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Few herbicides are registered for goosegrass control in creeping bentgrass turfgrass. Topramezone controls goosegrass and is labelled for use in creeping bentgrass, but potential injury risks lead many turf managers to utilize a low-dose, frequent application program. This type of program increases the likelihood that topramezone treatments will be mixed with fungicide treatments. Previous research found that fungicides can reduce activity of some herbicides, but effects on topramezone efficacy are unknown. Four studies were established between Blacksburg, VA and North Brunswick, NJ in 2021 to determine if chlorothalonil reduces goosegrass control from topramezone. In controlled-environment-dose-response studies, the amount of topramezone needed to reduce goosegrass biomass by 50% increased from 3.04 g ha-1 to 5.27 g ha-1 when chlorothalonil (7400 g ha-1) was added to the mixture. In field experiments in Virginia and New Jersey, topramezone at 3.7 and 6.1 g ha-1 controlled goosegrass 50 and 63%, respectively at 42 days after treatment when averaged across herbicide admixtures. The addition of chlorothalonil alone and chlorothalonil plus acibenzolar-S-methyl to topramezone reduced goosegrass control from 73% to 52 and 45%, respectively, when averaged across topramezone rate. From these studies we can conclude that chlorothalonil has the potential to reduce goosegrass control with topramezone when topramezone is applied at the maximum allowable topramezone rate (6 g ae ha-1) or less. This is the first report of fungicides reducing herbicidal weed control efficacy in turfgrass systems.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) has been a leader in weed science research covering topics ranging from the development and use of integrated weed management (IWM) tactics to basic mechanistic studies, including biotic resistance of desirable plant communities and herbicide resistance. ARS weed scientists have worked in agricultural and natural ecosystems, including agronomic and horticultural crops, pastures, forests, wild lands, aquatic habitats, wetlands, and riparian areas. Through strong partnerships with academia, state agencies, private industry, and numerous federal programs, ARS weed scientists have made contributions to discoveries in the newest fields of robotics and genetics, as well as the traditional and fundamental subjects of weed–crop competition and physiology and integration of weed control tactics and practices. Weed science at ARS is often overshadowed by other research topics; thus, few are aware of the long history of ARS weed science and its important contributions. This review is the result of a symposium held at the Weed Science Society of America’s 62nd Annual Meeting in 2022 that included 10 separate presentations in a virtual Weed Science Webinar Series. The overarching themes of management tactics (IWM, biological control, and automation), basic mechanisms (competition, invasive plant genetics, and herbicide resistance), and ecosystem impacts (invasive plant spread, climate change, conservation, and restoration) represent core ARS weed science research that is dynamic and efficacious and has been a significant component of the agency’s national and international efforts. This review highlights current studies and future directions that exemplify the science and collaborative relationships both within and outside ARS. Given the constraints of weeds and invasive plants on all aspects of food, feed, and fiber systems, there is an acknowledged need to face new challenges, including agriculture and natural resources sustainability, economic resilience and reliability, and societal health and well-being.
Healthcare workers (HCWs) in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are disproportionately affected by severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To characterize factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity among LTCF HCWs, we performed a retrospective cohort study among HCWs in 32 LTCFs in the Minneapolis–St Paul region.
We analyzed the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity among LTCF HCWs during weeks 34–52 of 2020. LTCF and HCW-level characteristics, including facility size, facility risk score for resident-HCW contact, and resident-facing job role, were modeled in univariable and multivariable generalized linear regressions to determine their association with SARS-CoV-2 positivity.
Between weeks 34 and 52, 440 (20.7%) of 2,130 unique HCWs tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at least once. In the univariable model, non–resident-facing HCWs had lower odds of infection (odds ratio [OR], 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36–0.70). In the multivariable model, the odds remained lower for non–resident-facing HCW (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.36–0.71), and those in medium- versus low-risk facilities experienced higher odds of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.08–2.02).
Our findings suggest that COVID-19 cases are related to contact between HCW and residents in LTCFs. This association should be considered when formulating infection prevention and control policies to mitigate the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in LTCFs.
Sea-level science has seen many recent developments in observations and modelling of the different contributions and the total mean sea-level change. In this overview, we discuss (1) the evolution of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projections, (2) how the projections compare to observations and (3) the outlook for further improving projections. We start by discussing how the model projections of 21st century sea-level change have changed from the IPCC AR5 report (2013) to SROCC (2019) and AR6 (2021), highlighting similarities and differences in the methodologies and comparing the global mean and regional projections. This shows that there is good agreement in the median values, but also highlights some differences. In addition, we discuss how the different reports included high-end projections. We then show how the AR5 projections (from 2007 onwards) compare against the observations and find that they are highly consistent with each other. Finally, we discuss how to further improve sea-level projections using high-resolution ocean modelling and recent vertical land motion estimates.
This article revises the spatial and temporal boundaries of the Casas Grandes tradition associated with northwest Chihuahua, Mexico, based on new data collected in neighboring northeastern Sonora. The Casas Grandes tradition attained its greatest extent during the Medio period (AD 1200–1450/1500) followed by a dramatic demographic and political collapse. Hunter-gatherer groups subsequently occupied most of northwest Chihuahua. Data from the Fronteras Valley, Sonora, presents an alternative scenario, with a clear pattern of cultural continuity from the eleventh century to the colonial period in which sedentary farmers occupied the same landscapes and occasionally the same villages. These observations contribute to our understanding of the spread and subsequent demise of the Casas Grandes tradition in hinterland regions. For the Fronteras Valley, we infer that immigrant groups originally introduced Casas Grandes traditions and that uneven participation in a suite of shared religious beliefs and practices was common to all the hinterlands.
