different wave headings which affect vessel operational safety.
Blood oxygen is an essential component for numerous biological processes of mammalian animals. Milk production of ruminants largely relies on the supply of nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids and fatty acids. To define the regulatory role of blood oxygen availability in regard to milk production, seventy-five healthy Guanzhong dairy goats with similar body weight, days in milk and parities were selected. For each animal, milk yield was recorded and milk sample was collected to determine compositions. Milk vein blood was collected to determine parameters including blood gas, physio-biochemistry and haematology. Another blood sample was prepared for transcriptome and RT-qPCR. Results showed that both pressure of oxygen (pO2) in the milk vein (positively) and numbers of neutrophils in mammary vein (negatively) were associated with milk yield of the animals. To learn the role of pO2 in blood cell functionality, twelve animals (six with higher yield (H-group) and six with lower yield (L-group)) from seventy-five goats were selected. Compared with animals in L-group, goats in H-group were higher in pO2 but lower in pCO2, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase activity and neutrophil abundance in milk vein, compared with L-group. The blood transcriptome analysis suggested that compared with L-group, animals in H-group were depressed in functionality including neutrophil activation and metabolic pathways including glycolysis, NF-κB and HIF-1. Our result revealed that lower milk production could be associated with neutrophil activation responding to low pO2 in the mammary vein. In the meantime, we highlighted the potential importance of blood oxygen as a milk yield regulator.