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Family dysfunction plays an important role in cyberbullying and cybervictimization. However, little research has investigated the longitudinal relations and the mediating mechanisms between them during adolescence. This study examined the longitudinal relations between family dysfunction and cyberbullying and cybervictimization, along with whether depressive symptoms function as mediators between them at the within-person level. A total of 3,743 Chinese adolescents (46.2% females; Mage = 9.92 years; SD = 0.51) participated a five-wave longitudinal study with a 6-month time interval. The results of random intercept cross-lagged panel model found that: (1) family dysfunction directly predicted depressive symptoms and vice versa at the within-person level; (2) depressive symptoms directly predicted cyberbullying and cybervictimization at the within-person level, but not vice versa; (3) family dysfunction indirectly predicted cyberbullying and cybervictimization via depressive symptoms at the within-person level; (4) at the between-person level, there were significant associations among family dysfunction, depressive symptoms, cyberbullying and cybervictimization. The results are discussed on the basis of the mechanisms that lead to cyberbullying and cybervictimization.
Multilayer dielectric gratings typically remove multiple-grating pillars after picosecond laser irradiation; however, the dynamic formation process of the removal is still unclear. In this study, the damage morphologies of multilayer dielectric gratings induced by an 8.6-ps laser pulse were closely examined. The damage included the removal of a single grating pillar and consecutive adjacent grating pillars and did not involve the destruction of the internal high-reflection mirror structure. Comparative analysis of the two damage morphological characteristics indicated the removal of adjacent pillars was related to an impact process caused by the eruption of localized materials from the left-hand pillar, exerting impact pressure on its adjacent pillars and eventually resulting in multiple pillar removal. A finite-element strain model was used to calculate the stress distribution of the grating after impact. According to the electric field distribution, the eruptive pressure of the dielectric materials after ionization was also simulated. The results suggest that the eruptive pressure resulted in a stress concentration at the root of the adjacent pillar that was sufficient to cause damage, corresponding to the experimental removal of the adjacent pillar from the root. This study provides further understanding of the laser-induced damage behavior of grating pillars and some insights into reducing the undesirable damage process for practical applications.
The mitochondrial genome provides important information for phylogenetic analysis and an understanding of evolutionary origin. In this study, the mitochondrial genomes of Ilisha elongata and Setipinna tenuifilis were sequenced, which are typical circular vertebrate mitochondrial genomes composed of 16,770 and 16,805 bp, respectively. The mitogenomes of I. elongata and S. tenuifilis include 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and one control region (CR). Both two species' genome compositions were highly A + T biased and exhibited positive AT-skews and negative GC-skews. The genetic distance and Ka/Ks ratio analyses indicated that 13 PCGs were affected by purifying selection and the selection pressures were different from certain deep-sea fishes, which were most likely due to the difference in their living environment. Results of phylogenetic analysis support close relationships among Chirocentridae, Denticipitidae, Clupeidae, Engraulidae and Pristigasteridae based on the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 PCGs. Within Clupeoidei, I. elongata and S. tenuifilis were most closely related to the family Pristigasteridae and Engraulidae, respectively. These results will help to better understand the evolutionary position of Clupeiformes and provide a reference for further phylogenetic research on Clupeiformes species.
Numerous studies of resting-state functional imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) have revealed differences in specific brain regions of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), but the results have been inconsistent.
A whole-brain voxel-wise meta-analysis was conducted on resting-state functional imaging and VBM studies that compared differences between patients with BD and healthy controls using Seed-based d Mapping with Permutation of Subject Images software.
A systematic literature search identified 51 functional imaging studies (1842 BD and 2190 controls) and 83 VBM studies (2790 BD and 3690 controls). Overall, patients with BD displayed increased resting-state functional activity in the left middle frontal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) extending to the right insula, right superior frontal gyrus and bilateral striatum, as well as decreased resting-state functional activity in the left middle temporal gyrus extending to the left superior temporal gyrus and post-central gyrus, left cerebellum, and bilateral precuneus. The meta-analysis of VBM showed that patients with BD displayed decreased VBM in the right IFG extending to the right insula, temporal pole and superior temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus extending to the left insula, temporal pole, and IFG, anterior cingulate cortex, left superior frontal gyrus (medial prefrontal cortex), left thalamus, and right fusiform gyrus.
