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This study aimed to examine the association between cardiopulmonary function, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and cognitive function among nursing home residents aged 80 years and over.
A nursing home-based, cross-sectional study was implemented among 677 aged over 80 years in Shanghai, China. A total of 197 participants underwent effective cardiopulmonary function examinations. Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Short Form-36 scales (SF-36) were used to assess cognitive function and HRQOL, respectively.
Decline in left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF) [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 1.98; 95% confidential interval (CI), 1.03–3.81)] and vital capacity (VC) (AOR, 2.08; 95%CI, 1.07–4.04) was associated with cognitive impairment. After adjusting confounding factors, relationships between cognitive function and physical functioning (PF) (AOR, 0.98; 95%CI, 0.97–0.99) still existed.
Healthcare professionals should pay more attention to cardiopulmonary health and HRQOL in the nursing home residents. Actions of public health strategies focus on the improvement of cardiopulmonary function, and PF among older nursing home residents with cognitive impairment is required.
In view of the problem that the psychological barriers of ski jumpers before competitions affect the athletes’ performance on the competition ground, this paper discusses the therapeutic effect of psychological training on the athletes’ psychological barriers before competitions, so as to find a reasonable and effective intervention method to help athletes avoid psychological barriers.
Subjects and Methods
40 ski jumpers were selected as the research objects. With the help of computer, they were randomly divided into two groups. One group was the psychological training group, and 60 times of psychological training were carried out in the 6-month experiment. The other group was General group without any intervention. At the beginning and end of the experiment, the Trait Anxiety Inventory for Sport (TAIS) was used to compare the pre competition psychological disorders of the two groups of athletes.
The score of the TAIS scale of the two groups after intervention was recorded and compared, as shown in Table 1. As can be seen in Table 1, the average and total TAIS scores of members of the General group are relatively high. Taking dimensional movement tension tendency as an example, the average score of the General group was 12.5. The average score and total score of TAIS in the psychological training group were significantly lower than those in the General group. Taking dimensional movement tension tendency as an example, the average score of the psychological training group was 10.2.Table 1.
The score of the TAIS scale of the members of the psychological training group before and after the intervention
General group (MS)
Psychological training group (MS)
Movement tension tendency
Physical tension tendency
Low desire for competition
Tendency to lose confidence
Psychological barriers will have a significant impact on the patient’s cognition, emotion, and behavior. In sports competitions, psychological barriers will greatly affect the performance of athletes. In view of this problem, the study took 40 ski jumpers as the research object and discussed the effect of psychological training on the treatment of athletes’ psychological disorders before competitions. The experimental results showed that the TAIS score of the psychological training group decreased significantly after the intervention, which indicated that psychological training could effectively help the athletes to avoid psychological obstacles before the competition, so as to give full play to the athletes’ due level.
Morita therapy, as a treatment for mental illness, aims to enable patients to accept their bad emotions so that they can effectively self-direct and regulate themselves, no longer be controlled by bad emotions, and ultimately eliminate their mental illness. Positive thinking refers to the individual’s purposeful, non-judgmental attention to the here and now. It emphasizes an attitude of acceptance to observe the inner experience, emotion, or behavior in the present moment. The study sought to investigate the effects of Morita therapy combined with positive thinking psychotherapy on the alleviation of mental anxiety disorders in design workers.
Subjects and Methods
Currently, there have been relevant clinical studies showing that Morita therapy alone is not a good treatment for anxiety disorders. This experiment investigated the therapeutic effect of Morita therapy combined with positive psychotherapy. By means of questionnaires, 120 design workers with little difference in personal information but all suffering from mental anxiety disorders were selected as experimental subjects. The 120 subjects were randomly divided into three groups: subjects in group A were treated with Morita therapy combined with Shoujo psychotherapy, subjects in group B were treated with Morita therapy alone, and subjects in group C were treated with Shoujo psychotherapy alone. The whole course of treatment lasted for 3 months. The anxiety scores of the subjects before and after the experiment were recorded using the self-administered psychological anxiety scale.
