Abate, T., Shiferaw, B., Gebeyehu, S., Amsalu, B., Negash, K., Assefa, K., Eshete, M., Aliye, S. and Hagmann, J. (2011). A systems and partnership approach to agricultural research for development: Lessons from Ethiopia. Outlook on Agriculture 40:213–220.
Ajayi, O. C., Akinnifesi, F. K., Sileshi, G. and Chakeredza, S. (2007). Adoption of renewable soil fertility replenishment technologies in the southern African region: Lessons learnt and the way forward. Natural Resources Forum 31:306–317.
Ajeigbe, H. A., Singh, B. B., Adeosun, J. O. and Ezeaku, I. E. (2010). Participatory on-farm evaluation of improved legume-cereals cropping systems for crop-livestock farmers: Maize-double cowpea in Northern Guinea Savanna Zone of Nigeria. African Journal of Agricultural Research 5:2080–2088.
Alene, A. D. and Manyong, V. M. (2006). Endogenous technology adoption and household food security: The case of improved cowpea varieties in northern Nigeria. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture 45:211–230.
Amare, M., Asfaw, S. and Shiferaw, B. (2012). Welfare impacts of maize-pigeonpea intensification in Tanzania. Agricultural Economics 43:27–43.
Andersson, J. A. and D'souza, S. (2014). From adoption claims to understanding farmers and contexts: A literature review of Conservation Agriculture (CA) adoption among smallholder farmers in southern Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 187:116–132.
Asareca (2005). Fighting poverty, reducing hunger and enhancing resources through regional collective action in agricultural research for development. Entebbe, Uganda, ASARECA (Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa) Strategic Plan 2005–2015.
Bamire, A. S., Fabiyi, Y. L. and Manyong, V. M. (2002). Adoption pattern of fertiliser technology among farmers in the ecological zones of south-western Nigeria: A Tobit analysis. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 53:901–910.
Banadda, N. (2010). Gaps, barriers and bottlenecks to sustainable land management (SLM) adoption in Uganda. African Journal of Agricultural Research 5:3571–3580.
Bantilan, M. C. S. and Johansen, C. (1995). Research evaluation and impact analysis of biological nitrogen fixation. Plant and Soil 174:279–286.
Birner, R., Davis, K., Pender, J., Nkonya, E., Anandajayasekeram, P., Ekboir, J., Mbabu, A., Spielman, D. J., Horna, D., Benin, S. and Cohen, M. (2009). From best practice to best fit: A framework for designing and analyzing pluralistic agricultural advisory services worldwide. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension 15:341–355.
Bohlool, B. B., Ladha, J. K., Garrity, D. P. and George, T. (1992). Biological nitrogen fixation for sustainable agriculture: A perspective. Plant and Soil 141:1–11.
Boys, K., Faye, M., Fulton, J. and Lowenberg-Deboer, J. (2007). The economic impact of cowpea research in Senegal: An ex-post analysis with disadoption. Agricultural Economics 36:363–375.
Chianu, J. N., Nkonya, E. M., Mairura, F. S., Chianu, J. N. and Akinnifesi, F. K. (2011). Biological nitrogen fixation and socioeconomic factors for legume production in sub-Saharan Africa: A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 31:139–154.
David, S., Mukandala, L. and Mafuru, J. (2002). Seed availability, an ignored factor in crop varietal adoption studies: A case study of beans in Tanzania. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 21:5–20.
Ellis-Jones, J., Schulz, S., Chikoye, D., De Haan, N., Kormawa, P. and Adezwa, D. (2005). Participatory research and extension approaches: a guide for researchers and extension workers for involving farmers in research and development, Ibadan, Nigeria and Silsoe, UK, IITA and Silsoe Research Institute, UK.
Farrow, A. (2014). Review of Conditioning Factors and Constraints to Legume Adoption, and Their Management in Phase II of N2Africa. Wageningen, Netherlands: Wageningen University.
Farrow, A., Opondo, C., Rao, K. P. C., Tenywa, M., Njeru, R., Kashaija, I., Kamugisha, R., Ramazani, M., Nkonya, E., Kayiranga, D., Lunze, L., Nabahungu, L., Kamale, K., Mugabo, J. and Mutabazi, S. (2013). Selecting sites to prove the concept of IAR4D in the Lake Kivu Pilot learning site. African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 8:101–119.
Farrow, A., Wolde-Meskel, E., Adjei-Nsiah, S., Sangodele, E., Kamara, A., Nkeki, K., Baijukya, F. and Ebanyat, P. (2014). N2Africa Action Areas in Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda in 2014, Wageningen, Netherlands: GeAgrofía, IITA, WUR.