The multimodal meta-analyses suggested that BD showed similar patterns of aberrant brain activity and structure in the insula extending to the temporal cortex, fronto-striatal-thalamic, and default-mode network regions, which provide useful insights for understanding the underlying pathophysiology of BD.
Apart from the psychiatric symptoms, cognitive deficits are also the core symptoms of schizophrenia. Brain network control theory provided information on the role of a specific brain region in the cognitive control process, helping understand the neural mechanism of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.
To characterize the control properties of functional brain network in first-episode untreated patients with schizophrenia and the relationships between controllability and psychiatric symptoms, as well as exploring the predictive value of controllability in differentiating patients from healthy controls (HCs).
Average and modal controllability of brain networks were calculated and compared between 133 first-episode untreated patients with schizophrenia and 135 HCs. The associations between controllability and clinical symptoms were evaluated using sparse canonical correlation analysis. Support vector machine (SVM) and SVM-recursive feature elimination combined with the controllability were performed to establish the individual prediction model.
Compared to HCs, the patients with schizophrenia showed increased average controllability and decreased modal controllability in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Brain controllability predominantly in somatomotor, default mode, and visual networks was associated with the positive symptomatology of schizophrenia. The established model could identify patients with an accuracy of 0.68. Furthermore, the most discriminative features were located in dACC, medial prefrontal lobe, precuneus and superior temporal gyrus.
Altered controllability in dACC may play a critical role in the neuropathological mechanisms of cognitive deficit in schizophrenia, which could drive the brain function to different states to cope with varied cognitive tasks. As symptom-related biomarkers, controllability could be also beneficial to individual prediction in schizophrenia.
There is a growing consensus on brain networks that it is not immutable but rather a dynamic complex system for adapting environment. The neuroimaging research studying how brain regions work collaboratively with dynamic methods had demonstrated its effectiveness in revealing the neural mechanisms of schizophrenia.
To investigate altered dynamic brain functional topology in first-episode untreated schizophrenia patients (SZs) and establish classification models to find objective brain imaging biomarkers.
Resting-state-functional magnetic resonance data for SZs and matched healthy controls were obtained(Table1).
Power-264-template was used to extract nodes and sliding-window approach was carried out to establish functional connectivity matrices. Functional topology was assessed by eigenvector centrality(EC) and node efficiency and its time-fluctuating was evaluated with coefficient of variation(CV). Group differences of dynamic topology and correlation analysis between Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale(PANSS) scores and topology indices showing group differences, which also were used in establishing classification models, was examed.
The CV of node efficiency in angular and paracingulate gyrus was larger in SZs. There are 13 nodes assigned into several brain networks displaying altered CV of EC between groups(Figure1.A). Fluctuation of EC of the node in DMN, which was lower in SZs, showed negative correlation with PANSS total scores(Figure1.B). Dynamic functional topology of above nodes was used to train classification models and demonstrated 80% and 71% accuracy for support vector classification(SVC) and random forest(RF), respectively(Figure2).
Dynamic functional topology illustrated a capability in identifying SZs. Aberrated dynamics of DMN relevant to severity of patient’s symptoms could reveal the reason why it contributed to classification.
Many waterflooding oil fields, injecting water into an oil-bearing reservoir for pressure maintenance, are in their middle to late stages of development. To explore the geological conditions and improve oilfield recovery of the most important well group of the Hu 136 block, located on the border areas of three provinces (Henan, Shandong, and Hebei), Zhongyuan Oilfield, Sinopec, central China, a 14C cross-well tracer monitoring technology was developed and applied in monitoring the development status and recognize the heterogeneity of oil reservoirs. The tracer response in the production well was tracked, and the water drive speed, swept volume of the injection fluid were obtained. Finally, the reservoir heterogeneity characteristics, such as the dilution coefficient, porosity, permeability, and average pore-throat radius, were fitted according to the mathematical model of the heterogeneous multi-layer inter-well theory. The 14C-AMS technique developed in this work is expected to be a potential analytical method for evaluating underground reservoir characteristics and providing crucial scientific guidance for the mid to late oil field recovery process.
