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The structural changes recent-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subjects were rarely investigated. This study was to compare temporal and causal relationships of structural changes in recent-onset PTSD with trauma-exposed control (TEC) subjects and non-TEC subjects.
T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of 27 PTSD, 33 TEC and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) subjects were studied. The causal network of structural covariance was used to evaluate the causal relationships of structural changes in PTSD patients.
Volumes of bilateral hippocampal and left lingual gyrus were significantly smaller in PTSD patients and TEC subjects than HC subjects. As symptom scores increase, reduction in gray matter volume began in the hippocampus and progressed to the frontal lobe, then to the temporal and occipital cortices (p < 0.05, false discovery rate corrected). The hippocampus might be the primary hub of the directional network and demonstrated positive causal effects on the frontal, temporal and occipital regions (p < 0.05, false discovery rate corrected). The frontal regions, which were identified to be transitional points, projected causal effects to the occipital lobe and temporal regions and received causal effects from the hippocampus (p < 0.05, false discovery rate corrected).
The results offer evidence of localized abnormalities in the bilateral hippocampus and remote abnormalities in multiple temporal and frontal regions in typhoon-exposed PTSD patients.
The search space of the path planning problem can greatly affect the running time and memory consumption, for example, the concave obstacle in grid-based map usually leads to the invalid search space. In this paper, the filling container algorithm is proposed to alleviate the concave area problem in 2D map space, which is inspired from the scenario of pouring water into a cup. With this method, concave areas can be largely excluded by scanning the map repeatedly. And the effectiveness has been proved in our experiments.
Noble metal (Ag, Au) nanoparticles (NPs) deposited on the surface of three-dimensional (3D) materials are promising 3D surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates. In this work, the authors reported the preparation of 3D wax/silica/Ag(Au) colloidosomes by sulfonic acid group–terminated silica spheres (SiO2–SO3H) combined with a Pickering emulsion technique, as well as seed-mediated growth method of noble metal NPs. The presence of –SO3H group on the silica spheres not only improves significantly the quality of wax/silica colloidosomes (forming perfect silica shell around wax droplet) but also can adsorb metal precursor ions via electrostatic attraction for further growth of metal NPs. The size and coverage of Ag(Au) NPs on wax/silica droplets can be facilely tuned, and relevant wax/silica/Ag(Au) colloidosomes and silica/Ag(Au) Janus particles are obtained via this strategy. The obtained wax/silica/Ag colloidosomes as 3D SERS substrates exhibited excellent SERS enhancement ability and detection limit of 4-aminothiophenol reached 10−9 M.
BaTiO3-based lead-free piezoelectric materials have long been known as “a mediocre class of piezoelectric materials.” However, they have seen significant renewed interest in recent years ever since the discovery of high piezoelectricity in Ba(Zr, Ti)O3-(Ba, Ca)TiO3 as well as the related Ba(Sn, Ti)O3-(Ba, Ca)TiO3 and Ba(Hf, Ti)O3-(Ba, Ca)TiO3 systems. The unexpectedly high piezoelectricity in this class of BaTiO3 (BT)-based materials is still not well understood and has stimulated significant research activity. We present a concise discussion of the notions leading to high piezoelectricity in BaTiO3-based systems. In particular, the possible role of a multiphase-coexisting point is highlighted.
The focus on piezoelectric ceramics based on the potassium sodium niobate system began in 2004. After years of dedicated research, these materials can be considered one of the most promising lead-free piezoceramics with comprehensive performance. While their structure–property relationships are still not completely understood, the thermal stability issue is partly resolved, which leaves further room for phase-boundary engineering. Technological advancement has recently focused on using base metals as inner electrodes for multilayer actuators, which provides cost benefits as compared to lead zirconate titanate devices. The remaining challenges, however, such as poor sinterability and weak reproducibility of functional properties, still hinder extensive applications of these materials.
