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Environmental factors, size-related isotopic changes of the most abundant species and isotopic niche overlap were investigated using stable isotopes in order to evaluate spatial changes of fish trophic guilds in the Araruama Lagoon. Based on 440 muscle samples, 17 fish species were grouped into five trophic guilds. Mean salinity was above 40 at both sites sampled and a significant spatial difference was observed. The highest δ13C mean value was observed for an omnivorous species, whereas the lowest carbon signatures were found for the three fish species belonging to the planktivorous guild. Analysis of the carbon signature of fish species in lower trophic levels showed influence of salinity variation, whilst size appeared to play a role for others. A narrow δ15N difference was observed, but the piscivorous fish species showed the highest δ15N values. The Standard Ellipses Analysis (SEA) detected spatial differences and varying degrees of isotopic niche overlap among trophic guilds, but the percentages of most overlaps (<60%) suggest that, to some extent, the guilds had a unique isotopic niche space. These results are in agreement with data previously reported for the Araruama Lagoon, that found the same prey items with varying relative importance among the most abundant species. Further studies are necessary to understand how the interaction between salinity and other factors, such as migration patterns, changes in prey availability, changes in contribution of primary sources and changes in baseline isotopic signatures could affect the stable isotope signatures shown here.
This study aimed to analyse the trend and spatial–temporal clusters of risk of transmission of COVID-19 in northeastern Brazil. We conducted an ecological study using spatial and temporal trend analysis. All confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the Northeast region of Brazil were included, from 7 March to 22 May 2020. We used the segmented log-linear regression model to assess time trends, and the local empirical Bayesian estimator, the global and local Moran indexes for spatial analysis. The prospective space–time scan statistic was performed using the Poisson probability distribution model. There were 113 951 confirmed cases of COVID-19. The average incidence rate was 199.73 cases/100 000 inhabitants. We observed an increasing trend in the incidence rate in all states. Spatial autocorrelation was reported in metropolitan areas, and 178 municipalities were considered a priority, especially in the states of Ceará and Maranhão. We identified 11 spatiotemporal clusters of COVID-19 cases; the primary cluster included 70 municipalities from Ceará state. COVID-19 epidemic is increasing rapidly throughout the Northeast region of Brazil, with dispersion towards countryside. It was identified high risk clusters for COVID-19, especially in the coastal side.
Modern lifestyle increases the prevalence of obesity and its co-morbidities in the young population. High-salt (HS) diets are associated with hypertension and cardiac remodelling. The present study evaluated the potential effects of cardiometabolic programming induced by HS intake during puberty in lean and obese rats. Additionally, we investigated whether HS could exacerbate the impairment of cardiovascular parameters in adult life due to postnatal early overnutrition (PO). At postnatal day 3 (PN3), twenty-four litters of Wistar rats were divided into two groups: normal litter (NL, nine pups/dam) and small litter (SL, three pups/dam) throughout the lactation period; weaning was at PN21. At PN30, the pups were subdivided into two more groups: NL plus HS (NLHS) and SL plus HS (SLHS). HS intake was from PN30 until PN60. Cardiovascular parameters were evaluated at PN120. SL rats became overweight at adulthood due to persistent hyperphagia; however, HS exposure during puberty reduced the weight gain and food intake of NLHS and SLHS. Both HS and obesity raised the blood pressure, impaired baro- and chemoreflex sensitivity and induced cardiac remodelling but no worsening was observed in the association of these factors, except a little reduction in the angiotensin type-2 receptor in the hearts from SLHS animals. Our results suggest that the response of newborn offspring to PO and juveniles to a HS diet leads to significant changes in cardiovascular parameters in adult rats. This damage may be accompanied by impairment of both angiotensin signalling and antioxidant defence in the heart.
The present study aimed to (i) assess the appetitive drives evoked by the visual cues of ultra-processed food and drink products and (ii) investigate whether text warnings reduce appetitive drives and consumers’ reported intentions to eat or drink ultra-processed products.