Franke, A. C., Baijukya, F., Kantengwa, S., Reckling, M., Vanlauwe, B. and Giller, K. E. (2019). Poor farmers – poor yields: Socio-economic, soil fertility and crop management indicators affecting climbing bean productivity in northern Rwanda. Experimental Agriculture 55 (S1):1434.
Franke, A. C., Rufino, M. C. and Farrow, A. (2011). Characterisation of the Impact Zones and Mandate Areas in the N2Africa Project. Wageningen: Wageningen University.
Franke, A. C., Van Den Brand, G. J. and Giller, K. E. (2014). Which farmers benefit most from sustainable intensification? An ex-ante impact assessment of expanding grain legume production in Malawi. European Journal of Agronomy 58:28–38.
Franzel, S., Cooper, P. and Denning, G. L. (2001). Scaling up the benefits of agroforestry research: Lessons learned and research challenges. Development in Practice 11:524–534.
Franzel, S., Scherr, S. J., Coe, R., Cooper, P. J. M. and Place, F. (2002). Methods for assessing agroforestry adoption potential. In Trees on the Farm: Assessing the Adoption Potential of Agroforestry Practices in Malawi, 11–35. (Eds Franzel, S. and Scherr, S. J.). Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.
Freeman, H. A., Van Der Merwe, P. J. A., Subrahmanyam, P., Chiyembekeza, A. J. and Kaguongo, W. (2002). Assessing adoption potential of new groundnut varieties in Malawi. Experimental Agriculture 38:211–221.
Giller, K. E. (2001). Nitrogen Fixation in Tropical Cropping Systems, Wallingford: CABI Publishing.
Giller, K. E., Franke, A. C., Abaidoo, R., Baijukya, F., Bala, A., Boahen, S., Dashiell, K., Kantengwa, S., Sanginga, J.-M., Sanginga, N., Simmons, A. J., Turner, A., De Wolf, J., Woomer, P. and Vanlauwe, B. (2013). N2Africa: Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa. In Agro-ecological Intensification of Agricultural Systems in the African Highlands, 156–174. (Eds Vanlauwe, B., Van Asten, P. J. A. and Blomme, G.). London: Routledge.
Giller, K. E., Murwira, M. S., Dhliwayo, D. K. C., Mafongoya, P. L. and Mpepereki, S. (2011a). Soyabeans and sustainable agriculture in Southern Africa. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 9:50–58.
Giller, K. E., Tittonell, P., Rufino, M. C., Van Wijk, M. T., Zingore, S., Mapfumo, P., Adjei-Nsiah, S., Herrero, M., Chikowo, R., Corbeels, M., Rowe, E. C., Baijukya, F., Mwijage, A., Smith, J., Yeboah, E., Van Der Burg, W. J., Sanogo, O. M., Misiko, M., De Ridder, N., Karanja, S., Kaizzi, C., K'ungu, J., Mwale, M., Nwaga, D., Pacini, C. and Vanlauwe, B. (2011b). Communicating complexity: Integrated assessment of trade-offs concerning soil fertility management within African farming systems to support innovation and development. Agricultural Systems 104:191–203.
Haddaway, N. R., Woodcock, P., Macura, B. and Collins, A. (2015). Making literature reviews more reliable through application of lessons from systematic reviews. Conservation Biology 29:1596–1605.
Haigis, J., Wezel, A., Rath, T., Graef, F., Muehlig-Versen, B., Abele, S., Frick, T. and Neef, A. (1998). An interdisciplinary approach to evaluate technology options for small scale farming in Niger. In The Evaluation of Technical and Institutional Options for Small Farmers in West Africa, 23–40. (Eds Lawrence, P., Renard, G. and Von Oppen, M.). Weikersheim, Germany: Margraf Verlag.
Homann-Kee Tui, S., Blümmel, M., Valbuena, D., Chirima, A., Masikati, P., Van Rooyen, A. F. and Kassie, G. T. (2013). Assessing the potential of dual-purpose maize in southern Africa: A multi-level approach. Field Crops Research 153:37–51.
Hopkins, A. G. (2009). The new economic history of Africa. The Journal of African History 50:155–177.
Johansson, K.-E., Axelsson, R., Kimanzu, N., Sassi, S., Bwana, E. and Otsyina, R. (2013). The pattern and process of adoption and scaling up: Variation in project outcome reveals the importance of multilevel collaboration in agroforestry development. Sustainability 5:5195.
Jones, R. B. and Rakotoarisaona, J. J. (2007). Supporting the development of sustainable seed systems for nonhybrid crops. In I International Conference on Indigenous Vegetables and Legumes. Prospectus for Fighting Poverty, Hunger and Malnutrition, Vol. Acta Horticulturae 752, 77–81 (Eds Chadha, M. I., Kuo, G. and Gowda, C. L. L.).
