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We show that when a solid plasma foil with a density gradient on the front surface is irradiated by an intense laser pulse at a grazing angle,
, a relativistic electron vortex is excited in the near-critical-density layer after the laser pulse depletion. The vortex structure and dynamics are studied using particle-in-cell simulations. Due to the asymmetry introduced by non-uniform background density, the vortex drifts at a constant velocity, typically
times the speed of light. The strong magnetic field inside the vortex leads to significant charge separation; in the corresponding electric field initially stationary protons can be captured and accelerated to twice the velocity of the vortex (100–200 MeV). A representative scenario – with laser intensity of
– is discussed: two-dimensional simulations suggest that a quasi-monoenergetic proton beam can be obtained with a mean energy 140 MeV and an energy spread of
. We derive an analytical estimate for the vortex velocity in terms of laser and plasma parameters, demonstrating that the maximum proton energy can be controlled by the incidence angle of the laser and the plasma density gradient.
Employing atomic-scale simulations, the response of a high-angle grain boundary (GB), the soft/hard GB, against external loading was systematically investigated. Under tensile loading close to the hard orientation, strain-induced dynamic recrystallization was observed to initiate through direct soft-to-hard grain reorientation, which was triggered by stress mismatch, inhibited by surface tension from the soft-hard GB, and proceeded by interface ledges. Such grain reorientation corresponds with expansion and contraction of the hard grain along and perpendicular to the loading direction, respectively, accompanied by local atomic shuffling, providing relatively large normal strain of 8.3% with activation energy of 0.04 eV per atom. Tensile strain and residual dislocations on the hard/soft GB facilitate the initiation of dynamic recrystallization by lowering the energy barrier and the critical stress for grain reorientation, respectively.
The surface plasmon enhanced transmission of light though a plasmonic crystal provides a novel approach for fabricating an optical modulator. The extraordinary transmission passing though these patterned metallic films is very sensitive to the surface dielectric environment. In this study, hexagonal lattice plasmonic crystals were fabricated with a self-assembly technique. Arrays of gold nano-holes or bumps with 500/600 nm periodicity were used to test the sensitivity of plasmon resonance wavelength for liquids and polymers with different dielectric constants. A nonlinear optical polymer P3HT coated onto the plasmonic crystal and pumped with 475 nm laser was found to modulate the transmission of a normally incident red light at 670 nm.
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing different amounts of daidzein in a diet on the growth performance, blood biochemical parameters and meat quality of finishing beef cattle. Thirty finishing Xianan steers were distributed in three groups equilibrated by weight and fed three different dietary treatments (concentrate ratio = 80%): (1) control; (2) 500 mg/kg daidzein and (3) 1000 mg/kg daidzein, respectively. Steers were slaughtered after an 80-day feeding trial. Results showed that daidzein supplementation had no effect on the final body weight, average daily gain and feed conversion rate of steers. Steers fed with 1000 mg/kg daidzein had greater dry matter intake than those fed with control diets. Compared with the control group, the 1000 mg/kg daidzein group had a higher fat thickness, lower shear force and lightness. The pH, drip loss, cooking loss, redness (a*), yellowness (b*), moisture, ash, crude protein and intramuscular fat of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were unaffected by daidzein supplementation. Compared with the control group, the 1000 mg/kg daidzein group significantly increased the serum concentrations of insulin, free fatty acid and Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. The 500 mg/kg daidzein group significantly increased the serum concentration of tetraiodothyronine compared with the control group. Supplemental daidzein did not affect the blood antioxidant ability and blood immune parameters in serum. In conclusion, daidzein supplementation above 500 mg/day modifies feed intake and metabolic and hormonal profile, with positive and negative effects on meat quality.