In Study I, a well-established psychometric tool was applied to estimate the appetitive drives associated with ultra-processed products using sixty-four image representations. Sixteen product types with four exemplars of a given product were included. Pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) served as controls. The two exemplars of each product type rated as more appetitive were selected for investigation in the second study. Study II assessed the impact of textual warnings on the appetitive drive towards these thirty-two exemplars. Each participant was exposed to two picture exemplars of the same product type preceded by a text warning or a control text. After viewing each displayed picture, the participants reported their emotional reactions and their intention to consume the product.
Controlled classroom experiments
Undergraduate students (Study I: n 215, 135 women; Study II: n 98, 52 women).
In Study I, the pictures of ultra-processed products prompted an appetitive motivation associated with the products’ nutritional content. In Study II, text warnings were effective in reducing the intention to consume and the appetitive drive evoked by ultra-processed products.
This research provides initial evidence favouring the use of text warnings as a public policy tool to curb the powerful influence of highly appetitive ultra-processed food cues.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the Southern region of the State of Bahia, evaluating the performance of alternative complementary methods for cervical lesion detection. Cervical samples from women who attended healthcare units were collected and diagnosed by visual inspection, cervical cytology and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Moreover, hemi-nested PCR was performed to detect different HPV genotypes. The prevalence of HPV infection was 47·7%, with genotype 16 detected in most cases. Infection was associated with dyspareunia and bleeding (P < 0·001, odds ratio (OR) 5·6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·815–11·14) and hormonal contraceptive use (P = 0·007, OR 2·33, 95% CI 1·25–4·34). There was a positive correlation between positive PCR and positive visual inspection, cervical cytology and symptoms reported. Furthermore, visual inspection was twice as specific, and had a greater positive predictive value than cytology. We showed a high prevalence of HPV infection in Southern Bahia, with HPV 16 being the most common type, and visual inspection being most effective at detecting HPV lesions, corroborating the suggestion that it can be applied in routine gynecologic examinations for low-income populations.
Zika virus infection was declared a public health emergency of international concern in February 2016 in response to the outbreak in Brazil and its suspected link with congenital anomalies. In this study, we use notification data and disease natural history parameters to estimate the basic reproduction number (R0) of Zika in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also obtain estimates of R0 of dengue from time series of dengue cases in the outbreaks registered in 2002 and 2012 in the city, when DENV-3 and DENV-4 serotypes, respectively, had just emerged. Our estimates of the basic reproduction number for Zika in Rio de Janeiro based on surveillance notifications (R0 = 2·33, 95% CI: 1·97–2·97) were higher than those obtained for dengue in the city (year 2002: R0 = 1·70 [1·50–2·02]; year 2012: R0 = 1·25 [1·18–1·36]). Given the role of Aedes aegypti as vector of both the Zika and dengue viruses, we also derive R0 of Zika as a function of both dengue reproduction number and entomological and epidemiological parameters for dengue and Zika. Using the dengue outbreaks from previous years allowed us to estimate the potential R0 of Zika. Our estimates were closely in agreement with our first Zika's R0 estimation from notification data. Hence, these results validate deriving the potential risk of Zika transmission in areas with recurring dengue outbreaks. Whether transmission routes other than vector-based can sustain a Zika epidemic still deserves attention, but our results suggest that the Zika outbreak in Rio de Janeiro emerged due to population susceptibility and ubiquitous presence of Ae. aegypti.
In this work, we present an analysis of SNe number ratios in spiral galaxies with different morphological subtypes, luminosities, sSFR, and metallicities, to provide important information about the physical properties of the progenitor populations.
Both inhibitory-based executive functioning (IB-EF) and basic information processing (BIP) deficits are found in clinic-referred attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) samples. However, it remains to be determined whether: (1) such deficits occur in non-referred samples of ADHD; (2) they are specific to ADHD; (3) the co-morbidity between ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) has additive or interactive effects; and (4) IB-EF deficits are primary in ADHD or are due to BIP deficits.
