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Based on high-resolution palynological analysis of 680 samples from a core, short-term changes in plant diversity and floristic composition within the Paleogene greenhouse were detected in the lacustrine succession of a lower to middle Eocene maar lake at Messel (Federal State of Hesse, Germany). The microfloristic data show that taxonomic diversity increased rapidly within some decades during recolonization of a volcanically devastated area around the lake. With the establishment of a climax vegetation at the end of recolonization, the maximum in palynological diversity was reached within the crater area. During the following 640 Kyr the composition of the palynospectrum changed only gradually. However, different richness and evenness estimations show that alpha and gamma diversity decreased up to 35%, which can be related to the establishment of an equilibrium stage within the climax vegetation that led to the dominance of an assemblage of self-replacing species. Nevertheless, time-series analysis of alpha-diversity changes within the climax vegetation reveals that orbitally controlled climate change of Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch order influenced the diversity of the vegetation, resulting in a rise of beta diversity. Based on the composition of the vegetation and comparison to modern analogues, our analysis proves that Eocene paratropical plant diversity increased during periods of slightly higher temperature and precipitation. Therefore, both composition and diversity of the vegetation was highly susceptible to minor-scale, short-term changes in climate, even during equable greenhouse conditions.
Yeasts are the first micro-organism that become active in the silage upon exposure to air, using the residual sugars and lactic acid to produce carbon dioxide. Maize silage is particularly prone to spoilage as maize silage tends to have a larger concentration of water soluble carbohydrates, which was considered to be a better substrate for micro-organisms than volatile fatty acids (Auerbach et al., 1998). The aim of this experiment was to measure the effect of inoculating maize silage with Maize-all GS (inoculant) and Sil-all Fireguard (inoculant and preservative) on aerobic stability.
Major depression and anxiety disorders are known to negatively influence cognitive performance. Moreover, there is evidence for greater cognitive decline in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder. Except for clinical studies, complex executive planning functions and subclinical levels of anxiety have not been examined in a population-based sample with a broad age range.
Planning performance was assessed using the Tower of London task in a population-based sample of 4240 participants aged 40–80 years from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) and related to self-reported anxiety and depression by means of multiple linear regression analysis.
Higher anxiety ratings were associated with lower planning performance (β = −0.20; p < 0.0001) independent of age (β = 0.03; p = 0.47). When directly comparing the predictive value of depression and anxiety on cognition, only anxiety attained significance (β = −0.19; p = 0.0047), whereas depression did not (β = −0.01; p = 0.71).
Subclinical levels of anxiety but not of depression showed negative associations with cognitive functioning independent of age. Our results demonstrate that associations observed in clinical groups might differ from those in population-based samples, also with regard to the trajectory across the life span. Further studies are needed to uncover causal interrelations of anxiety and cognition, which have been proposed in the literature, in order to develop interventions aimed at reducing this negative affective state and to improve executive functioning.
Introduction: Active substance use and unstable housing are both associated with increased emergency department (ED) utilization. This study examined ED health care costs among a cohort of substance using and/or homeless adults following an index ED visit, relative to a control ED population. Methods: Consecutive patients presenting to an inner-city ED between August 2010 and November 2011 who reported unstable housing and/or who had a chief presenting complaint related to acute or chronic substance use were evaluated. Controls were enrolled in a 1:4 ratio. Participants’ health care utilization was tracked via electronic medical record for six months after the index ED visit. Costing data across all EDs in the region was obtained from Alberta Health Services and calculated to include physician billing and the cost of an ED visit excluding investigations. The cost impact of ED utilization was estimated by multiplying the derived ED cost per visit by the median number of visits with interquartile ranges (IQR) for each group during follow up. Proportions were compared using non-parametric tests. Results: From 4679 patients screened, 209 patients were enrolled (41 controls, 46 substance using, 91 unstably housed, 31 both unstably housed and substance using (UHS)). Median costs (IQR) per group over the six-month period were $0 ($0-$345.42) for control, $345.42 ($0-$1139.89) for substance using, $345.42 ($0-$1381.68) for unstably housed and $1381.68 ($690.84-$4248.67) for unstably housed and substance using patients (p<0.05). Conclusion: The intensity of excess ED costs was greatest in patients who were both unstably housed and presenting with a chief complaint related to substance use. This group had a significantly larger impact on health care expenditure relative to ED users who were not unstably housed or who presented with a substance use related complaint. Further research into how care or connection to community resources in the ED can reduce these costs is warranted.
