To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Scientific studies of human-animal interactions (HAIs) and how these develop into human-animal relationships (HARs) now represent some of the most significant contributions to animal welfare science. However, due to the current definition of HAR, studies have only been able to measure HAIs and infer its impact on HARs and animal welfare. Here, we redefine HARs as a series of repeated HAIs between two individuals known to each other, the nature of which is influenced by their historical HAIs and where consideration to the content, quality and the pattern of the interactions is also vital. With a new definition, it is now feasible to empirically measure HARs, however, first, it is important to evaluate current methods utilised in animal industries to allow standardisation across HAR research in zoos. Here, we review the current methods that have been used to assess HAIs in animals and determine their overall suitability for measuring HARs and their use in a zoo environment. Literature searches were conducted using the search terms ‘human-animal’ AND ‘interaction’, ‘human-animal’ AND ‘relationship’, ‘human-animal’ AND ‘bond’. Subsequently, ‘zoo’, ‘companion’, ‘agriculture’, ‘laboratory’ and ‘wild’ were added to each combination yielding five potential methods to evaluate. These methods were assessed according to a panel of indicators including reliability, robustness, practical application and feasibility for use in a zoo environment. Results indicated that the methods utilising ‘latency’, ‘qualitative behaviour assessment’ and the ‘voluntary approach test’ were potentially viable to assess HARs in a zoo environment and could subsequently contribute to the assessment of welfare implications of these HARs for the animals involved. These methods now require empirical testing and comparisons within a zoo environment.
Reasoning biases, specifically jumping to conclusions and belief inflexibility, may play a causal role in persistent paranoia. SlowMo, a new digitally supported blended cognitive-behavioural therapy, targets these biases. Adopting the terms ‘fast’ and ‘slow thinking’ as a heuristic to support therapy, SlowMo encourages people to notice a tendency to fast thinking, and to slow down for a moment to reduce paranoia. SlowMo therapy is the first digital blended therapy for paranoia, employing face to face therapy sessions with interactive digital content, and using mobile technology to promote generalisation to daily life. We report a randomised controlled trial with N=362 participants with distressing and persistent (3+months) paranoia, comparing 8 sessions of SlowMo plus Treatment as Usual (TAU) with TAU alone. We examined SlowMo’s effectiveness in reducing paranoia and improving reasoning biases; its mechanisms of action; usability; and acceptability (Garety et al., 2021). Outcomes: SlowMo was beneficial for paranoia: 10 /11 paranoia measures at 12 weeks and 8/11 at 24 weeks demonstrated significant effects, and sustained moderate effects were observed on all observer-rated measures of persecutory delusions. Improvements in self-esteem, worry, wellbeing and quality of life were also reported. Mediation: Consistent with the theory-driven design and treatment rationale, improvements in slower thinking were found to mediate change in paranoia at 12-
and 24-week follow-ups. However contrary to hypothesis, reduced fast thinking did not mediate change in paranoia, whereas worry did. These findings highlight the potential therapeutic mechanisms of action of SlowMo which which are discussed further. Garety P, Ward T, Emsley R, et al. Effects of SlowMo, a Blended Digital Therapy Targeting Reasoning, on Paranoia Among People With Psychosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2021;78(7):714–725. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.0326
The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on mental health is still being unravelled. It is important to identify which individuals are at greatest risk of worsening symptoms. This study aimed to examine changes in depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms using prospective and retrospective symptom change assessments, and to find and examine the effect of key risk factors.
Online questionnaires were administered to 34 465 individuals (aged 16 years or above) in April/May 2020 in the UK, recruited from existing cohorts or via social media. Around one-third (n = 12 718) of included participants had prior diagnoses of depression or anxiety and had completed pre-pandemic mental health assessments (between September 2018 and February 2020), allowing prospective investigation of symptom change.
Prospective symptom analyses showed small decreases in depression (PHQ-9: −0.43 points) and anxiety [generalised anxiety disorder scale – 7 items (GAD)-7: −0.33 points] and increases in PTSD (PCL-6: 0.22 points). Conversely, retrospective symptom analyses demonstrated significant large increases (PHQ-9: 2.40; GAD-7 = 1.97), with 55% reported worsening mental health since the beginning of the pandemic on a global change rating. Across both prospective and retrospective measures of symptom change, worsening depression, anxiety and PTSD symptoms were associated with prior mental health diagnoses, female gender, young age and unemployed/student status.
We highlight the effect of prior mental health diagnoses on worsening mental health during the pandemic and confirm previously reported sociodemographic risk factors. Discrepancies between prospective and retrospective measures of changes in mental health may be related to recall bias-related underestimation of prior symptom severity.
The sixth chapter concerns the valuation accorded to theoria, both as festival-attendance and as philosophical contemplation. As the former, the activity primarily has practical benefits or instrumental value, whereas as the latter, it has primarily intrinsic value, or value in itself. For the value attached to festival-attendance concerns fulfilling a social, political role for the city, and that of sanctuary visitation is similarly instrumental, although more individual given its aim concerned with healing physical maladies. Plato and Aristotle signal a departure from the position that accords theoria primarily instrumental value. The two philosophers concur that theoria as philosophical contemplation, by nature, is an activity desired for itself and is good in itself. However, in a secondary way, Plato and Aristotle also hold that theoria-thinking produces good effects, and in this regard, their view partly coincides with the valuation connected to the traditional practice.