In group A, the number of people suffering from severe anxiety, moderate anxiety, mild anxiety, and mental health before starting the experiment was 8, 30, 2, and 0, respectively, and after the mixed treatment, the number of people under each index became 0, 0, 8 and 32, respectively. In group B, the number of people suffering from severe anxiety, moderate anxiety, mild anxiety, and mental health before starting the experiment was 8, 29, 3, and 0, respectively, and after the Morita treatment, the number became 6, 16, 15 and 3, respectively. In Group C, the number of people suffering from severe anxiety, moderate anxiety, mild anxiety, and mental health before the experiment started was 6, 30, 4, and 0, respectively, and after the positive psychotherapy, the number changed to 3, 19, 13 and 5, respectively.Table 1.
Number of people with each type of anxiety level before and after the experiment under different treatment methods
Number of people before the experiment
Number of people after the experiment
Number of people before the experiment
Number of people after the experiment
Number of people before the experiment
Number of people after the experiment
This study demonstrates the effectiveness of Morita therapy combined with positive psychotherapy in relieving mental anxiety in design workers. The reason for this is that the operable psychological training program based on the principles of acceptance, trust, patience, and non-imposition of positive thinking training is more in line with the “let nature take its course” theory of Morita therapy, so the combination of the two therapies can play a complementary role. Therefore, the combination of the two therapies can play a complementary role.
The research is supported by: 2021 National Social Science Foundation Art Program. Social Studies of the Song Dynasty in the Prosperous Memory of the Chinese National Treasure “Picture of the River during the Qingming Festival” No. 21BG103.
Fat deposition and lipid metabolism are closely related to the morphology, structure and function of mitochondria. The morphology of mitochondria between fusion and fission processes is mainly regulated by protein posttranslational modification. Intermittent fasting (IF) promotes high expression of Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) and induces mitochondrial fusion in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, the mechanism by which Sirt3 participates in mitochondrial protein acetylation during IF to regulate mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics remains unclear. This article demonstrates that IF promotes mitochondrial fusion and improves mitochondrial function in HFD mouse inguinal white adipose tissue. Proteomic sequencing revealed that IF increased protein deacetylation levels in HFD mice and significantly increased Sirt3 mRNA and protein expression. After transfecting with Sirt3 overexpression or interference vectors into adipocytes, we found that Sirt3 promoted adipocyte mitochondrial fusion and improved mitochondrial function. Furthermore, Sirt3 regulates the JNK-FIS1 pathway by deacetylating malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2) to promote mitochondrial fusion. In summary, our study indicates that IF promotes mitochondrial fusion and improves mitochondrial function by upregulating the high expression of Sirt3 in HFD mice, promoting deacetylation of MDH2 and inhibiting the JNK-FIS1 pathway. This research provides theoretical support for studies related to energy limitation and animal lipid metabolism.
There was no previous meta-analysis investigating the efficacy/tolerability of psychostimulants for symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschool children.
Databases including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from inception to March 2022 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on therapeutic efficacy of psychostimulants against ADHD symptoms in preschool children (age ≤6 years) compared with placebos. Primary outcomes were (a) changes in ADHD symptoms evaluated by validated rating scales from parents’/teacher’s observation, or (b) post-intervention improvements in neuropsychological performance. Secondary outcomes were risks of adverse events.
Meta-analysis of nine eligible trials including 544 preschool children (mean age=4.86 years, female=11.98%, median treatment duration=4.33 weeks) supported the efficacy of psychostimulants against global symptoms from observations of parents (Hedges’ g=0.6152, p<0.0001) and teachers (Hedges’ g=0.6563, p=0.0039). Efficacy of psychostimulants was also noted against symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, especially the latter (i.e., main symptoms in preschool children). Moreover, male gender, older age, and longer treatment duration were associated with better efficacy. Regarding adverse events, only the risk of poor appetite was higher in the psychostimulant group (odds ratio [OR]=2.39). However, the qualities of evidence were low to very low, indicating potential discrepancy between the true and estimated effect.