An electromechanical coupling model is established for the space-tethered combination (STC) under microgravity environment after target capture by the tethered robot system (TRS). A linearized dynamic model of the STC is put forward with its controllability and observability as a control system analyzed. A double closed-loop tension control strategy is proposed to mitigate the impact and suing longitudinal vibration caused by the velocity difference between the platform and target. Experiment setup is built on a ground-based flotation platform to investigate the impact of the STC. Results of simulation and experimental validation show that the proposed tension control strategy is responsive and rapid in tension tracking and effectively prevent impact.
In an attempt to utilize large amounts of Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) that were captured using a mass trapping system, compost using Japanese beetle carcasses was prepared with the layer method. Carbon sources included shredded paper, wood chips and leaves, while the sole nitrogen source was frozen Japanese beetles. In addition, Japanese beetle-based vermicompost was prepared in the greenhouse by mixing the Japanese beetle-based compost with sphagnum peat moss and moist shredded paper and exposing this mixture to composting earthworms (Eisenia fetida). Chemical analyses of the Japanese beetle carcasses indicated that 10.8% of their body weight is nitrogen (N). Analyses of the resulting Japanese beetle-based compost and vermicompost indicated that both types of materials are good quality soil amendments. Greenhouse studies were conducted to quantify the effects of varying proportions of Japanese beetle-based vermicompost and compost mixed with a potting medium and varying dosages of synthetic fertilizer 20-0-0, on mean fresh and dry weight of lettuce shoots and leaf area. Japanese beetle-based compost and vermicompost increased lettuce biomass to an extent that was comparable with the addition of synthetic N-based fertilizer. A mixture of 15 and 30% of each compost type with potting media significantly increased plant weight and leaf area compared with potting medium alone. Results indicate that composting and vermicomposting insect carcasses are a simple, effective and affordable method to augment fertilization in support of organic production.
Two new species of egg parasitoids, Oobius saimaensis Yao and Mottern new species and Oobius fleischeri Yao and Duan new species (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are described from eggs of Agrilus fleischeri Obenberger, 1925 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Agrilus fleischeri is a phloem-feeding woodborer of poplar (Populus Linnaeus; Salicaceae) in northeastern China. These two species can be distinguished morphologically as O. fleischeri has five tarsomeres and O. saimaensis has four tarsomeres. Although O. saimaensis is morphologically similar to its sympatric congener O. agrili Zhang and Hang, 2005, an important natural enemy of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888, molecular phylogenetics and morphological data indicate that they are distinct species. Phylogenetic relationships among the new species and other closely related species are also inferred by using DNA sequence data from several ribosomal and mitochondrial genes. In addition, we expand the known distribution of Oobius primorskyensis Yao and Duan, 2016 to include South Korea.
Some researchers have suggested that young children choose to say mainly words containing sounds they can produce and avoid words with sounds they find difficult to produce. This proposed pattern of ‘selection’ supports a hypothesis of dominance of phonological factors in words children choose to say. Based on longitudinal spontaneous data samples during their first 50 word period, word-based tokens produced by two English and two French monolingual children were analyzed. Token frequencies in spontaneously produced word targets (SW-T) were compared to children's actual productions (SW-A) of those target words to understand relationships between targets children choose to say and their patterns in actual productions, (i.e., to evaluate the presence of ‘selection’). Place of articulation (i.e., labial, coronal and dorsal) in initial word position within CV, CVC, and CVCV word forms was compared. Analysis of spontaneous output in daily interactions in children learning two languages with differing phonological systems enables a more general evaluation of issues related to the interface of phonological and lexical aspects during the earliest period of language acquisition.
We compared rotavirus detection patterns before (2001–2006) and after (2008–2015) rotavirus vaccine introduction. We also compared rotavirus detection patterns in odd (2009, 2011, 2013, 2015) and even (2008, 2010, 2012, 2014) years post-vaccine separately. Results of stool rotavirus antigen testing from inpatient, outpatient and emergency department encounters from July 2000 to July 2015 at two paediatric hospital laboratories in Atlanta, Georgia were reviewed. Post-vaccine, rotavirus detection declined (30.2% vs. 13.7% (overall 54.6% decline, P <0.001)), occurred more frequently outside the rotavirus season (19.8% vs. 3.5%; P < 0.001), and was more common among older children (26 vs. 13 median months of age; P < 0.001). During odd years post-vaccine, rotavirus detection was significantly higher than even years (20.2% vs. 6.4%; P < 0.001). Rotavirus detection declined substantially and developed a biennial pattern in the post-vaccine era. The intensity and temporality of rotavirus detection in odd years post-vaccine resembled that observed pre-vaccine, although considerably reduced in magnitude.