The fourth chapter examines Aristotle's distinctive contribution to the history of theoria, one which develops Plato's idea of an intellectual activity aimed at the apprehension of form, concluding it counts among the highest human activities. In many ways, Aristotle would concur with Plato's rejection of traditional theoria as a pursuit practiced by unphilosophical, doxastic believers. Leaving aside a negative critique of the practice, his own treatment emphasizes the great intellectual potential afforded by philosophical theoria. For Aristotle, this activity consists in a specific kind of thinking he connects to scientific understanding; in other aspects, he compares the activity to seeing, describing the performance as divine, or god-like, in its nature.
The second chapter examines literary and historical sources writing about theoria, including those by Herodotus, Thucydides, Aristophanes, and Euripides, as a means of providing the larger cultural background against which Plato's use of theoria must be considered. Two analogies to traditional theoria are here considered, that of pilgrimage and cultural sight-seeing, both of which contribute elements to the distinctive intellectual conception of theoria developed by Plato and Aristotle with which the chapter concludes.
The fifth chapter provides a synoptic chapter about the objects of theoria, both as they relate to traditional theoria and to philosophical theoria. The objects of the former kind of theoria, namely, festival- and sanctuary-attendance, are the images of the gods on temples or the gods themselves. In the case of philosophical theoria, or contemplation, the objects are more abstract entities, namely, forms, that Plato and Aristotle take to comprise the highest objects of philosophical study, or contemplation. The philiosophers consider that when we apprehend these objects, we are in possession of scientific knowledge that they compare to divine activity. In both kinds, the apprehension of the objects of theoria is reached through an activity that is directly perceptual or mediated by perceptual experience.
This chapter presents Plato's specific contribution to the history of theoria: how he reacts to the notion of traditional theoria and specifically, which of its elements he rejects and which he reconceives. Platonic theoria stands, although somewhat uneasily, on the shoulders of traditional theoria in regard to its emphasis on observational performance rather than perceptual understanding: for Plato, the follower of traditional theoria is merely "a lover of sights and sounds" rather than a true philosopher. However, certain features are shared across traditional and Platonic theoria, such as that involving perceptual experience, being focused on objects of high significance and the idea of elliptical motion. These features are distinguished as falling along two planes, structural and philosophical, and discussed using analyses of Phaedo, Republic, Phaedrus, and Symposium, among others.
The significance of traditional theoria to the philosophical thought of Plato and Aristotle is indisputable, reflecting the central role that the practice plays in the two philosophers’ accounts of theoria. Plato makes explicit, and sometimes ironic, use of the tradition at several levels in his dialogues. To mention one example, in Rep. VI we find Plato mentioning and then re-conceiving theoria – first, he takes it as festival-attendance, which he describes as akin to mere dreaming (Rep. 476b1–5) – and then he transforms it into genuine philosophical inquiry. Yet, the Platonic ideal of philosophical study preserves various features characteristic of traditional theoria including its observational component, its religious objective, and its cosmopolitanism.
The introductory chapter explains an initial problem concerning the ambiguous application of the term 'theoria' both to the practice of festival-attendance and to philosophical study, or contemplation. While the two referents appear to have little in common, a closer examination reveals a common feature of theoria, namely, the idea of observing, or beholding, something divine or of high significance. The notion of acting as an observer of the divine, or like a divine spectator, serves as central common element running throughout the kinds of theoria and allowing us to understand why Plato and Aristotle chose to borrow a term referring to festival-attendance to signify what they describe as an activity of our highest capacity, the mind.
The first chapter is focused on central features of traditional theoria which is a practice of attending festivals and sanctuaries; we consider the duration of the practice over several centuries as well as its geographical spread over the Mediterranean area. The primary characteristics of the traditional form relate to attendants traveling from home to foreign sites, such as Olympia or Athens, to observe and participate in the several periodic religious festivals that support the political and religious civic institutions. By fostering shared ideals of moral and intellectual values, traditional theoria also contributes to a form of Hellenic cosmopolitanism connected to Greek philosophy.
To scholars of ancient philosophy, theoria denotes abstract thinking, with both Plato and Aristotle employing the term to signify philosophical contemplation. Yet it is surprising for some to find an earlier, traditional meaning referring to travel to festivals and shrines. In an attempt to dissolve the problem of equivocal reference, Julie Ward's book seeks to illuminate the nature of traditional theoria as ancient festival-attendance as well as the philosophical account developed in Plato and Aristotle. First, she examines the traditional use referring to periodic festivals, including their complex social and political arrangements, then she considers the subsequent use by Plato and Aristotle. Broadly speaking, she discerns a common thread running throughout both uses: namely, the notion of having a visual experience of the sacred or divine. Thus her book aims to illuminate the nature of philosophical theoria described by Plato and Aristotle in light of traditional, festival theoria.