In this study, we investigate a new simple scheme using a planar undulator (PU) together with a properly dispersed electron beam (
beam) with a large energy spread (
) to enhance the free-electron laser (FEL) gain. For a dispersed
beam in a PU, the resonant condition is satisfied for the center electrons, while the frequency detuning increases for the off-center electrons, inhibiting the growth of the radiation. The PU can act as a filter for selecting the electrons near the beam center to achieve the radiation. Although only the center electrons contribute, the radiation can be enhanced significantly owing to the high-peak current of the beam. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that this method can be used for the improvement of the radiation performance, which has great significance for short-wavelength FEL applications.
Shot-peened CM400 maraging steel was used to study the mechanism of enhanced notch fatigue properties of ultra-high strength materials. After shot peening, the specimen surface became rougher, but the transversal machining traces were reduced. The yield strength was slightly improved while the ultimate tensile strength and hardness maintained constant; as a result, the fatigue limit was promoted by about 1.5 times. The nucleated sites of the fatigue fracture were partly changed from the surface to subsurface/interior of the specimen. To further analyze the influencing factors of fatigue properties, the fatigue damage process may be resolved to two aspects: (a) fatigue damage rate affected by shear deformation and (b) fatigue damage tolerance controlled by the dilatation fracture process. Considering the stress state near the notch tip, the hydrostatic stress and maximum shear stress are considered for better understanding these two aspects. It is observed that the fatigue damage tolerance increased while the fatigue damage rate decreased after shot peening. Therefore, the notch fatigue properties of CM400 maraging steels can effectively be improved.
The oxidation behavior of nonstoichiometric Ti2AlCx (x = 0.69) powders synthesized by combustion synthesis was investigated in flowing air by means of simultaneous thermal gravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectroscopy, with an effect of powder size. The oxidation of the fine Ti2AlC powders with the size of about 1 μm starts at 300 °C and completes at 980 °C, while with increasing the powder size around 10 μm the corresponding temperature increases to 400 and 1040 °C, respectively. The oxidation of nonstoichiometric Ti2AlCx (x = 0.69) powders is controlled by surface reaction in 400–600 °C, and mainly diffusion in 600–900 °C, with the corresponding oxidation activation energy of 2.35 eV and 0.12 eV, respectively. In other words, the critical temperature of changing oxidation controlling step is around 600 °C. The oxidation products were mainly rutile-TiO2 and α-Al2O3. The tiny white flocculent particles of α-Al2O3 appeared on the surface of fine Ti2AlC powders and increased with increasing the oxidation temperature.
This article outlines the evolution of a rescue team in responding to adenovirus prevention with a deployable field hospital. The local governments mobilized a shelter hospital and a rescue team consisting of 59 members to assist with rescue and response efforts after an epidemic outbreak of adenovirus. We describe and evaluate the challenges of preparing for deployment, field hospital maintenance, treatment mode, and primary treatment methods. The field hospital established at the rescue scene consisted of a medical command vehicle, a computed tomography shelter, an X-ray shelter, a special laboratory shelter, an oxygen and electricity supply vehicle, and epidemic prevention and protection equipment. The rescue team comprised paramedics, physicians, X-ray technicians, respiratory therapists, and logistical personnel. In 22 days, more than 3000 patients with suspected adenovirus infection underwent initial examinations. All patients were properly treated, and no deaths occurred. After emergency measures were implemented, the spread of adenovirus was eventually controlled. An emergency involving infectious diseases in less-developed regions demands the rapid development of a field facility with specialized medical personnel when local hospital facilities are either unavailable or unusable. An appropriate and detailed prearranged action plan is important for infectious diseases prevention. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:109–114)
The objective of this study was to build a database to collect infectious disease information at the scene of a disaster through the use of 128 epidemiological questionnaires and 47 types of options, with rapid acquisition of information regarding infectious disease and rapid questionnaire customization at the scene of disaster relief by use of a personal digital assistant (PDA).
SQL Server 2005 (Microsoft Corp, Redmond, WA) was used to create the option database for the infectious disease investigation, to develop a client application for the PDA, and to deploy the application on the server side. The users accessed the server for data collection and questionnaire customization with the PDA.