In the article above there is a spelling mistake in the Figure 3 legend. Largge should be Large. The correct Figure 3 legend is shown below:-
Figure 3 Biomass values of herbivorous fish functional groups – browsers, grazers and detritivores, and scrapers and small excavators – for each island. Large excavators and bioeroders were not observed, and thus are not included in the graph.
Page 5, right column in the ‘Ecological perspective and management implications section’, in the second paragraph the third sentence should read . . .One potential management tool that considers these needs and limitations is the installation of composting toilets, after due consideration of local cultural sensitivities. . .
Small-island coral reef ecosystems are usually closely coupled to the activities of human inhabitants. Ahus Island (Papua New Guinea) is an isolated Pacific island with a rapidly growing population, heavy reliance on marine resources and limited infrastructure. We hypothesized that untreated sewage was driving distinct benthic assemblages around Ahus and neighbouring uninhabited Onetah. At sites with varying proximities to beach toilets, fore-reef herbivorous fish biomass and benthic composition were measured alongside reef-flat sedimentary oxygen consumption (SOC); a high SOC rate reflects high organic input into coastal waters, thus serving as a potential indicator of sewage input. Fish biomass was low (17.1–20.1 g m–2), but consistent between sites. However, cyanobacteria dominated the fore-reef closest to toilets (62 ± 3%) with highest reef-flat SOC, whereas hard corals dominated furthest away (63 ± 1%), where SOC was lowest. To our knowledge, this is the first study that used SOC to detect local differences in sewage pollution. The results indicate that whilst corals can maintain their dominance on overfished reefs, additional sewage stress may drive pronounced benthic shifts, highlighting the urgency to improve small-island waste management.
It is unclear which potentially modifiable risk factors best predict post-trauma psychiatric disorders. We aimed to identify pre-trauma risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depression (MD) that could be targeted with resilience interventions.
Newly recruited paramedics (n = 453) were assessed for history of mental disorders with structured clinical interviews within the first week of their paramedic training and completed self-report measures to assess hypothesized predictors. Participants were assessed every 4 months for 2 years to identify any episodes of PTSD and MD; 386 paramedics (85.2%) participated in the follow-up interviews.
In all, 32 participants (8.3%) developed an episode of PTSD and 41 (10.6%) an episode of MD during follow-up. In all but nine cases (2.3%), episodes had remitted by the next assessment 4 months later. At 2 years, those with episodes of PTSD or MD during follow-up reported more days off work, poorer sleep, poorer quality of life, greater burn-out; and greater weight-gain for those with PTSD. In line with theories of PTSD and depression, analyses controlling for psychiatric and trauma history identified several pre-trauma predictors (cognitive styles, coping styles and psychological traits). Logistic regressions showed that rumination about memories of stressful events at the start of training uniquely predicted an episode of PTSD. Perceived resilience uniquely predicted an episode of MD.
Participants at risk of developing episodes of PTSD or depression could be identified within the first week of paramedic training. Cognitive predictors of episodes of PTSD and MD are promising targets for resilience interventions.