The in vivo effects of administering free and microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum LIP-1 cells (2·0×109 colony-forming units/d) were evaluated in high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidaemic rats. Results from real-time quantitative PCR targeting to LIP-1 cells showed a higher colon colonisation count of LIP-1 in the rats receiving microencapsulated cells compared with free cells (P<0·05). Moreover, the microencapsulated LIP-1 treatment resulted in a more obvious lipid-lowering effect (P<0·05). Meanwhile, their faecal samples had significantly less lipopolysaccharide-producing bacteria (especially Bilophila, Sutterella and Oscillibacter) and mucosa-damaging bacteria (Bilophila and Akkermansia muciniphila), whereas significantly more SCFA-producing bacteria (P<0·05) (namely Lactobacillus, Alloprevotella, Coprococcus, Eubacterium and Ruminococcus) and bacteria that potentially possessed bile salt hydrolase activity (Bacteroides, Clostridium, Eubacterium and Lactobacillus), and other beneficial bacteria (Alistipes and Turicibacter). Further, Spearman’s correlation analysis showed significant correlations between some of the modulated gut bacteria and the serum lipid levels. These results together confirm that microcapsulation enhanced the colon colonisation of LIP-1 cells, which subsequently exhibited more pronounced effects in improving the gut microbiota composition of hyperlipidaemic rats and lipid reduction.
We derive mass changes of the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) for 2003–07 from ICESat laser altimetry and compare them with results for 1992–2002 from ERS radar and airborne laser altimetry. The GIS continued to grow inland and thin at the margins during 2003–07, but surface melting and accelerated flow significantly increased the marginal thinning compared with the 1990s. The net balance changed from a small loss of 7 ± 3 Gt a−1 in the 1990s to 171 ± 4 Gt a−1 for 2003–07, contributing 0.5 mm a−1 to recent global sea-level rise. We divide the derived mass changes into two components: (1) from changes in melting and ice dynamics and (2) from changes in precipitation and accumulation rate. We use our firn compaction model to calculate the elevation changes driven by changes in both temperature and accumulation rate and to calculate the appropriate density to convert the accumulation-driven changes to mass changes. Increased losses from melting and ice dynamics (17–206 Gt a−1) are over seven times larger than increased gains from precipitation (10–35 Gt a−1) during a warming period of ∼2 K (10 a)−1 over the GIS. Above 2000 m elevation, the rate of gain decreased from 44 to 28 Gt a−1, while below 2000 m the rate of loss increased from 51 to 198 Gt a−1. Enhanced thinning below the equilibrium line on outlet glaciers indicates that increased melting has a significant impact on outlet glaciers, as well as accelerating ice flow. Increased thinning at higher elevations appears to be induced by dynamic coupling to thinning at the margins on decadal timescales.