A database with a set of comprehensive options was created and an application system was developed for the Android operating system (Google Inc, Mountain View, CA). On this basis, an infectious disease information collection system was built for use at the scene of disaster relief. The creation of an infectious disease information collection system and rapid questionnaire customization through the use of a PDA was achieved.
This system integrated computer technology and mobile communication technology to develop an infectious disease information collection system and to allow for rapid questionnaire customization at the scene of disaster relief. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:668–673)
Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a major polyphenolic compound found in olive oil with reported anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the neuroprotective effect of HT on type 2 diabetes remains unknown. In the present study, db/db mice and SH-SY-5Y neuroblastoma cells were used to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of HT. After 8 weeks of HT administration at doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg, expression levels of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I/II/IV and the activity of complex I were significantly elevated in the brain of db/db mice. Likewise, targets of the antioxidative transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 including p62 (sequestosome-1), haeme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), and superoxide dismutases 1 and 2 increased, and protein oxidation significantly decreased. HT treatment was also found to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), sirtuin 1 and PPARγ coactivator-1α, which constitute an energy-sensing protein network known to regulate mitochondrial function and oxidative stress responses. Meanwhile, neuronal survival indicated by neuron marker expression levels including activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor and nerve growth factor was significantly improved by HT administration. Additionally, in a high glucose-induced neuronal cell damage model, HT effectively increased mitochondrial complex IV and HO-1 expression through activating AMPK pathway, followed by the prevention of high glucose-induced production of reactive oxygen species and declines of cell viability and VO2 capacity. Our observations suggest that HT improves mitochondrial function and reduces oxidative stress potentially through activation of the AMPK pathway in the brain of db/db mice.
Decoupled growth often occurs in the nonfacetted–facetted eutectic systems. And it is generally considered that the nonfacetted solid solution acts as the leading phase in the decoupled growth. In this work, Fe40Ni40P14B6 eutectic alloys were systematically studied via solidification of undercooled melts and crystallization of amorphous alloys. Upon solidification of melts subjected to different undercoolings, as the undercooling increases, the growth mechanism develops from cooperative growth to decoupled growth. Upon crystallization of amorphous alloys, the partially crystallized sample consists only of strongly faulted intermetallic (Fe,Ni)3(P,B) with chemical composition deviating from stoichiometry. Formation of supersaturated solid solution γ(Fe, Ni) in the solidification and supersaturated intermetallic (Fe,Ni)3(P,B) in the amorphous crystallization indicates that decoupled growth results from solute trapping and disorder trapping in rapid growth of solid solution and intermetallic, respectively. Further application of rapidly quenched experiments and theoretical analysis declare that the decoupled growth results from a competition between the growth of γ(Fe, Ni) and (Fe,Ni)3(P,B), which are controlled by solute trapping and disorder trapping, respectively.
The Ag@SiO2 core–shell structure nanoparticles prepared by chemical method were dispersed into epoxy matrix. By comparing with the epoxy-based composites filled with the mixed Ag and SiO2 nanoparticles (Ag + SiO2), it is found that the Ag@SiO2 core–shell structure fillers had important effects on the improved dielectric properties of the Ag@SiO2/epoxy composites. The core–shell structure fillers introduce a duplex interfacial polarization and a small number of free charge carriers, which enhance the dielectric permittivity of the composites. At the same time, the insulating SiO2 shell layer changes the interfacial interaction between the Ag filler and the epoxy matrix, not only avoiding Ag particles to connect directly and aggregate together but also providing a rough surface to contact with the epoxy host, which enhances the compatibility between the Ag@SiO2 fillers and the epoxy matrix. As the Ag@SiO2 packing ratio increases, the permittivity of the composites straightly increases and the loss tangent decreases, reaching the maximum and minimum respectively with the filler loading up to 60%.