Introduction: Substance use and unstable housing are associated with heavy use of the Emergency Department (ED). This study examined the impact of substance use and unstable housing on the probability of future ED use. Methods: Case-control study of patients presenting to an urban ED. Patients were eligible if they were unstably housed for the past 30 days, and/or if their chief complaint was related to substance use. Following written informed consent, patients completed a baseline survey and health care use was tracked via electronic medical records for the next six months. Controls were enrolled in a 1:4 ratio. More than 2 ED visits during the follow-up was pre-specified as a measure of excess ED use. Descriptive analyses included proportions and medians with interquartile ranges (IQR). Binomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the impact of housing status, high-risk alcohol use (AUDIT) and drug use (DUDIT), and combinations of these factors on subsequent acute care system contacts (ED visits + admissions). We controlled for age, gender, comorbidities at baseline, and baseline presenting acuity. Results: 41 controls, 46 substance using, 91 unstably housed, and 31 both unstably housed and substance using patients were enrolled (n = 209). Median ED visits during follow up were 0 (IQR: 0-1.0) for controls, 1.0 (IQR: 0-3.3) for substance using, 1.0 (IQR: 0-4.0) for unstably housed and 4 (IQR: 2-12.3) for unstably housed and substance using patients. The median acute care system contacts over the same period was 1.0 (IQR 0-2.0) for controls, 1.0 (IQR: 0-4.0) for substance using, 1.0 (IQR: 0-5.0) for unstably housed and 4.5 (IQR: 2.8-14.3) for unstably housed and substance using patients. Being unstably housed was the factor most strongly associated with having > 2 ED visits (b=3.288, p<0.005) followed by high-risk alcohol and drug use (b=2.149, p<0.08); high risk alcohol use alone was not significantly associated with ED visits (b=1.939, p<0.1). The number of comorbidities present at baseline was a small but statistically significant additional risk factor (b=0.478, p<0.05). The model correctly predicted 70.1% of patients’ ED utilization status. Conclusion: Unstable housing is a substantial risk factor for ED use; high-risk alcohol and drug use, and comorbidities at baseline increased this risk. The intensity of excess ED use was greatest in patients who were unstably housed and substance using.
In this paper the Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy program at the University of Adelaide is described. VHE gamma rays with energies above ~5 × 1011eV are observed using the atmospheric Cerenkov technique. Results from the first three years observations at Woomera and the current upgrading of the telecope are described. The CANGAROO project, a collaboration between the University of Adelaide and a number of Japanese institutions, is also introduced.
This paper describes a preliminary series of observations of the Sun made at a frequency of 80 MHz with the 3 km radioheliograph of the Culgoora Observatory. The instrument records, at one-second intervals, pictures of the solar image in the form of 60 (E-W) × 48 (N-S) points, each separated in angle by half the Rayleigh limit (2’ arc in the zenith). At the time of the present observations the instrument was incomplete in three main respects : (a) the facilities for recording opposite senses of circular polarization were not available; (b) the automatic image compensation for zenith-angle foreshortening was not available—hence the optical disk of the Sun appears elliptical; and (c) the phase and amplitude calibration procedures had not been fully established, resulting in a higher sidelobe level than that specified in the design—the effects are sometimes evident in the pictures as spoke-like brightenings.
The Chauvet-Pont d'Arc Cave is one of the most important sites for the study of the earliest manifestations and development of prehistoric art at the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic. Different dating techniques have been performed thus far (AMS 14C, U/Th TIMS, 36Cl dating) to model the chronological framework of this decorated cave. The cave yielded several large charcoal fragments, which enabled the opportunity for obtaining multiple dates; thus, a First Radiocarbon Intercomparison Program (FIP) was initiated in 2004 using three charcoal pieces. The FIP demonstrated that those cross-dated samples belonged to a time period associated with the first human occupation. One of the statistical interests of an intercomparison program is to reduce the uncertainty on the sample age; thus, to further assess the accuracy of the chronological framework, the Second Intercomparison Program (SIP) involving 10 international 14C laboratories was carried out on two pieces of charcoal found inside two hearth structures of the Galerie des Mégacéros. Each laboratory used its own pretreatment and AMS facilities. In total, 21 and 22 measurements were performed, respectively, which yielded consistent results averaging ∼32 ka BP. Two strategies have currently been developed to identify statistical outliers and to deal with them; both lead to quasi-identical calibrated combined densities. Finally, the new results were compared with those of the FIP, leading to the important conclusion that five different samples from at least three different hearth structures give really tightened temporal densities, associated with one short human occupation in the Galerie des Mégacéros.
Many studies have used retrospective reports to assess the long-term consequences of early life stress. However, current individual characteristics and experiences may bias the recall of these reports. In particular, depressed mood may increase the likelihood of recall of negative experiences. The aim of the study was to assess whether specific factors are associated with consistency in the reporting of childhood adverse experiences.