This study compares the detection rates of haemoglobin absorption spectral imaging and white light imaging in laryngeal papilloma surgery.
Seventeen patients with laryngeal papilloma who underwent surgery in our department from September 2019 to September 2021 were selected. All patients underwent carbon dioxide laser surgery under a microscope. The lesion sites were explored in white light mode and haemoglobin absorption spectral imaging mode. The pharynx and larynx anatomical sites were evaluated using Derkay's all-position scoring system. The numbers and scores for lesions observed in the two modes were compared.
In 17 cases, there were statistically significant differences in the numbers of laryngeal papillomas (Derkay score) detected by white light mode and haemoglobin absorption spectral imaging mode. In 9 of 17 patients (52.94 per cent), the haemoglobin absorption spectral imaging mode showed additional diseased tissues.
The haemoglobin absorption spectral imaging mode can dynamically identify diseased tissues in carbon dioxide laser surgery under a microscope and improve the laryngeal papilloma detection rate.
Identification of treatment-specific predictors of drug therapies for bipolar disorder (BD) is important because only about half of individuals respond to any specific medication. However, medication response in pediatric BD is variable and not well predicted by clinical characteristics.
A total of 121 youth with early course BD (acute manic/mixed episode) were prospectively recruited and randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with quetiapine (n = 71) or lithium (n = 50). Participants completed structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline before treatment and 1 week after treatment initiation, and brain morphometric features were extracted for each individual based on MRI scans. Positive antimanic treatment response at week 6 was defined as an over 50% reduction of Young Mania Rating Scale scores from baseline. Two-stage deep learning prediction model was established to distinguish responders and non-responders based on different feature sets.
Pre-treatment morphometry and morphometric changes occurring during the first week can both independently predict treatment outcome of quetiapine and lithium with balanced accuracy over 75% (all p < 0.05). Combining brain morphometry at baseline and week 1 allows prediction with the highest balanced accuracy (quetiapine: 83.2% and lithium: 83.5%). Predictions in the quetiapine and lithium group were found to be driven by different morphometric patterns.
These findings demonstrate that pre-treatment morphometric measures and acute brain morphometric changes can serve as medication response predictors in pediatric BD. Brain morphometric features may provide promising biomarkers for developing biologically-informed treatment outcome prediction and patient stratification tools for BD treatment development.
The importance of prenatal maternal somatic diseases for offspring mood and anxiety disorders may be overlooked or undervalued. We conducted the first systematic review and meta-analysis assessing the risk of offspring mood and anxiety disorders in the context of prenatal maternal somatic diseases.
We screened articles indexed in Embase (including Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed-not-MEDLINE), PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO databases up to August 2021. 21 studies were included. We examined the overall associations between prenatal maternal somatic diseases and offspring mood/anxiety disorders. Analyses were stratified according to maternal somatic diseases and follow-up duration.
We observed an increased risk of mood and anxiety disorders in the context of prenatal maternal somatic diseases [relative risk (RR) = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15–1.37, RR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.24–1.38]; maternal obesity(RR = 1.92; 95% CI 1.72–2.11), hypertensive disorders (RR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.11–1.86) and infertility (RR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.14–1.39) were risk factors for mood disorders; maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (RR = 1.61; 95% CI 1.42–1.80), severe obesity (RR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.44–1.68) and moderate obesity (RR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.28–1.44) were risk factors for anxiety disorders. Prenatal maternal somatic diseases increased the risk of mood disorders in childhood and adulthood (RR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.34–2.09/RR = 1.19; 95% CI 1.09–1.30), as well as the risk of anxiety disorders in adulthood (RR = 1.33; 95% CI 1.26–1.41).
The results indicate that prenatal maternal somatic diseases are associated with offspring mood and anxiety disorders, and that the associations may be long-lasting.
