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Perinatal depression and anxiety are associated with unfavourable child outcomes.
To assess among women with antenatal depression or anxiety the effectiveness of prenatally initiated cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) on mother and child compared with care as usual (CAU). Trial registration: Netherlands Trial Register number NTR2242.
Pregnant women (n = 282) who screened positive for symptoms of depression and/or anxiety were randomised to either CBT (n = 140) or CAU (n = 142). The primary outcome was child behavioural and emotional problems at age 18 months, assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Secondary outcomes were maternal symptoms during and up to 18 months after pregnancy, neonatal outcomes, mother–infant bonding and child cognitive and motor development at age 18 months.
In total, 94 (67%) women in the CBT group and 98 (69%) in the CAU group completed the study. The mean CBCL Total Problems score was non-significantly higher in the CBT group than in the CAU group (mean difference: 1.38 (95% CI −1.82 to 4.57); t = 0.85, P = 0.399). No effects on secondary outcomes were observed except for depression and anxiety, which were higher in the CBT group than in the CAU group at mid-pregnancy. A post hoc analysis of the 98 women with anxiety disorders showed lower infant gestational age at delivery in the CBT than in the CAU group.
Prenatally initiated CBT did not improve maternal symptoms or child outcomes among non-help-seeking women with antenatal depression or anxiety. Our findings are not in line with present recommendations for universal screening and treatment for antenatal depression or anxiety, and future work may include the relevance of baseline help-seeking.
We describe the motivation and design details of the ‘Phase II’ upgrade of the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. The expansion doubles to 256 the number of antenna tiles deployed in the array. The new antenna tiles enhance the capabilities of the Murchison Widefield Array in several key science areas. Seventy-two of the new tiles are deployed in a regular configuration near the existing array core. These new tiles enhance the surface brightness sensitivity of the array and will improve the ability of the Murchison Widefield Array to estimate the slope of the Epoch of Reionisation power spectrum by a factor of ∼3.5. The remaining 56 tiles are deployed on long baselines, doubling the maximum baseline of the array and improving the array u, v coverage. The improved imaging capabilities will provide an order of magnitude improvement in the noise floor of Murchison Widefield Array continuum images. The upgrade retains all of the features that have underpinned the Murchison Widefield Array’s success (large field of view, snapshot image quality, and pointing agility) and boosts the scientific potential with enhanced imaging capabilities and by enabling new calibration strategies.
Host–parasite dynamics can play a fundamental role in both the establishment success of invasive species and their impact on native wildlife. The net impact of parasites depends on their capacity to switch effectively between native and invasive hosts. Here we explore host-switching, spatial patterns and simple fitness measures in a slow-expanding invasion: the invasion of Asian house geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus) from urban areas into bushland in Northeast Australia. In bushland close to urban edges, H. frenatus co-occurs with, and at many sites now greatly out-numbers, native geckos. We measured prevalence and intensity of Geckobia mites (introduced with H. frenatus), and Waddycephalus (a native pentastome). We recorded a new invasive mite species, and several new host associations for native mites and geckos, but we found no evidence of mite transmission between native and invasive geckos. In contrast, native Waddycephalus nymphs were commonly present in H. frenatus, demonstrating this parasite's capacity to utilize H. frenatus as a novel host. Prevalence of mites on H. frenatus decreased with distance from the urban edge, suggesting parasite release towards the invasion front; however, we found no evidence that mites affect H. frenatus body condition or lifespan. Waddycephalus was present at low prevalence in bushland sites and, although its presence did not affect host body condition, our data suggest that it may reduce host survival. The high relative density of H. frenatus at our sites, and their capacity to harbour Waddycephalus, suggests that there may be impacts on native geckos and snakes through parasite spillback.
DSM-5 proposes an Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (APS) for further investigation, based upon the Attenuated Positive Symptom Syndrome (APSS) in the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS). SIPS Unusual Thought Content, Disorganized Communication and Total Disorganization scores predicted progression to psychosis in a 2015 NAPLS-2 Consortium report. We sought to independently replicate this in a large single-site high-risk cohort, and identify baseline demographic and clinical predictors beyond current APS/APSS criteria.