Our results showed that psychostimulants might be beneficial for preschool children with ADHD, especially hyperactivity/impulsivity from teachers’ observation, with tolerable side effects. Nevertheless, the true magnitude of the effect needs to be confirmed with more research due to low to very low certainty of the evidence.
This study aimed to explore the mediation effects of one-carbon metabolism (OCM) related nutrients on the association between MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine (Hcy) were measured in the serum of 1254 pregnant women. Linear and logistic regressions were used to estimate the associations of OCM nutrients and MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism with blood glucose levels and GDM risk. Mediation analysis was applied to test the mediation effects of folate, vitamin B12 and Hcy on the association of MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism with blood glucose concentrations and GDM. Pregnant women with MTHFR rs1801133 CC genotype had higher serum folate (10·75 v. 8·90 and 9·40 ng/ml) and lower serum Hcy (4·84 v. 4·93 and 5·20 μmol/l) than those with CT and TT genotypes. Folate concentrations were positively associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 1-h plasma glucose (1-h PG), 2-h plasma glucose (2-h PG) and GDM risk. Vitamin B12 levels were negatively correlated with FPG and GDM. Although no direct association was found between MTHFR rs1801133 genotypes and GDM, there were significant indirect effects of MTHFR rs1801133 CC genotype on FPG (β: 0·005; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·013), 1-h PG (β: 0·006; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·014), 2-h PG (β: 0·007; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·015) and GDM (β: 0·006; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·014) via folate. In conclusion, serum folate mediates the effect of MTHFR rs1801133 on blood glucose levels and GDM. Our findings potentially provide a feasible GDM prevention strategy via individualised folate supplementation according to the MTHFR genotypes.
Paravulvus zhongshanensis sp. nov., isolated from soil in a location at Jiangsu Province, China, is described and illustrated based on morphological, morphometric and molecular characterizations. The new species is characterized by its body 1.17–1.53 mm long, lip region offset by marked constriction and 12.1–13.8 μm broad, mural tooth deltoid and 9.6–11.7 μm long, neck 278–360 μm long, pharyngeal expansion 164–208 μm long or occupying more than one-half (54–62%) of total neck length, uterus 32.5–35.3 μm long or 1.0–1.1 times the corresponding body diameter, V = 47.8–53.4, paravulvae absent, female tail subcylindrical conoid (30.5–39.5 μm, c = 36.0–45.5, c′ = 1.7–2.2) with widely rounded end, and male unknown. The new species was compared with six known species of the genus including Paravulvus acuticaudatus, Paravulvus confusus, Paravulvus hartingii, Paravulvus iranicus, Paravulvus loofi and Paravulvus microdontus mainly by similarities in having conical tail and c′ value larger than 1.3. The rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 genes of the new species were obtained and were used for reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships of the new species.
Temporal contrast directly affects the interaction between ultraintense and ultrashort pulse lasers with matter. Seed laser sources with broad bandwidth and high temporal contrast are significant for overall temporal contrast enhancement. The technique of cascaded nonlinear processes with optical parametric amplification and second-harmonic generation is demonstrated for high temporal contrast seed source generation. Within 40 ps before the main pulse, the temporal contrast reaches over 1011. The pulse energy and duration of the high-contrast pulse are 112 μJ and 70 fs, respectively. Considering its high beam quality and stability, this laser source can serve as a high-quality seed for Nd:glass-based ultraintense and ultrashort pulse laser facilities.
As optical parametric chirped pulse amplification has been widely adopted for the generation of extreme intensity laser sources, nonlinear crystals of large aperture are demanded for high-energy amplifiers. Yttrium calcium oxyborate (YCa4O(BO3)3, YCOB) is capable of being grown with apertures exceeding 100 mm, which makes it possible for application in systems of petawatt scale. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge, an ultra-broadband non-collinear optical parametric amplifier with YCOB for petawatt-scale compressed pulse generation at 800 nm. Based on the SG-II 5 PW facility, amplified signal energy of approximately 40 J was achieved and pump-to-signal conversion efficiency was up to 42.3%. A gain bandwidth of 87 nm was realized and supported a compressed pulse duration of 22.3 fs. The near-field and wavefront aberration represented excellent characteristics, which were comparable with those achieved in lithium triborate-based amplifiers. These results verified the great potential for YCOB utilization in the future.