One of the most perplexing and characteristic symptoms of the schizophrenia (SZ) patients is hallucination. The occurrence of hallucinations to be associated with altered activity in the auditory and visual cortex but is not well understood from the brain functional network dynamics in SZ.
To explore the brain abnormal basis of hallucinations in SZ with the dynamic functional connectivity (dFC).
Using magnetic resonance imaging for 83 SZ patients and 83 matched healthy controls and independent component analysis, 52 independent components (ICs) were identified as nodes and assigned into eight intrinsic connectivity networks (Figure 1A). Subsequently, we established dFC matrices and clustered them into four discrete states (Figure 1B) and three state transition metrics were obtained. To further explore the changes in the centrality of each component, eigenvector centrality (EC) was calculated and its time-varying was evaluated.
Compared to controls with FDR correction, we found that patients had more mean dwell times and fractional time in state 1 (P=0.0081 and P=0.0018), mainly with hypoconnectivity between auditory and visual network and other networks and hyperconnectivity between language and default-mode network (DMN). While, patients had less dwell times and fractional time in state 3 (P=0.0018 and P=0.0009), and decreased FC between visual network and executive control network (ECN) and increased FC between ECN and DMN than controls (Figure 2).
EC statistics showed that SZs displayed increased temporal dynamics in visual-related regions (Figure 3).
SZ was mainly manifested as altered dFC and temporal variability of nodal centrality in auditory and visual networks.
Though schizophrenia (SZ) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are conceptualized as distinct clinical entities, they do have notable symptom overlap and a tight association. Graph-theoretical analysis of the brain connectome provides more indicators to describe the functional organization of the brain, which may help us understand the shared and disorder-specific neural basis of the two disorders.
To explore the static and dynamic topological organization of OCD and SZ as well as the relationship between topological metrics and clinical variables.
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 31 OCD patients, 49 SZ patients, and 45 healthy controls (HC) were involved in this study (Table 1). Using independent component analysis to obtain independent components (ICs) (Figure 1), which were defined as nodes for static and dynamic topological analysis.
Static analysis showed the global efficiency of SZ was higher than HC. For nodal degree centrality, OCD exhibited decreased degree centrality in IC59 (located in visiual network) (P = 0.03) and increased degree centrality in IC38 (located in salience network) (P = 0.002) compared with HC. Dynamic analysis showed OCD exhibited decreased dynamics of degree centrality in IC38 (P = 0.003) compared with HC, which showed a negative correlation with clinical scores in OCD. While SZ showed decreased dynamics of degree centrality in IC76 (located in sensory motor network) compared with OCD (P=0.009), which showed a positive correlation with clinical scores in SZ (Figure 2).
These changes are suggestive of disorder-specific alternation of static and dynamic brain topological organization in OCD and SZ.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and schizophrenia (SZ) are both severe psychiatric disorders. Though these two disorders have distinct typical symptoms, there are partial polygenic overlap and comorbidity between the two disorders. However, few studies have explored the shared and disorder-specific brain function underlying the neural pathophysiology of the two disorders, especially in the aspect of dynamics.
To explore the abnormal characteristics of the dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) in OCD and SZ as well as the association between dFC metrics and symptom severity.
The resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 31 patients with OCD, 49 patients with SZ, and 45 healthy controls were analyzed using independent component analysis to obtain independent components (ICs) and assigned them into eight brain networks (Figure 1), then used the sliding-window approach to generate dFC matrices. Using k-means clustering, we obtained three reoccurring dFC states (Figure 2), and state transition metrics were obtained
In a sparsely connected state (state 1), SZ showed both increased fractional time and mean dwell time than controls (P=0.047 and P=0.033) and OCD (P=0.001 and P=0.003). In a state characterized by negative FC between networks (state 2), OCD showed both increased fractional time and mean dwell time than controls (P=0.032 and P=0.013) and SZ (P=0.005 and P=0.003). Moreover, the fractional time of state 2 was positively correlated with anxiety scores in OCD (r=0.535, P=0.021, FDR corrected) (Figure 3).
