To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Just like humans, animals and plants suffer from infectious diseases, which can critically threaten biodiversity. This book describes key studies that have driven our understanding of the ecology and evolution of wildlife diseases. Each chapter introduces the host and disease, and explains how that system has aided our general understanding of the evolution and spread of wildlife diseases, through the development and testing of important epidemiological and evolutionary theories. Questions addressed include: How do hosts and parasites co-evolve? What determines how fast a disease spreads through a population? How do co-infecting parasites interact? Why do hosts vary in parasite burden? Which factors determine parasite virulence and host resistance? How do parasites influence the spread of invasive species? How do we control infectious diseases in wildlife? This book will provide a valuable introduction to students new to the topic, and novel insights to researchers, professionals and policymakers working in the field.
Glioblastomas are the most frequent and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults and despite recent therapeutic advances, they are resistant to treatment. Increasing malignancy of gliomas correlates with an increase in cellularity and a poorly organized tumor vasculature, leading to insufficient blood supply, hypoxic areas, and ultimately to the formation of necrosis. Hypoxia induces direct or indirect changes in the biology of solid tumor and their microenvironment through the activation of HIF transcription factors, leading to increased aggressiveness and tumor resistance to therapy. Not much is known about the epigenetic alterations induced by hypoxia and how they could alter tumor biology. In the present study, we have utilized PIMO as a specific marker of hypoxia in glioblastoma patients, treated with PIMO preoperatively. We have estimated PIMO positivity in each tumor (5-45%) and determined that it positively correlates with the hypoxia marker CA IX (r=0.57). In addition, 10 surgical PIMO cases were dissociated, immune labeled using PIMO antibody, followed by DNA isolation and methylation profiling. Our analysis of differentially top 4000 differentially methylated probes suggests that PIMO-positive (hypoxic) cells are differentially methylated compared to the PIMO-negative cells and these changes are associated with genes involved in hypoxic cellular response. We will validate these findings in additional glioblastoma cases and assess the mechanism of these epigenetic alterations in vitro in glioma stem cell culture conditions and upon exposure of the cells hypoxic conditions.
The success of scaling out depends on a clear understanding of the factors that affect adoption of grain legumes and account for the dynamism of those factors across heterogeneous contexts of sub-Saharan Africa. We reviewed literature on adoption of grain legumes and other technologies in sub-Saharan Africa and other developing countries. Our review enabled us to define broad factors affecting different components of the scaling out programme of N2Africa and the scales at which those factors were important. We identified three strategies for managing those factors in the N2Africa scaling out programme: (i) testing different technologies and practices; (ii) evaluating the performance of different technologies in different contexts; and (iii) monitoring factors that are difficult to predict. We incorporated the review lessons in a design to appropriately target and evaluate technologies in multiple contexts across scales from that of the farm to whole countries. Our implementation of this design has only been partially successful because of competing reasons for selecting activity sites. Nevertheless, we observe that grain legume species have been successfully targeted for multiple biophysical environments across sub-Saharan Africa, and to social and economic contexts within countries. Rhizobium inoculant and legume specific fertiliser blends have also been targeted to specific contexts, although not in all countries. Relatively fewer input and output marketing models have been tested due to public–private partnerships, which are a key mechanism for dissemination in the N2Africa project.
The Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics (ACAP) co-ordinates the activities of the six Australian research institutions and a group of industrial partners in the Australia-US Institute for Advanced Photovoltaics (AUSIAPV) to develop the next generations of photovoltaic device technology and to provide a pipeline of opportunities for performance increase and cost reduction. AUSIAPV links ACAP with US-based partners. These national and international research collaborations provide a pathway for highly visible, structured photovoltaic research collaboration between Australian and US researchers, institutes and agencies with significant joint programs based on the clear synergies between the participating organizations. The research program is organized in five collaborative Program Packages (PPs). PP1 deals with silicon wafer-based cells, focusing on three main areas: cells from solar grade silicon, rear contact and silicon-based tandem cells. PP2 involves research into a range of organic solar cells, organic/inorganic hybrid cells, "earth abundant" thin-film materials and "third generation" approaches. PP3 is concerned with optics and characterization. PP4 will deliver a substantiated methodology for assessing manufacturing costs of the different technologies and PP5 involves education, training and outreach. The main research topics, results and plans for the future are presented.
People from lower socioeconomic groups have a higher risk of mortality. The impact of low socioeconomic status on survival among older adults with dementia and depression remains unclear.
To investigate the association between socioeconomic status and mortality in people with dementia and late-life depression in China.
Using Geriatric Mental Status – Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy (GMS-AGECAT) we interviewed 2978 people aged ⩾60 years in Anhui, China. We characterised baseline socioeconomic status and risk factors and diagnosed 223 people with dementia and 128 with depression. All-cause mortality was followed up over 5.6 years.