We prospectively studied 200 participants meeting criteria for both the SIPS APSS and DSM-5 APS. SIPS scores, demographics, family history of psychosis, DSM Axis-I diagnoses, schizotypy, and social and role functioning were assessed at baseline, with follow-up every 3 months for 2 years.
The conversion rate was 30% (n = 60), or 37.7% excluding participants who were followed under 2 years. This rate was stable across time. Conversion time averaged 7.97 months for 60% who developed schizophrenia and 15.68 for other psychoses. Mean conversion age was 20.3 for males and 23.5 for females. Attenuated odd ideas and thought disorder appear to be the positive symptoms which best predict psychosis in a logistic regression. Total negative symptom score, Asian/Pacific Islander and Black/African-American race were also predictive. As no Axis-I diagnosis or schizotypy predicted conversion, the APS is supported as a distinct syndrome. In addition, cannabis use disorder did not increase risk of conversion to psychosis.
NAPLS SIPS findings were replicated while controlling for clinical and demographic factors, strongly supporting the validity of the SIPS APSS and DSM-5 APS diagnosis.
During puberty young people undergo significant hormonal changes which affect metabolism and, subsequently, health. Evidence suggests there is a period of transient pubertal insulin resistance, with this effect greater in girls than boys. However, the response to everyday high and low glycaemic index (GI) meals remains unknown. Following ethical approval, forty adolescents consumed a high GI or low GI breakfast, in a randomised cross-over design. Capillary blood samples were taken during a 2-h postprandial period, examining the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. Maturity offset and homoeostatic model assessment (HOMA) were also calculated. The glycaemic response to the breakfasts was similar between boys and girls, as shown by similar peak blood glucose concentrations and incremental AUC (IAUC) following both high and low GI breakfasts (all P>0·05). Girls exhibited a higher peak plasma insulin concentration 30 min post-breakfast following both high GI (P=0·043, g=0·69) and low GI (P=0·010, g=0·84) breakfasts, as well as a greater IAUC following high GI (P=0·041, g=0·66) and low GI (P=0·041, g=0·66) breakfasts. HOMA was positively correlated with the insulinaemic responses (all P<0·0005) and maturity offset (P=0·037). The findings of the present study suggest that pubertal insulin resistance affects the postprandial insulinaemic responses to both high and low GI meals. Specifically, girls exhibit a greater insulinaemic response than boys to both meals, despite similar glycaemic responses. This study is the first to report the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to everyday meals in boys and girls, supporting the recommendation for young people to base their diet on low GI carbohydrates.
The asymmetry observed in the H-Lyα profiles measured near the Jovian equatorial limbs by the STIS/HST spectrograph is interpreted as due to H atoms propagating in the upper Jovian atmosphere with velocities ~ 80 km/s relative to Jupiter’s rotation. A qualitative scenario is suggested to correlate these energetic H atoms to energetic neutral particles recently detected by Cassini at higher altitudes.
Since 2004 there has been mounting evidence of the severe impact of introduced house mice (Mus musculus L.) killing chicks of burrow-nesting petrels at Gough Island. We monitored seven species of burrow-nesting petrels in 2014 using a combination of infra-red video cameras augmented by burrowscope nest inspections. All seven camera-monitored Atlantic petrel (Pterodroma incerta Schlegel) chicks were killed by mice within hours of hatching (average 7.2±4.0 hours) with an 87% chick failure rate (n=83 hatchlings). Several grey petrel (Procellaria cinerea Gmelin) chicks were found with mouse wounds and 60% of chicks failed (n=35 hatchlings). Video surveillance revealed one (of seven nests filmed) fatal attack on a great shearwater (Puffinus gravis O’Reilly) chick and two (of nine) on soft-plumaged petrel (Pterodroma mollis Gould) chicks. Mice killed the chicks of the recently discovered summer-breeding MacGillivray’s prion (Pachyptila macgillivrayi Mathews), with a chick mortality rate of 82% in 2013/14 and 100% in 2014/15. The closely-related broad-billed prion (P. vittata Forster) breeds in late winter and also had a chick mortality rate of 100% in 2014. The results provide further evidence of the dire situation for seabirds nesting on Gough Island and the urgent need for mouse eradication.