Changes in ice mass are estimated from elevation changes derived from 10.5 years (Greenland) and 9 years (Antarctica) of satellite radar altimetry data from the European Remote-sensing Satellites ERS-1 and -2. For the first time, the dH/dt values are adjusted for changes in surface elevation resulting from temperature-driven variations in the rate of firn compaction. The Greenland ice sheet is thinning at the margins (–42 ± 2Gta¯1 below the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA)) and growing inland (+53 ± 2Gta-1 above the ELA) with a small overall mass gain (+11 ± 3Gta–1; –0.03 mma–1 SLE (sea-level equivalent)). The ice sheet in West Antarctica (WA) is losing mass (–47 ± 4Gta–1) and the ice sheet in East Antarctica (EA) shows a small mass gain (+16 ± 11 Gta–1) for a combined net change of –31 ± 12 Gta–1 (+0.08mma–1 SLE). The contribution of the three ice sheets to sea level is +0.05±0.03mma–1. The Antarctic ice shelves show corresponding mass changes of –95 ± 11 Gta–1 in WA and +142 ± 10Gta–1 in EA. Thinning at the margins of the Greenland ice sheet and growth at higher elevations is an expected response to increasing temperatures and precipitation in a warming climate. The marked thinnings in the Pine Island and Thwaites Glacier basins of WA and the Totten Glacier basin in EA are probably ice- dynamic responses to long-term climate change and perhaps past removal of their adjacent ice shelves. The ice growth in the southern Antarctic Peninsula and parts of EA may be due to increasing precipitation during the last century.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: We hypothesize that both NGF and TNF-α contribute to oral cancer pain by upregulating pro-nociceptive inflammatory cytokines. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In total, 48 oral cancer patients were evaluated and their pain scores were measured using a validated oral cancer pain questionnaire. Presence of perineural invasion (PNI) was identified from patients’ pathology reports. We utilized The NIH Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Head and Neck Cancer cohort to investigate the association between pain and genes related to NGF, TNF-α, and their receptors (TRKA, P75, TNF-α receptor 1, and TNF-α receptor 2) in oral cancer samples by employing PNI as a surrogate for pain. Demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, and genes were analyzed using logistic regression models. A xenograft cancer pain model was created by inoculating human oral cancer cells (HSC-3) into the mouse hind paw. Mice (n=6 per group) were treated with anti-NGF alone, anti-TNF-α alone, a combination of anti-NGF and anti-TNF-α, or PBS (vehicle control). Nociceptive behaviors were measured using an electronic paw withdrawal assay. Paw volume was measured using a plethysmometer. Cytokines in the paw tissues were measured using a multiplex assay kit with 28 cytokines. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Oral cancer patients with PNI report significantly more pain compared with patients without PNI in our patient cohort (p<0.05). From analysis of TCGA data, we found that PNI is significantly associated with lymphovascular invasion, pathological nodal invasion, and pathological tumor staging (all p<0.05). In adjusted models, we observed that the NGF receptor p75NTR (NGFR) and the TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFRSF1A) were associated with PNI (both p<0.05) and significantly correlated to each other (r=0.25, p<0.001). High levels of TNF-α were present in HSC-3 cell lines and the mouse xenograft cancers. In mice with cancer pain, combined treatment with anti-NGF and anti-TNF-α together provided more effective pain control compared with either anti-NGF or anti-TNF-α treatment alone (p<0.05). We found significantly increased levels of MIP3a, IL-1b, IL-2, IL-4, IL-28b, IL-23, IL17a, IL-31, and IL-33 in cancer mice compared with normal mice (all p<0.05). The combination therapy significantly reduced cytokines MIP3a, IL-1b, IL-4, IL-28b, IL-31, and IL-33 (all p<0.05). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We show that targeting both NGF and TNF-α provides more effective pain relief in an oral cancer model. These results suggest that therapeutic strategies aimed at both pathways could yield improved pain management for oral cancer patients.