Individuals with dementia living in rural areas had a three times greater risk of mortality (multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.96, 95% CI 1.45–6.04) than those in urban areas, and for those with depression the HR was 4.15 (95% CI 1.59–10.83). There were similar mortality rates when comparing people with dementia with low v. high levels of education, occupation and income, but individuals with depression with low v. high levels had non-significant increases in mortality of 11%, 50% and 55% respectively.
Older adults with dementia and depression living in rural China had a significantly higher risk of mortality than urban counterparts. Interventions should be implemented in rural areas to tackle survival inequality in dementia and depression.
Determinants for undetected dementia and late-life depression have been not well studied.
To investigate risk factors for undetected dementia and depression in older communities.
Using the method of the 10/66 algorithm, we interviewed a random sample of 7072 participants aged ⩽60 years in six provinces of China during 2007–2011. We documented doctor-diagnosed dementia and depression in the interview. Using the validated 10/66 algorithm we diagnosed dementia (n = 359) and depression (n = 328).
We found that 93.1% of dementia and 92.5% of depression was undetected. Both undetected dementia and depression were significantly associated with low levels of education and occupation, and living in a rural area. The risk of undetected dementia was also associated with ‘help available when needed‘, and inversely, with a family history of mental illness and having functional impairment. Undetected depression was significantly related to female gender, low income, having more children and inversely with having heart disease.
Older adults in China have high levels of undetected dementia and depression. General socioeconomic improvement, associated with mental health education, targeting high-risk populations are likely to increase detection of dementia and depression in older adults, providing a backdrop for culturally acceptable service development.
Depression is a common and costly comorbidity in dementia. There are very few data on the cost-effectiveness of antidepressants for depression in dementia and their effects on carer outcomes.
To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of sertraline and mirtazapine compared with placebo for depression in dementia.
A pragmatic, multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial with a parallel cost-effectiveness analysis (trial registration: ISRCTN88882979 and EudraCT 2006-000105-38). The primary cost-effectiveness analysis compared differences in treatment costs for patients receiving sertraline, mirtazapine or placebo with differences in effectiveness measured by the primary outcome, total Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) score, over two time periods: 0–13 weeks and 0–39 weeks. The secondary evaluation was a cost-utility analysis using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) computed from the Euro-Qual (EQ-5D) and societal weights over those same periods.
There were 339 participants randomised and 326 with costs data (111 placebo, 107 sertraline, 108 mirtazapine). For the primary outcome, decrease in depression, mirtazapine and sertraline were not cost-effective compared with placebo. However, examining secondary outcomes, the time spent by unpaid carers caring for participants in the mirtazapine group was almost half that for patients receiving placebo (6.74 v. 12.27 hours per week) or sertraline (6.74 v. 12.32 hours per week). Informal care costs over 39 weeks were £1510 and £1522 less for the mirtazapine group compared with placebo and sertraline respectively.
In terms of reducing depression, mirtazapine and sertraline were not cost-effective for treating depression in dementia. However, mirtazapine does appear likely to have been cost-effective if costing includes the impact on unpaid carers and with quality of life included in the outcome. Unpaid (family) carer costs were lower with mirtazapine than sertraline or placebo. This may have been mediated via the putative ability of mirtazapine to ameliorate sleep disturbances and anxiety. Given the priority and the potential value of supporting family carers of people with dementia, further research is warranted to investigate the potential of mirtazapine to help with behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia and in supporting carers.
In order to quantify the impact of parasites on host population dynamics, experimental manipulations that perturb the parasite-host relationship are needed but, logistically, this is difficult for wild hosts. Here, we describe the use of a delayed-release anthelmintic delivery system that can be administered when the hosts can be captured and its activity delayed until a more appropriate period in the host-parasite cycle. Our model system is Svalbard reindeer infected with a nematode parasite, Marshallagia marshalli, which appears to accumulate during the Arctic winter. To determine the extent to which this occurs and the effect on host fitness, reindeer need to be treated with anthelmintics in late autumn but they can only be caught and handled in April. To solve this problem, we devised an intra-ruminal capsule that releases the anthelmintic from up to 6 months after being administered. The capsule was trialed in cannulated sheep and red deer to determine optimum capsule orifice size and release rates. Capsules were estimated to release placebo for 100–153 days followed by abamectin for 22–34 days. To test the efficacy of treatment in reindeer, capsules were administered in April and retrieved in October. All capsules had fully released the anthelmintic and treated reindeer had significantly lower worm burdens than controls. Thus, success of this system allows repeated treatment over several years to test the effect of winter parasitism on host fitness.
Alcohol-related brain damage has a growing impact on service provision.
Despite the benefit of therapeutic interventions and a relatively good
prognosis in the context of service provision, few services exist. Both
national and local initiatives are required in order to provide psychosocial
rehabilitation for this marginalised group of patients.