For a hypersonic-speed aircraft with a flat fuselage structure that has narrow space for a traditional wheel-type landing gear retraction, a novel type of wheel-ski landing gear is designed, which is different from traditional landing gears in force distribution and actuation methods. In order to capture the direction control performance of an aircraft with the wheel-ski landing gear, the aircraft ground taxiing nonlinear dynamic mathematical model is built based on a certain type of aircraft data. The experiment of the wheel-ski landing gear actuator and the differential brake control system is carried out to verify that the electric wheel-ski actuator model with the pressure sensor is in good agreement with the test results, indicating the model validity and the speediness of the differential brake response. Then a new fuzzy combined direction rectifying control law is designed based on the optimisation method and the fuzzy control theory. Comparing with the PD wheel-ski differential brake control, the direction rectifying efficiencies increase higher than 140% during the whole taxiing process. In addition, the combined control law can also decrease the overshoots of the yaw angle responses effectively. Finally, the stability and robustness of the designed combined direction control law are verified under various working conditions.
It is crucial to understand the genetic mechanisms and biological pathways underlying the relationship between obesity and serum lipid levels. Structural equation models (SEMs) were constructed to calculate heritability for body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and the genetic connections between BMI and the four classes of lipids using 1197 pairs of twins from the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Bivariate genomewide association studies (GWAS) were performed to identify genetic variants associated with BMI and lipids using the records of 457 individuals, and the results were further validated in 289 individuals. The genetic background affecting BMI may differ by gender, and the heritability of males and females was 71% (95% CI [.66, .75]) and 39% (95% CI [.15, .71]) respectively. BMI was positively correlated with TC, TG and LDL-C in phenotypic and genetic correlation, while negatively correlated with HDL-C. There were gender differences in the correlation between BMI and lipids. Bivariate GWAS analysis and validation stage found 7 genes (LOC105378740, LINC02506, CSMD1, MELK, FAM81A, ERAL1 and MIR144) that were possibly related to BMI and lipid levels. The significant biological pathways were the regulation of cholesterol reverse transport and the regulation of high-density lipoprotein particle clearance (p < .001). BMI and blood lipid levels were affected by genetic factors, and they were genetically correlated. There might be gender differences in their genetic correlation. Bivariate GWAS analysis found MIR144 gene and its related biological pathways may influence obesity and lipid levels.
Few studies examined the association of energy, macronutrients and food consumption at dinner v. breakfast with hypercholesterolaemia. A total of 27 911 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2016) were included in the cross-sectional study. Energy, macronutrients and food consumption at breakfast, dinner and the difference at dinner v. breakfast (Δratio) were calculated. Multiple logistic regression models and substitution effects of foods at dinner with breakfast were also performed. After adjustment for potential covariates, compared with the lowest quintile, participants in the highest quintile of Δratio in terms of energy had a higher risk of prevalent hypercholesterolaemia (ORΔratio of energy 1·16, 95 % CI (1·01, 1·33)) mainly due to Δratio of low-quality carbohydrates and plant protein (ORΔratio of low-quality carbohydrates 1·19; 95 % CI (1·05, 1·35)); ORΔratio of plant protein 1·13; 95 % CI (1·01, 1·28)). ΔAdded sugars and Δnuts were associated with hypercholesterolaemia (ORΔadded sugars 1·01; 95 % CI (1·00, 1·02)); ORΔnuts 1·08; 95 % CI (1·01, 1·16)). Furthermore, the substitution of added sugars, nuts and processed meat at dinner with breakfast could reduce the OR of hypercholesterolaemia. This study indicated that among US adults, overconsumption of energy, macronutrients including low-quality carbohydrates and plant protein at dinner than breakfast was significantly associated with a higher risk of prevalent hypercholesterolaemia. The replacing of added sugar, nuts and processed meat at dinner with breakfast reduced the risk of prevalent hypercholesterolaemia. This study emphasised the importance of meal timing in the prevention of hypercholesterolaemia.