Kamanga, B. C. G., Kanyama-Phiri, G. Y., Waddington, S. R., Almekinders, C. J. M. and Giller, K. E. (2014). The evaluation and adoption of annual legumes by smallholder maize farmers for soil fertility maintenance and food diversity in central Malawi. Food Security 6:45–59.
Kelly, V., Adesina, A. A. and Gordon, A. (2003). Expanding access to agricultural inputs in Africa: A review of recent market development experience. Food Policy 28:379.
Kerr, R. B., Snapp, S., Chirwa, M., Shumba, L. and Msachi, R. (2007). Participatory research on legume diversification with Malawian smallholder farmers for improved human nutrition and soil fertility. Experimental Agriculture 43:437–453.
Kristjanson, P., Place, F., Franzel, S. and Thornton, P. K. (2002). Assessing research impact on poverty: The importance of farmers' perspectives. Agricultural Systems 72:73–92.
Linn, J. (ed.) (2012). Scaling Up in Agriculture, Rural Development and Nutrition. Washington, DC: IFPRI.
Lynam, J. K. and Twomlow, S. (2014). A twenty-first-century balancing act: Smallholder farm technology and cost-effective research. In New Directions for Smallholder Agriculture, 30 (Eds Hazell, P. B. R. and Rahman, A.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Menter, H., Kaaria, S., Johnson, N. and Ashby, J. (2004). Scaling up. In Scaling Up and Out: Achieving Widespread Impact through Agricultural Research, 9–23 (Eds Pachico, D. and Fujisaka, S.) Cali, Colombia: Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT).
Mhango, W. G., Snapp, S. S. and Phiri, G. Y. K. (2013). Opportunities and constraints to legume diversification for sustainable maize production on smallholder farms in Malawi. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 28:234–244.
Mutuma, S. (2013). Farmer Perceptions, Use and Profitability of Biofix® On Soybean (Glycine Max) Production in Western Kenya. Master of Science in Sustainable Soil Resource Management, University of Nairobi.
Ndah, H. T., Schuler, J., Uthes, S., Zander, P., Triomphe, B., Mkomwa, S. and Corbeels, M. (2015). Adoption potential for conservation agriculture in africa: A newly developed assessment approach (QAToCA) applied in Kenya and Tanzania. Land Degradation and Development 26:133–141.
Notenbaert, A., Herrero, M., De Groote, H., You, L., Gonzalez-Estrada, E. and Blummel, M. (2013). Identifying recommendation domains for targeting dual-purpose maize-based interventions in crop-livestock systems in East Africa. Land Use Policy 30:834–846.
Nyemeck Binam, J., Abdoulaye, T., Olarinde, L., Kamara, A. and Adekunle, A. (2011). Assessing the potential impact of integrated agricultural research for development (IAR4D) on adoption of improved cereal-legume crop varieties in the Sudan Savannah zone of Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural and Food Information 12:177–198.
Ojiem, J. O., De Ridder, N., Vanlauwe, B. and Giller, K. E. (2006). Socio-ecological niche: A conceptual framework for integration of legumes in smallholder farming systems. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 4:79–93.
Ojiem, J. O., Vanlauwe, B., De Ridder, N. and Giller, K. E. (2007). Niche-based assessment of contributions of legumes to the nitrogen economy of Western Kenya smallholder farms. Plant and Soil 292:119–135.
Okike, I., Kristjanson, P., Tarawali, S., Singh, B. B., Kruska, R. and Manyong, V. M. (2000) An evaluation of potential adoption and diffusion of improved cowpea in the dry savannas of Nigeria: A combination of participatory and structured approaches. In: World Cowpea Research Conference III, 387–406 IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Pattanayak, S. K., Mercer, D. E., Sills, E. and Yang, J. C. (2003). Taking stock of agroforestry adoption studies. Agroforestry Systems 57:173–186.
Place, F. and Dewees, P. (1999). Policies and incentives for the adoption of improved fallows. Agroforestry Systems 47:323–343.
Ronner, E., Franke, A. C., Vanlauwe, B., Dianda, M., Edeh, E., Ukem, B., Bala, A., Van Heerwaarden, J. and Giller, K. E. (2016). Understanding variability in soybean yield and response to P-fertilizer and rhizobium inoculants on farmers’ fields in northern Nigeria. Field Crops Research 186:133–145.