We assessed 704 subjects (age 6–12 years) from a non-referred sample using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) and classified them into five groups: typical developing controls (TDC; n = 378), Fear disorders (n = 90), Distress disorders (n = 57), ADHD (n = 100), ODD/CD (n = 40) and ADHD+ODD/CD (n = 39). We evaluated neurocognitive performance with a Two-Choice Reaction Time Task (2C-RT), a Conflict Control Task (CCT) and a Go/No-Go (GNG) task. We used a diffusion model (DM) to decompose BIP into processing efficiency, speed–accuracy trade-off and encoding/motor function along with variability parameters.
Poorer processing efficiency was found to be specific to ADHD. Faster encoding/motor function differentiated ADHD from TDC and from fear/distress whereas a more cautious (not impulsive) response style differentiated ADHD from both TDC and ODD/CD. The co-morbidity between ADHD and ODD/CD reflected only additive effects. All ADHD-related IB-EF classical effects were fully moderated by deficits in BIP.
Our findings challenge the IB-EF hypothesis for ADHD and underscore the importance of processing efficiency as the key specific mechanism for ADHD pathophysiology.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the contamination by eggs of Toxocara in sandy areas or grass lawns of outdoor recreation areas that are used by children, and the frequency of seroprevalence in children, from three cities of fewer than 45,000 inhabitants in Paraná, Brazil. From May 2005 to December 2007, five samples were taken from each of 13 sandy sites and 18 grass lawns, all from plazas and public schools. Blood samples from children aged 0–12 years were analysed by immunoassay for anti-Toxocara IgG. The soil samples were processed by floatation and sedimentation. Eggs of Toxocara spp. were present in 44.7% (38/85) of the samples from grassed areas and in 21.4% (15/70) of the sand samples. The lawns were 2.16 times more contaminated than the sand (P = 0.0009). However, the epidemiological variables showed no statistically significant difference between seropositive (36.8%; 130/353), and seronegative children. The rate of seropositivity was higher in children aged 0–5 years (P = 0.03), who were 1.94 times more likely to develop persistent wheezing (P = 0.02).
Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in leaves of drought-stressed coconut palms and its involvement with stomatal regulation of gas exchange during and after stress were investigated. Two Brazilian Green Dwarf coconut ecotypes from hot/humid and hot/dry environments were submitted to three consecutive drying/recovery cycles under greenhouse conditions. ABA accumulated in leaflets before significant changes in pre-dawn leaflet water potential (ΨPD) and did not recover completely in the two ecotypes after 8 days of rewatering. Stomatal conductance was influenced by ABA under mild drought and by ΨPD under severe drought. There were no significant differences between the ecotypes for most variables measured. However, the ecotype from a hot/dry environment showed higher water use efficiency after repeated cycles of water stress.
The present work details, to our knowledge, the first examination of the influence of blue-light radiation on the optical properties of organic luminescent films in attempting to develop an indicator dosimeter for phototherapy of neonatal jaundice. Jaundice is the most common problem encountered in newborns due to immature functioning in the liver. The operating principle of the device is based on the optical response of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene (MEH-PPV) and tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum (Alq3) materials dispersed in polystyrene (PS) matrix (denoted as PS/MEH-PPV/Alq3). It is observed a blue-shift on the photoluminescence of PS/MEH-PPV/Alq3 system from red to orange-yellow, and then to green as function of the blue-light radiation exposure time. The result is attributed to the spectral overlap between emission of Alq3 and absorption of MEH-PPV. The optical response of PS/MEH-PPV/Alq3 to radiation was investigated to design a low-cost (< US$ 0.05) “smart” sensor to represent easily the radiation dosage normally used in blue-light phototherapy. The basic idea behind this concept considers the sensor as a traffic light device, where red represents underdose and green the prescription dose or overdose, while orange-yellow suggests that radiation therapy is an ongoing process. This personal real-time radiation dosimeter appears here as a key requirement for successful development of innovations in effective management of the radiation dose planning before treatment of neonatal where control of dose absorption of infants is extremely important.