Mass changes of the Antarctic ice sheet impact sea-level rise as climate changes, but recent rates have been uncertain. Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) data (2003–08) show mass gains from snow accumulation exceeded discharge losses by 82 ± 25 Gt a−1, reducing global sea-level rise by 0.23 mm a−1. European Remote-sensing Satellite (ERS) data (1992–2001) give a similar gain of 112 61 Gt a−1. Gains of 136 Gt a−1 in East Antarctica (EA) and 72 Gt a−1 in four drainage systems (WA2) in West Antarctic (WA) exceed losses of 97 Gt a−1 from three coastal drainage systems (WA1) and 29 Gt a−1 from the Antarctic Peninsula (AP). EA dynamic thickening of 147 Gt a−1 is a continuing response to increased accumulation (>50%) since the early Holocene. Recent accumulation loss of 11 Gt a−1 in EA indicates thickening is not from contemporaneous snowfall increases. Similarly, the WA2 gain is mainly (60 Gt a−1) dynamic thickening. In WA1 and the AP, increased losses of 66 ± 16 Gt a−1 from increased dynamic thinning from accelerating glaciers are 50% offset by greater WA snowfall. The decadal increase in dynamic thinning in WA1 and the AP is approximately one-third of the long-term dynamic thickening in EA and WA2, which should buffer additional dynamic thinning for decades.
The Middle Jurassic is a poorly sampled time interval for non-pelagic neosuchian crocodyliforms, which obscures our understanding of the origin and early evolution of major clades. Here we report a lower jaw from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) Duntulm Formation of the Isle of Skye, Scotland, UK, which consists of an isolated and incomplete left dentary and part of the splenial. Morphologically, the Skye specimen closely resembles the Cretaceous neosuchians Pachycheilosuchus and Pietraroiasuchus, in having a proportionally short mandibular symphysis, shallow dentary alveoli and inferred weakly heterodont dentition. It differs from other crocodyliforms in that the Meckelian canal is dorsoventrally expanded posterior to the mandibular symphysis and drastically constricted at the 7th alveolus. The new specimen, together with the presence of Theriosuchus sp. from the Valtos Formation and indeterminate neosuchians from the Kilmaluag Formation, indicates the presence of a previously unrecognised, diverse crocodyliform fauna in the Middle Jurassic of Skye, and Europe more generally. Small-bodied neosuchians were present, and ecologically and taxonomically diverse, in nearshore environments in the Middle Jurassic of the UK.
The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with a feeling of well-being using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS)–Feeling of Well-Being item (ESAS–FWB; where 0 = best and 10 = worst) among advanced lung or non-colonic gastrointestinal cancer patients who were referred to an outpatient palliative care clinic (OPCC). We also examined the association of performance on the ESAS–FWB with overall survival (OS).
We reviewed the records of consecutive patients with incurable advanced lung cancer and non-colonic gastrointestinal cancer presenting to an OPCC from 1 January 2008 through to 31 December 2013. Descriptive statistics were employed to summarize patient characteristics. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with ESAS–FWB severity. We also examined the association of ESAS–FWB scores and survival using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis.
A total of 826 evaluable patients were analyzed (median age = 62 years, 57% male). Median ESAS–FWB scores were five times the interquartile range (5 × IQR; 3–7). ESAS–FWB score was found to be significantly associated with ESAS fatigue (OR = 2.31, p < 0.001); anxiety (OR = 1.98, p < 0.001); anorexia (OR = 2.31, p < 0.001); cut down, annoyed, guilty, eye opener (CAGE) score (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.80, p = 0.008); and family caregiver distress (HR = 1.93, p = 0.002). A worse ESAS–FWB score was significantly associated with decreased OS (r = –0.18, p < 0.001). However, ESAS–FWB score was not independently associated with OS in the final multivariate model (p = 0.35), which included known major clinical prognostic factors.
Worse ESAS–FWB scores were significantly associated with high scores on ESAS fatigue, anorexia, anxiety, CAGE, and family caregiver distress. More research is necessary to understand how palliative care interventions are capable of improving the contributory factors related to ESAS–FWB score.
Experiments on the National Ignition Facility show that multi-dimensional effects currently dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a one-dimensional (1D) implosion platform where 1D means measured yield over the 1D clean calculation. A high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed using beryllium capsules enabling larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the implosion convergence can be controlled via the initial vapor pressure set by the target fielding temperature. The last method is double shell targets. For double shells, the smaller inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. However, double shell targets have a different set of trade-off versus advantages. Details for each of these approaches are described.