Rosenstock, T. S., Mpanda, M., Rioux, J., Aynekulu, E., Kimaro, A. A., Neufeldt, H., Shepherd, K. D. and Luedeling, E. (2014). Targeting conservation agriculture in the context of livelihoods and landscapes. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 187:47–51.
Schut, M., Van Asten, P., Okafor, C., Hicintuka, C., Mapatano, S., Nabahungu, N., Kagabo, D., Muchunguzi, P., Njukwe, E., Dontsop-Nguezet, P. M., Sartas, M. and Vanlauwe, B. (2016). Sustainable intensification of agricultural systems in the central African Highlands: The need for institutional innovation. Agricultural Systems 145:165–176.
Shelton, H. M., Franzel, S. and Peters, M. (2005). Adoption of tropical legume technology around the world: Analysis of success. Tropical Grasslands 39:198–209.
Shiferaw, B. A., Kebede, T. A. and You, L. (2008b). Technology adoption under seed access constraints and the economic impacts of improved pigeonpea varieties in Tanzania. Agricultural Economics 39:309–323.
Shiferaw, B., Obare, G. and Muricho, G. (2008a). Rural market imperfections and the role of institutions in collective action to improve markets for the poor. Natural Resources Forum 32:25–38.
Sirrine, D., Shennan, C. and Sirrine, J. R. (2010). Comparing agroforestry systems' ex ante adoption potential and ex post adoption: On-farm participatory research from southern Malawi. Agroforestry Systems 79:253–266.
Snapp, S. S., Rohrbach, D. D., Simtowe, F. and Freeman, H. A. (2002b). Sustainable soil management options for Malawi: Can smallholder farmers grow more legumes? Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 91:159–174.
Snapp, S., Kanyama-Phiri, G., Kamanga, B., Gilbert, R. and Wellard, K. (2002a). Farmer and researcher partnerships in Malawi: Developing soil fertility technologies for the near-term and far-term. Experimental Agriculture 38:411–431.
Sperling, L. and Boettiger, S. (2013). Impacts of Selling Seed in Small Packs: Evidence from Legume Sales. Basel, Switzerland: AgPartnerXChange.
Spielman, D. J., Davis, K., Negash, M. and Ayele, G. (2011). Rural innovation systems and networks: Findings from a study of Ethiopian smallholders. Agriculture and Human Values 28:195–212.
Sumberg, J. (2005). Constraints to the adoption of agricultural innovations: Is it time for a re-think? Outlook on Agriculture 34:7–10.
Tittonell, P., Muriuki, A., Shepherd, K. D., Mugendi, D., Kaizzi, K. C., Okeyo, J., Verchot, L., Coe, R. and Vanlauwe, B. (2010). The diversity of rural livelihoods and their influence on soil fertility in agricultural systems of East Africa – A typology of smallholder farms. Agricultural Systems 103:83–97.
Tittonell, P., Scopel, E., Andrieu, N., Posthumus, H., Mapfumo, P., Corbeels, M., Van Halsema, G. E., Lahmar, R., Lugandu, S., Rakotoarisoa, J., Mtambanengwe, F., Pound, B., Chikowo, R., Naudin, K., Triomphe, B. and Mkomwa, S. (2012). Agroecology-based aggradation-conservation agriculture (ABACO): Targeting innovations to combat soil degradation and food insecurity in semi-arid Africa. Field Crops Research 132:168–174.
Tittonell, P., Vanlauwe, B., Misiko, M. and Giller, K. E. (2011). Targeting resources within diverse, heterogeneous and dynamic farming systems: Towards a ‘Uniquely African Green Revolution’. In Innovations as Key to the Green Revolution in Africa, 747–758. (Eds Bationo, A., Waswa, B., Okeyo, J. M., Maina, F. and Kihara, J. M.). Netherlands: Springer.
Uvin, P. (1995). Fighting hunger at the grassroots: Paths to scaling up. World Development 23:927–939.
Van Wijk, M. T. (2014). From global economic modelling to household level analyses of food security and sustainability: How big is the gap and can we bridge it? Food Policy 49:378–388.
Wambugu, C., Place, F. and Franzel, S. (2011). Research, development and scaling-up the adoption of fodder shrub innovations in East Africa. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 9:100–109.
Wauters, E. and Mathijs, E. (2014). The adoption of farm level soil conservation practices in developed countries: A meta-analytic review. International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology 10:78–102.
Weber, G. (1996). Legume-based technologies for african savannas: Challenges for research and development. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 13:309–333.
Weber, G., Smith, J. and Manyong, M. V. (1996). System dynamics and the definition of research domains for the northern Guinea savanna of West Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 57:133–148.
World Bank, T. (2009). World Development Report 2009. Reshaping Economic Geography. Washington DC: The World Bank.