Evolutionary and closer structural relationships are demonstrated by phylogenetic analysis, peptide prediction and molecular modelling between Solanum tuberosum apyrase, Schistosoma mansoni SmATPase 2 and Leishmania braziliensis NDPase. Specific protein domains are suggested to be potentially involved in the immune response, and also seem to be conserved during host and parasite co-evolution. Significant IgG antibody reactivity was observed in sera from patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) and schistosomiasis using potato apyrase as antigen in ELISA. S. mansoni adult worm or egg, L. braziliensis promastigote (Lb) and Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote (EPI) have ATP diphosphohydrolases, and antigenic preparations of them were evaluated. In ACL patients, IgG seropositivity was about 43% and 90% for Lb and potato apyrase, respectively, while IgM was lower (<19%) for both. In schistosomiasis patients IgM (>40%) or IgG (100%) seropositivity for both soluble egg (SEA) and adult worm (SWAP) antigens was higher than that found for potato apyrase (IgM=10%; IgG=39%). In Chagas disease, IgG seropositivity for EPI and potato apyrase was 97% and 17%, respectively, while the IgM was low (3%) for both antigens. The study of the conserved domains from both parasite proteins and potato apyrase could lead to the development of new drug targets or molecular markers.
The purpose of this work is to investigate the use of different forms of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to measure color discrimination thresholds and to plot color discrimination ellipses (MacAdam, 1942). Five normal trichromats (24.5 ± 2.6 years-old) were monocularly tested. Stimuli consisted of sinusoidal isoluminant chromatic gratings made from chromaticity pairs located along four different color directions radiating from one reference point of the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram (u′ = 0.225; v′ = 0.415). Heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP) was used to obtain the isoluminance condition for every subject and for all chromaticity pairs. VEPs were elicited using two cycles per degree grating stimuli at three different temporal configurations: transient, onset (300 ms)/offset (700 ms), 1 Hz fundamental frequency; steady-state, onset (50 ms)/offset (50 ms), 10 Hz fundamental frequency; and steady-state pattern reversal at 5 Hz fundamental frequency (10 Hz phase reversal). VEP amplitude was measured using transient VEP N1-P1 components and steady state VEP first (10 Hz) and second (20 Hz) harmonics. VEP amplitude was plotted as a function of chromatic distance in the CIE 1976 color space and the data points were extrapolated to zero amplitude level to obtain chromatic discrimination thresholds. The results were compared with psychophysical measurements performed using the same stimulus configurations and with the pseudoisochromatic method of Mollon-Reffin (one-way ANOVA). For all subjects and all stimulation methods, the ellipses showed small sizes, low ellipticities, and were vertically oriented. Despite some consistent differences in the results obtained with different procedures, there was no statistical difference between ellipses obtained electrophysiologically and psychophysically. For steady state VEPs, ellipses obtained from second harmonic amplitudes were larger and more elongated in the tritan direction than those obtained with first harmonic amplitudes.
This project was developed in order to keep the production of the CST Continuous
Casting No. 2 steady at 2.8 Mt/year. The main focus was the reduction of segments
failure that was caused by short life of bearings, a forth of the time expected.
The goal established was well overreached due to a set of improvements made by operation,
maintenance, technical unit and engineering: reduction of the number of break-outs;
improvements on control and raise of casting speed.
We present prehistoric mercury accumulation rates in a dated sediment core from Lagoa da Pata, a remote lake in São Gabriel da Cachoeira, northern Amazon. The sediment samples were subdivided for mercury and radiocarbon analyses. A group of 18 samples have been prepared at ANU for 14C dating by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The dating results show a good correlation with depth in the core, down to 41,500 BP. Three distinct sections are clearly identified in the core. They consist of upper and lower organic-rich layers, separated by an inorganic layer which represents a short period of rapid accumulation around 18 ka BP. The mercury accumulation rate is found to be larger in the upper layer (18 ka to present) than in the lower one (41 ka to 25 ka), by a factor of three. The larger accumulation rate of mercury is probably associated with warmer temperatures and a higher frequency of forest fires during the Holocene.
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