We report the installation and performance evaluation of a probe aberration-corrected high-resolution JEOL JEM-ARM200F transmission electron microscope (TEM). We provide details on construction of the room that enables us to obtain scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) data without any evident distortions/noise from the external environment. The microscope routinely delivers expected performance. We show that the highest STEM spatial resolution and energy resolution achieved with this microscope are 0.078 nm and 0.34 eV, respectively. We report a direct comparative evaluation of the performance of this microscope with a Schottky thermal field-emission gun versus a cold field-emission gun. Cold field-emission illumination improves spatial resolution of the high current probe for analytical spectroscopy, the TEM information limit, and the electron energy resolution compared to the Schottky thermal field-emission source.
Here the synthesis of hydroxy-telechelic four-arm star-shaped oligotetrahydrofuran (4PTHF) with controllable molecular weight was explored, which was perfomed as living cationic ring-opening polymerization of THF using pentaerythritol and trifluoromethanesulfonicanhydride as initiation system. The molecular weights of the 4PTHF were a function of the reaction time. A polymer network was prepared from the hydroxy-telechelic 4PTHF precursor by crosslinking with diisocyanate and the shape-memory properties were determined. High values for Rf and Rr > 98% were obtained even at high programmed elongations, which suggest the 4PTHF-network as a promising shape-memory material. These materials might have a great potential, as the upscaling of synthesis could be successfully demonstrated.
An attenuated strain of Salmonella typhimurium has been used as a carrier for oral and intranasal genetic immunization. Here, we evaluate the efficacy of a vaccine strain of S. typhimurium. CSO22 (pGM-CSF/SS, plasmid granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/somatostatin) expressing two copies of SS genes. A total of 115 piglets, aged 2 months old, were either orally or intranasally immunized against the vaccine strain CSO22 (pGM-CSF/SS) with three dosages (5 × 1010 colony forming units (CFU), 5 × 109 CFU and 5 × 108 CFU). For oral immunization, the specific anti-SS antibodies were detected in the immunized piglets. The levels of SS antibodies in the high-dose immunized group (5 × 1010 CFU) were significantly higher than that in the phosphate buffered saline immunized group (P < 0.01) and 40% of animals were positive in SS antibodies in the high-dose immunized group. Moreover, the weight gain of the high-dose group was increased by 20.86%, 10.26% and 15.30% during 4, 8 and 12 weeks, respectively, after immunization in comparison to the control. For intranasal immunization, the growth of the low-dose group was increased by 10.23% in the whole test period (12 weeks). In conclusion, our results suggest that the recombinant strain could elicit anti-SS antibodies and improve the growth performance of immunized piglets, and that the oral immunization program is better than the intranasal program.
The antifouling activity of a series of hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous extracts from 11 species of marine sessile organisms collected from the south-east coast of China was investigated. Settlement inhibition of cyprid larvae of the barnacle Balanus albicostatus was used to evaluate their antifouling efficacy. Screening of the 44 extracts showed antifouling activity in 90.9% of the hexane extracts followed by 90.9% of the ethyl acetate, 72.7% of the ethanol and 36.4% of the aqueous extracts. The hexane extracts of Tubularia mesembryanthemum, Notarcus leachii cirrosus and Styela canopus, the ethyl acetate extracts of Bugula neritina and N. leachii cirrosus, and the ethanol extracts of B. neritina and Anthopleura sp. were the most active in inhibiting the settlement of B. albicostatus, with EC50 values all below 50 μg/ml. At least one of the four extracts of each tested species exhibited antifouling activity, suggesting that all 11 marine sessile organisms contained antifouling substances and they may have evolved chemical defences against biofouling on their surfaces.
In ignition targets designs, U or U based cocktail hohlraum are usually used because the Rosseland mean opacity of U is higher than for Au at the radiation temperature for ignition. However, it should be noted that the opacity of U is obviously lower than for Au when the radiation temperature falls into a low temperature region. Because the depth penetrated by radiation is only several micrometers under a 300eV drive, and also because there is a prepulse longer than 10 ns prepulse at temperatures lower than 170 eV in the radiation drive of ignition target designs. Therefore we propose an Au + U + Au sandwich hohlraum for ignition targets in this work. Compared to the cocktail, the sandwich not only remarkably simplifies the fabrication and uses less depleted U material, but also increases the albedo during the prepulse.