By manipulating the scale in graphs, this study demonstrated a new evaluation bias caused by attribute salience in graphical representations. That is, (de)compressing the graph axis scale changed the relative distance with respect to the options of a given attribute and thus changed the salience of the information in graphical representations. Experiment 1 showed that the differences in the graphical representations had a significant impact on the evaluation. Experiment 2 repeated the scale manipulation effect in a different scenario and extended it to a multi-options context. Experiment 3 disentangled the effect of scale distance manipulation from the other variables (e.g., scale resolution and assignment of attributes to axes) and further supported the finding of Experiment 1. These results indicated that attribute salience in graphical representations clearly affects evaluations and that graphs can be manipulated to cause very different impressions of the same data. This finding is not consistent with the axioms of normative economic theory. Experiment 3 also tested the attribute importance hypothesis, but the evidence indicated that the participants did not regard the longer axis as the more important attribute. Finally, we related our findings to the impact of visual processing on decision making and discussed them from the perspective of two-system cognitive theory.
According to the positive time-discounting assumption of intertemporal decision-making, people prefer to undergo negative events in the future rather than in the present. However, negative discounting has been identified in the intertemporal choice and loss domains, which refers to people’s preference to experience negative events earlier rather than later. Studies have validated and supported the "anticipated dread" as an explanation for negative discounting. This study again explored the effect of anticipated dread on intertemporal choice using content analysis; that is, having participants identify anticipated dread among reasons for negative discounting. This study also validated the effect of anticipated dread on negative discounting by manipulating anticipated dread. This study adds empirical and direct evidence for the role of anticipated dread in negative discounting.
Intertemporal choices involve tradeoffs between outcomes that occur at different times. Most of the research has used pure gains tasks and the discount rates yielding from those tasks to explain and predict real-world behaviors and consequences. However, real decisions are often more complex and involve mixed outcomes (e.g., sooner-gain and later-loss or sooner-loss and later-gain). No study has used mixed gain-loss intertemporal tradeoff tasks to explain and predict real-world behaviors and consequences, and studies involving such tasks are also scarce. Considering that tasks involving a combination of gains and losses may yield different discount rates and that existing pure gains tasks do not explain or predict real-world outcomes well, this study conducted two experiments to compare the discount rates of mixed gain-loss intertemporal tradeoffs with those of pure gains or pure losses (Experiment 1) and to examine whether these tasks predicted different real-world behaviors and consequences (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 suggests that the discount rate ordering of the four tasks was, from highest to lowest, pure gains, sooner-loss and later-gain, pure losses, and sooner-gain and later-loss. Experiment 2 indicates that the evidence supporting the claim that the discount rates of the four tasks were related to different real-world behaviors and consequences was insufficient.
Homeostasis of gut microbiota is a critical contributor to growth and health in weaned piglets. Fish oil is widely reported to benefit health of mammals including preventing intestinal dysfunction, yet its protective effect during suckling-to-weaning transition in piglets remains undetermined. Low (30 g/d) and high (60 g/d) doses of n-3-rich fish oil were supplemented in sows from late gestation to lactation. Serum indicators and gut microbiota were determined to evaluate the effects of maternal fish oil on growth performance, immunity and diarrhea of piglets. DHA and EPA in the colostrum as well as serum of suckling and 1-week post-wean piglets were significantly and linearly increased by maternal supplementation of fish oil (P < 0.05). IGF1 and T3 in nursing and weaned piglets were significantly elevated by maternal fish oil (P < 0.05), and the increase of IGF1 was concerning the dosage of fish oil. Colostrum IgG, plasma IgG, IgM in suckling piglets, IgG, IgM and IgA in weaned piglets were significantly increase as maternal replenishment of fish oil increased (P < 0.05). Additionally, cortisol was significantly reduced in weaned pigs (P < 0.05), regardless of dosage. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that α-diversity of fecal microbiota in nursery piglets, and fecal Lactobacillus genus, positively correlated with post-weaning IgA, was significantly increased by high dosage. Collectively, maternal fish oil during late pregnancy and lactation significantly promoted growth, enhanced immunity, and reduced post-weaning diarrhea in piglets, therefore facilitated suckling-to-weaning transition in piglets, which may be partially due to the altered gut microbial community.