Precipitation of amorphous silica (SiO2) in geothermal power plants, although a common factor limiting the efficiency of geothermal energy production, is poorly understood and no universally applicable mitigation strategy to prevent or reduce precipitation is available. This is primarily due to the lack of understanding of the precipitation mechanism of amorphous silica in geothermal systems.
In the present study data are presented about microstructures and compositions of precipitates formed on scaling plates inserted at five different locations in the pipelines at the Hellisheiði power station (SW-Iceland). Precipitates on these plates formed over 6 to 8 weeks of immersion in hot (120 or 60ºC), fast-flowing and silica-supersaturated geothermal fluids (~800 ppm of SiO2). Although the composition of the precipitates is fairly homogeneous, with silica being the dominant component and Fe sulfides as a less common phase, the microstructures of the precipitates are highly variable and dependent on the location within the geothermal pipelines. The silica precipitates have grown through aggregation and precipitation of silica particles that precipitated homogeneously in the geothermal fluid. Five main factors were identified that may control the precipitation of silica: (1) temperature, (2) fluid composition, (3) fluid-flow regime, (4) distance along the flow path, and (5) immersion time.
On all scaling plates, a corrosion layer was found underlying the silica precipitates indicating that, once formed, the presence of a silica layer probably protects the steel pipe surface against further corrosion. Yet silica precipitates influence the flow of the geothermal fluids and therefore can limit the efficiency of geothermal power stations.
Results are reported here of an investigation into the effects of three carboxylic acid additives (tartaric, maleic and citric acids) on the precipitation of calcium sulfate phases. Precipitation reactions were followed at pH 7 in the pure CaSO4 system and in experiments with 0–20 ppm carboxylic acids added using in situ UV-VIS spectrophotometry (turbidity). The solid products were characterized in terms of their mineralogical composition, using X-ray diffraction, during and at the end of each reaction, and in terms of their morphological features, by scanning electron microscopy. All additives increased the time needed for turbidity to develop (induction time, start of precipitation) and the comparison between additive and additive-free experiments showed that, at equivalent concentrations, citric acid performed far better than the other two carboxylic acids. In all cases bassanite precipitated first and with time it transformed to gypsum. The addition of citrate stabilized bassanite and changed the final gypsum habit from typical needle-like crystals in the pure CaSO4 system to plates in the citrate-additive experiments.
A new route for atom-economical synthesis of functional polymers was developed. Oxidative polycoupling of 3,5-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrazole with 4,4’-(α,ω-alkylenedioxy) bis(diphenylacetylene)s and 1,2-diphenyl-1,2-bis[4-(phenylethynyl)phenyl]ethene, respectively, were catalyzed by [Cp*RhCl2]2, 1,2,3,4-tetraphenylcyclopenta-1,3-diene and copper(II) acetate in dimethylformamide under stoichiometric imbalance conditions, affording soluble poly(pyrazolylnaphthalene)s in satisfactory yields (isolation yield up to 82%) with high molecular weights (Mw up to 35700). All the polymers were thermally stable, losing little of their weight at high temperatures of 323–422 oC. They possessed good film-forming property and their thin solid films showed high refractive indices (RI = 1.747–1.593) in a wide wavelength region of 400−1000 nm. The polymer carrying tetraphenylethene unit displayed a phenomenon of aggregation-induced emission and showed enhanced light emission in the aggregated state.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
The challenges associated with meeting 20nm technology requirements for better Cu CMP process uniformity and lower defectivity have been studied. Required improvements in uniformity were obtained through platen process optimization along with evaluation & selection of specific Cu slurries and pads and their performance reported. The principal factors influencing defect formation, including Cu barrier metallurgy, interconnect pattern density and process queue times were studied. Specific new post CMP clean chemistries were evaluated to assess their capability to suppress defect formation and their performance reported. The trade off between uniformity and defect suppression as a function slurry, pad and post Cu CMP clean chemistry is described.
Aragonite can grow from calcium carbonate solutions as the favored phase, at ambient conditions, in the presence of 1:1 volume % water:ethanol. Its form is single and branched needles, with pseudohexagonal symmetry. Morphological evidence demonstrates that all precipitated aragonite is twinned. The recently popularized hypothesis of nonclassical growth by nanocrystal self assembly cannot describe the aragonite crystal form. Rather, its formation is effectively described as spherulitic growth, i.e. by classical crystal growth theory.