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To describe snacking characteristics and patterns in children and examine associations with diet quality and BMI.
Children’s weight and height were measured. Participants/adult proxies completed multiple 24 h dietary recalls. Snack occasions were self-identified. Snack patterns were derived for each sample using exploratory factor analysis. Associations of snacking characteristics and patterns with Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score and BMI were examined using multivariable linear regression models.
Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR) Consortium, USA: NET-Works, GROW, GOALS and IMPACT studies.
Two snack patterns were derived for three studies: a meal-like pattern and a beverage pattern. The IMPACT study had a similar meal-like pattern and a dairy/grains pattern. A positive association was observed between meal-like pattern adherence and HEI-2010 score (P for trend < 0⋅01) and snack occasion frequency and HEI-2010 score (β coefficient (95 % CI): NET-Works, 0⋅14 (0⋅04, 0⋅23); GROW, 0⋅12 (0⋅02, 0⋅21)) among younger children. A preference for snacking while using a screen was inversely associated with HEI-2010 score in all studies except IMPACT (β coefficient (95 % CI): NET-Works, −3⋅15 (−5⋅37, −0⋅92); GROW, −2⋅44 (−4⋅27, −0⋅61); GOALS, −5⋅80 (−8⋅74, −2⋅86)). Associations with BMI were almost all null.
Meal-like and beverage patterns described most children’s snack intake, although patterns for non-Hispanic Blacks or adolescents may differ. Diets of 2–5-year-olds may benefit from frequent meal-like pattern snack consumption and diets of all children may benefit from decreasing screen use during eating occasions.
The goal of the Sky Polarisation Observatory (SPOrt) Program is the measurement of the sky linearly polarised emission in the 22-90 GHz frequency range from the International Space Station (2003-2004). The instrument configuration together with most relevant ground support activities are presented. In particular, the development of hardware solutions for high sensitive polarimetric measurements has been addressed by the SPOrt team to match the experiment requirements.
REM (Rapid Eye Mount) is a fully robotized fast slewing telescope equipped with a high throughput Near InfraRed (Z′, J, H, K′) camera (REMIR) and an optical slitless spectrograph (ROSS). A dedicated software for data reduction and software (AQuA) has been developed to extract scientific information from REM images without any human intervent. REM is installed in La Silla (Chile) and dedicated to detect and study the prompt optical/IR afterglow of Gamma Ray Bursts with the ambitious project of discovering objects at extremely high redshift. The synergy between REMIR camera and ROSS makes REM a powerful observing tool for any kind of fast transient phenomena.
We discuss the expected polarization of the Galactic foregrounds at the SPOrt experiment frequencies 22-90 GHz. We also consider the problem of foreground separation and perform an analysis to estimate their impact on the detection of a cosmological signal.
We present some preliminary results of a BeppoSAX observation of the pulsar PSR B1509–58. We discuss in detail the spectrum energy distribution and show that the high energy data can be explained by a steepening continuum spectrum.
The Crab Pulsar(PSR 0531+21) was observed by the four Narrow Field Instruments on board the Italian-Dutch satellite BeppoSAX on August and September 1996, during the Science Verificado Phase. The fine time resolution (15 μs) and the high statistic of the data provided phase histogram of very good quality, well suited for phase resolved spettroscopy over the entire energy band (0.1-300 keV) covered by BeppoSAX payload. In this contribution we present preliminary results of the spectra distribution of the peaks and the inter peak region. Moreover, we also carried out a detailed analysis of the P1 shape and the behaviour of the P2/P1 ratio with the energy.
We present an overview of top internet technologies that can be used to build webtools and rich internet applications for astronomy. The aim is to simplify the data handling, reduction and access, in particular of optical/infrared images collected by traditional, automatic or robotic telescopes. These tools are particularly suitable for real-time management of GRB afterglow observations. Using these technologies we are developing a web-based images database management system. We present available features and discuss further improvements to the mentioned system.
The BaR-SPOrt experiment is designed to measure the E-mode
power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization (CMBP)
in the multipole range 50 < l < 1000.
In the current configuration at 32 GHz
it can explore up to l = 400.
Recent low frequency observations of the target region show that
the synchrotron emission should not contamine the CMBP already at 32 GHz.
A 6-month observation of a 6° × 6° sky area
during the polar night, in ideal
environmental conditions, will allow the Italian-French collaboration
to both measure the E–mode power spectrum with appropriate sensitivity
and perform important tests of the anomalous dust emission.
The BaR-SPOrt 32 GHz instrument, now under test and ready
for operations by Spring 2005, is proposed
for 1–2 years Winter operations at Dome C.
First, we clarify the central nature of our argument: our attempt is to apportion variation in brain size between developmental constraint, system-specific change, and “mosaic” change, underlining the unexpectedly large role of developmental constraint, but making no case for exclusivity. We consider the special cases of unusual hypertrophy of single structures in single species, regressive nervous systems, and the unusually variable cerebellum raised by the commentators. We defend the description of the cortex (or any developmentally-constrained structure) as a potential spandrel, and weigh the implications of the spandrel concept for the course of human evolution. The empirical and statistical objections raised in the commentary of Barton are discussed at length. Finally, we catalogue and comment on the suggestions of new ways to study brain evolution, and new aspects of brain evolution to study.
How does evolution grow bigger brains? It has been widely assumed that growth of individual structures and functional systems in response to niche-specific cognitive challenges is the most plausible mechanism for brain expansion in mammals. Comparison of multiple regressions on allometric data for 131 mammalian species, however, suggests that for 9 of 11 brain structures taxonomic and body size factors are less important than covariance of these major structures with each other. Which structure grows biggest is largely predicted by a conserved order of neurogenesis that can be derived from the basic axial structure of the developing brain. This conserved order of neurogenesis predicts the relative scaling not only of gross brain regions like the isocortex or mesencephalon, but also the level of detail of individual thalamic nuclei. Special selection of particular areas for specific functions does occur, but it is a minor factor compared to the large-scale covariance of the whole brain. The idea that enlarged isocortex could be a “spandrel,” a by-product of structural constraints later adapted for various behaviors, contrasts with approaches to selection of particular brain regions for cognitively advanced uses, as is commonly assumed in the case of hominid brain evolution.
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