Clay-swelling inhibitors are often used to prevent the hydration of clay minerals, which can reduce the risk of wellbore instability and reservoir damage. The molecular behaviour of clay-swelling inhibitors at the montmorillonite–water interface is crucial for revealing their inhibition mechanisms and for evaluating and designing inhibitor molecules. N1,N1'-(ethane-1,2-diyl)bis(N1-(2-aminoethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine) (NETS), a low-molecular-weight clay-swelling inhibitor, is used widely to prevent clay swelling. Herein, the adsorption mechanism of NETS on the surface of montmorillonite (Mnt) was investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In particular, the effects of molecular conformation and temperature on adsorption ability were investigated. The results show that the adsorption ability of NETS on the Mnt surface was affected significantly by the molecular conformation. Specifically, the dihedral angle of NETS adsorbed on the surface of Mnt decreases by ~20° and tends to adsorb on the surface of Mnt in a plane state. In addition, the adsorption stability of NETS on the Mnt surface decreased with increasing temperature, as was found using MD simulations. Detailed analysis shows that increasing temperature can lead to more frequent conformational changes, which weaken the interaction between NETS and Mnt, thus reducing adsorption stability. These molecular insights into the interaction mechanism between NETS and Mnt are beneficial for the evaluation of inhibitory effects and for the selection and molecular design of new clay-swelling inhibitors for use in drilling fluids.
Patients with cirrhosis experience worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and attempts are warranted further exploration of modifiable factors to improve HRQoL. Data on the impact of malnutrition risk on HRQoL among cirrhosis are limited; thus, we aimed to strengthen understanding by clarifying the relationship between nutritional status and low HRQoL in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Consecutive inpatients with cirrhosis attending our department within a tertiary hospital were studied. Generic health profiles and malnutrition risk were evaluated by the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) and Royal Free Hospital-Nutritional Prioritizing Tool (RFH-NPT) score, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine association of malnutrition risk with low HRQoL. In this cohort of 364 patients with median age of 64 years and 49·5 % male, 55·5 % of the study population reported impairment pertinent to HRQoL in at least one dimension in terms of the EQ-5D. Moreover, malnutrition risk (RFH-NPT score: β coefficient = −0·114, P = 0·038) was proved to be independently associated with poor HRQoL in multiple analysis, after adjustment for significant variables like age, BMI and markers of decompensation. Notably, we found that health dimensions representing physical function (i.e. mobility, self-care and usual activities) are substantially affected, while malnourished patients reported less frequencies of complaints in other domain such as anxiety/depression. In conclusion, the risk of malnutrition assessed by the RFH-NPT score is independently associated with low HRQoL. It is operational to improve HRQoL by identifying patients at high malnutrition risk and providing timely nutrition treatment.
Multilayer dielectric gratings typically remove multiple-grating pillars after picosecond laser irradiation; however, the dynamic formation process of the removal is still unclear. In this study, the damage morphologies of multilayer dielectric gratings induced by an 8.6-ps laser pulse were closely examined. The damage included the removal of a single grating pillar and consecutive adjacent grating pillars and did not involve the destruction of the internal high-reflection mirror structure. Comparative analysis of the two damage morphological characteristics indicated the removal of adjacent pillars was related to an impact process caused by the eruption of localized materials from the left-hand pillar, exerting impact pressure on its adjacent pillars and eventually resulting in multiple pillar removal. A finite-element strain model was used to calculate the stress distribution of the grating after impact. According to the electric field distribution, the eruptive pressure of the dielectric materials after ionization was also simulated. The results suggest that the eruptive pressure resulted in a stress concentration at the root of the adjacent pillar that was sufficient to cause damage, corresponding to the experimental removal of the adjacent pillar from the root. This study provides further understanding of the laser-induced damage behavior of grating pillars and some insights into reducing the undesirable damage process for practical applications.