OCD and SZ patients showed distinct alternations of brain functional dynamics.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a clinically and biologically heterogeneous syndrome. Identifying discrete subtypes of illness with distinguishing neurobiological substrates and clinical features is a promising strategy for guiding personalised therapeutics.
This study aimed to identify depression subtypes with correlated patterns of functional network connectivity and clinical symptoms by clustering patients according to a weighted linear combination of both features in a relatively large, medication-naïve depression sample.
We recruited 115 medication-naïve adults with MDD and 129 matched healthy controls, and evaluated all participants with magnetic resonance imaging. We used regularised canonical correlation analysis to identify component mapping relationships between functional network connectivity and symptom profiles, and K-means clustering was used to define distinct subtypes of patients.
Two subtypes of MDD were identified: insomnia-dominated subtype 1 and anhedonia-dominated subtype 2. Subtype 1 was characterised by abnormal hyperconnectivity within the ventral attention network and sleep maintenance insomnia. Subtype 2 was characterised by abnormal hypoconnectivity in the subcortical and dorsal attention networks, and prominent anhedonia symptoms.
Our study identified two distinct subtypes of patients with specific neurobiological and clinical symptom profiles. These findings advance understanding of the biological and clinical heterogeneity of MDD, offering a pathway for defining categorical subtypes of illness via consideration of both biological and clinical features.
The Songling and Majiayu peridotite blocks occur in the Eastern Block, North China Craton (NCC). Geothermobarometry data show that the Songling peridotites began exhumation from a depth of c. 70 km (c. 23 kbar). During exhumation, the Songling peridotites were intruded by an upper-crust-derived, high-δ18O (up to +7.28‰ in zircon) trondhjemitic dyke at 2.47 Ga and experienced granulite-facies metamorphism. The Songling peridotites have hybrid mantle wedge (HMW) -like high SiO2 (> 45 wt%), high FeOt (c. 10 wt%) content, high modal orthopyroxene abundance (> 35%) and high ϵNd(t) (+18.4 to +21.4), which were generated by the reaction between peridotite and eclogite-derived melts. The clinopyroxenes from the Songling peridotites were in equilibrium with a Nb-, Zr- and Ti-depleted arc-like magma. The Majiayu peridotites are characterized by depletion of Nb, Zr and Hf and are highly enriched in FeOt, Th and light rare earth elements (LREEs), which can be interpreted as an open system reaction between hydrous melts and fore-arc mantle peridotites. These two peridotite blocks are considered to be arc-related mantle peridotites that experienced melt extraction and metasomatism in different styles. They were exhumed to the north margin of the North China Craton during the c. 2.47 Ga arc–continent collision along the Zunhua structural belt.
China accounts for 17% of the global disease burden attributable to mental, neurological and substance use disorders. As a country undergoing profound societal change, China faces growing challenges to reduce the disease burden caused by psychiatric disorders. In this review, we aim to present an overview of progress in neuroscience research and clinical services for psychiatric disorders in China during the past three decades, analysing contributing factors and potential challenges to the field development. We first review studies in the epidemiological, genetic and neuroimaging fields as examples to illustrate a growing contribution of studies from China to the neuroscience research. Next, we introduce large-scale, open-access imaging genetic cohorts and recently initiated brain banks in China as platforms to study healthy brain functions and brain disorders. Then, we show progress in clinical services, including an integration of hospital and community-based healthcare systems and early intervention schemes. We finally discuss opportunities and existing challenges: achievements in research and clinical services are indispensable to the growing funding investment and continued engagement in international collaborations. The unique aspect of traditional Chinese medicine may provide insights to develop a novel treatment for psychiatric disorders. Yet obstacles still remain to promote research quality and to provide ubiquitous clinical services to vulnerable populations. Taken together, we expect to see a sustained advancement in psychiatric research and healthcare system in China. These achievements will contribute to the global efforts to realize good physical, mental and social well-being for all individuals.