The sample comprised 7466 adults from Canada's National Population Health Survey who had reported on seven childhood adverse experiences in 1994/1995 and 2006/2007. Logistic regression was used to explore differences between those who consistently reported adverse experiences and those whose reports were inconsistent.
Among those retrospectively reporting on childhood traumatic experiences in 1994/1995 and 2006/2007, 39% were inconsistent in their reports of these experiences. The development of depression, increasing levels of psychological distress, as well as increasing work and chronic stress were associated with an increasing likelihood of reporting a childhood adverse experience in 2006/2007 that had not been previously reported. Increases in mastery were associated with reduced likelihood of new reporting of a childhood adverse experience in 2006/2007. The development of depression and increases in chronic stress and psychological distress were also associated with reduced likelihood of ‘forgetting’ a previously reported event.
Concurrent mental health factors may influence the reporting of traumatic childhood experiences. Studies that use retrospective reporting to estimate associations between childhood adversity and adult outcomes associated with mental health may be biased.
Observations of the spectrum of solar radio bursts at meter wavelengths have indicated the desirability of measuring positions on the sun's disk not only as a function of time but also as a function of frequency. With this objective in view, we are now using a swept-frequency interferometer to determine the east-west disk coordinate of the transient solar sources at time intervals of ½ second and freqency intervals of about 5 Mc/s within the frequency range 40 to 70 Mc/s. The accuracy to which the centroid of the source is located is about ±1 minute of arc. In its initial form , the interferometer contained two aerials separated by a distance of 1 km. As a result of preliminary tests, two major additions have been made: (1) a second interferometer of much smaller spacing (¼ km) has been added to resolve the usual ambiguities associated with two-aerial interferometry, and (2) an automatic system of lobe-switching and phase-calibration has been incorporated to facilitate the reduction of the complex data recorded.
Monoclinic Cu2SnS3 was made by solution based processing of the precursor metals after which the samples are annealed in a sulphur environment. XRD and Raman spectra shows that the monoclinic phase was synthesised. One sample was further etched in KCN and HCl to remove possible secondary phases. Transmission spectra show that the material has two optical transitions and in conjunction with reflection data absorption spectra were calculated. The two optical transitions are determined to be 0.91 and 0.98 for the unetched sample and 0.90 and 0.95 eV for the etched sample. The values of the optical transitions are within the error the same and thus etching does not affect the values of these optical transitions. Photoluminescence spectra map show only one luminescence peak with a maximum at 0.95 eV, which is consistent with the values found by absorption spectra. This in combination with the Raman spectra and XRD indicates that the sample contains only one polymorph of Cu2SnS3, which is monoclinic. Therefore the two optical transitions are intrinsic to monoclinic Cu2SnS3.
To test the vascular depression hypothesis in the general population, we analyzed the association between current depression, medical history of depression, cognitive and somatic depressive symptom dimensions and measures of atherosclerosis [intima–media thickness (IMT) and carotid plaques].
We included a representative sample of 5000 participants from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). Depression was assessed by the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and IMT and carotid plaques were measured at both common carotid arteries using an edge detection system. Regression analyses were performed separately for participants with and without cardiovascular disease, adjusting for medical history, cardiovascular risk factors and psychotropic medication.
Contrary to hypotheses, we found no increased IMT for somatic symptoms of depression; the same was true for depression and cognitive symptoms in the fully adjusted model. Only a moderate relationship between medical history of depression and the presence of atherosclerotic plaques was maintained after correction.
The relationship between depression and atherosclerosis may be more complex than previously assumed. Although the vascular depression hypothesis was not supported, our results support the hypothesis that lasting depression leads to arteriosclerosis.
Generic and interaction aspects of oxygen precipitation, related defect formation and denudation in Cz-Si wafers are presented. Bulk defect profiles and homogenization control are shown to be achievable by proper design of post-growth annealing.
Gettering-related phenomena are discussed including stacking fault-rich bulk defect structures and peculiarities in different epitaxy systems.
We present preliminary results of our integral field spectroscopy (IFS) observations to test whether AGN can suppress star formation in disc-dominated galaxies. We find a lower specific star formation rate and a different radial Hα profile for AGN than in the control sample.