Environmental hypoxia exposure causes fertility problems in human and animals. Compelling evidence suggests that chronic hypoxia impairs spermatogenesis and reduces sperm motility. However, it is unclear whether paternal hypoxic exposure affects fertilization and early embryo development. In the present study, we exposed male mice to high altitude (3200 m above sea level) for 7 or 60 days to evaluate the effects of hypoxia on sperm quality, zygotic DNA methylation and blastocyst formation. Compared with age-matched controls, hypoxia-treated males exhibited reduced fertility after mating with normoxic females as a result of defects in sperm motility and function. Results of in vitro fertilization (IVF) experiments revealed that 60 days’ exposure significantly reduced cleavage and blastocyst rates by 30% and 70%, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining of pronuclear formation indicated that the pronuclear formation process was disturbed and expression of imprinted genes was reduced in early embryos after paternal hypoxia. Overall, the findings of this study suggested that exposing male mice to hypoxia impaired sperm function and affected key events during early embryo development in mammals.
Schizophrenia is considered a polygenic disorder. People with schizophrenia and those with genetic high risk of schizophrenia (GHR) have presented with similar neurodevelopmental deficits in hemispheric asymmetry. The potential associations between neurodevelopmental abnormalities and schizophrenia-related risk genes in both schizophrenia and those with GHR remains unclear.
To investigate the shared and specific alternations to the structural network in people with schizophrenia and those with GHR. And to identify an association between vulnerable structural network alternation and schizophrenia-related risk genes.
A total of 97 participants with schizophrenia, 79 participants with GHR and 192 healthy controls, underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans at a single site. We used graph theory to characterise hemispheric and whole-brain structural network topological metrics. For 26 people in the schizophrenia group and 48 in the GHR group with DTI scans we also calculated their schizophrenia-related polygenic risk scores (SZ-PRSs). The correlations between alterations to the structural network and SZ-PRSs were calculated. Based on the identified genetic–neural association, bioinformatics enrichment was explored.
There were significant hemispheric asymmetric deficits of nodal efficiency, global and local efficiency in the schizophrenia and GHR groups. Hemispheric asymmetric deficit of local efficiency was significantly positively correlated with SZ-PRSs in the schizophrenia and GHR groups. Bioinformatics enrichment analysis showed that these risk genes may be linked to signal transduction, neural development and neuron structure. The schizophrenia group showed a significant decrease in the whole-brain structural network.
The shared asymmetric deficits in people with schizophrenia and those with GHR, and the association between anomalous asymmetry and SZ-PRSs suggested a vulnerability imaging marker regulated by schizophrenia-related risk genes. Our findings provide new insights into asymmetry regulated by risk genes and provides a better understanding of the genetic–neural pathological underpinnings of schizophrenia.
Dilated cardiomyopathy is characterised by dilatation and impaired contraction of the left ventricle or both ventricles, which is the most common childhood cardiomyopathy. In recent years, it has been recognised that many sorts of genetic mutations may contribute to dilated cardiomyopathy. We now report a rare association of dilated cardiomyopathy with site mutation of BMPR2 gene. We did not find such an association reported in the medical literature.
Subglacial lake exploration is of great interest to the science community. RECoverable Autonomous Sonde (RECAS) provides an exploration tool to measure and sample subglacial lake environments while the subglacial lake remains isolated from the glacier surface and atmosphere. This paper presents an electronic control system design of 200 m prototype of RECAS. The proposed electronic control system consists of a surface system, a downhole control system, and a power transfer and communication system. The downhole control system is the core element of RECAS, and is responsible for sonde status monitoring, sonde motion control, subglacial water sampling and in situ analysis. A custom RS485 temperature sensor was developed to cater for the limited size and depth requirements of the system. We adopted a humidity-based measurement to monitor for a housing leak. This condition is because standard leak detection monitoring of water conductivity may be inapplicable to pure ice in Antarctica. A water sampler control board was designed to control the samplers and monitor the on/off state. A high-definition camera system with built-in storage and self-heating ability was designed to perform the video recording in the subglacial lake. The proposed electronic control system is proven effective after a series of tests.