Does interpersonal political communication improve the quality of individual decision making? While deliberative theorists offer reasons for hope, experimental researchers have demonstrated that biased messages can travel via interpersonal social networks. We argue that the value of interpersonal political communication depends on the motivations of the people involved, which can be shifted by different contexts. Using small-group experiments that randomly assign participants' motivations to seek or share information with others as well as their motivations for evaluating the information they receive, we demonstrate the importance of accounting for motivations in communication. We find that when individuals with more extreme preferences are motivated to acquire and share information, collective civic capacity is diminished. But if we can stimulate the exchange of information among individuals with stronger prosocial motivations, such communication can enhance collective civic capacity. We also provide advice for other researchers about conducting similar group-based experiments to study political communication.
Studies have demonstrated the efficacy of mechanical devices at delivering high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (HQ-CPR) in various transport settings. Herein, this study investigates the efficacy of manual and mechanical HQ-CPR delivery on a fire rescue boat.
A total of 15 active firefighter-paramedics were recruited for a prospective manikin-based trial. Each paramedic performed two minutes manual compression-only CPR while navigating on a river-based fire rescue boat. The boat was piloted in either a stable linear manner or dynamic S-turn manner to simulate obstacle avoidance. For each session of manual HQ-CPR, a session of mechanical HQ-CPR was also performed with a LUCAS 3 (Stryker; Kalamazoo, Michigan USA). A total of 60 sessions were completed. Parameters recorded included compression fraction (CF) and the percentage of compressions with correct depth >5cm (D%), correct rate 100-120 (R%), full release (FR%), and correct hand position (HP%). A composite HQ-CPR score was calculated as follows: ((D% + R% + FR% + HP%)/4) * CF%). Differences in magnitude of change seen in stable versus dynamic navigation within study conditions were evaluated with a Z-score calculation. Difficulty of HQ-CPR delivery was assessed utilizing the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale.
Participants were mostly male and had a median experience of 20 years. Manual HQ-CPR delivered during stable navigation out-performed manual HQ-CPR delivered during dynamic navigation for composite score and trended towards superiority for FR% and R%. There was no difference seen for any measured variable when comparing mechanical HQ-CPR delivered during stable navigation versus dynamic navigation. Mechanical HQ-CPR out-performed manual HQ-CPR during both stable and dynamic navigation in terms of composite score, FR%, and R%. Z-score calculation demonstrated that manual HQ-CPR delivery was significantly more affected by drive style than mechanical HQ-CPR delivery in terms of composite HQ-CPR score and trended towards significance for FR% and R%. Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion was higher for manual CPR delivered during dynamic sessions than for stable sessions.
Mechanical HQ-CPR delivery is superior to manual HQ-CPR delivery during both stable and dynamic riverine navigation. Whereas manual HQ-CPR delivery was worse during dynamic transportation conditions compared to stable transport conditions, mechanical HQ-CPR delivery was unaffected by drive style. This suggests the utility of routine use of mechanical HQ-CPR devices in the riverine patient transport setting.
The U.S. has the tools to end the HIV epidemic, but progress has stagnated. A major gap in U.S. efforts to address HIV is the under-utilization of medications that can virtually eliminate acquisition of the virus, known as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). This document proposes a financing and delivery system to unlock broad access to PrEP for those most vulnerable to HIV acquisition and bring an end to the HIV epidemic.
Two introduced carnivores, the European red fox Vulpes vulpes and domestic cat Felis catus, have had extensive impacts on Australian biodiversity. In this study, we collate information on consumption of Australian birds by the fox, paralleling a recent study reporting on birds consumed by cats. We found records of consumption by foxes on 128 native bird species (18% of the non-vagrant bird fauna and 25% of those species within the fox’s range), a smaller tally than for cats (343 species, including 297 within the fox’s Australian range, a subset of that of the cat). Most (81%) bird species eaten by foxes are also eaten by cats, suggesting that predation impacts are compounded. As with consumption by cats, birds that nest or forage on the ground are most likely to be consumed by foxes. However, there is also some partitioning, with records of consumption by foxes but not cats for 25 bird species, indicating that impacts of the two predators may also be complementary. Bird species ≥3.4 kg were more likely to be eaten by foxes, and those <3.4 kg by cats. Our compilation provides an inventory and describes characteristics of Australian bird species known to be consumed by foxes, but we acknowledge that records of predation do not imply population-level impacts. Nonetheless, there is sufficient information from other studies to demonstrate that fox predation has significant impacts on the population viability of some Australian birds, especially larger birds, and those that nest or forage on the ground.
The neural mechanisms contributing to the social problems of pediatric brain tumor survivors (PBTS) are unknown. Face processing is important to social communication, social behavior, and peer acceptance. Research with other populations with social difficulties, namely autism spectrum disorder, suggests atypical brain activation in areas important for face processing. This case-controlled functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study compared brain activation during face processing in PBTS and typically developing (TD) youth.
Participants included 36 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched youth (N = 18 per group). PBTS were at least 5 years from diagnosis and 2 years from the completion of tumor therapy. fMRI data were acquired during a face identity task and a control condition. Groups were compared on activation magnitude within the fusiform gyrus for the faces condition compared to the control condition. Correlational analyses evaluated associations between neuroimaging metrics and indices of social behavior for PBTS participants.
Both groups demonstrated face-specific activation within the social brain for the faces condition compared to the control condition. PBTS showed significantly decreased activation for faces in the medial portions of the fusiform gyrus bilaterally compared to TD youth, ps ≤ .004. Higher peak activity in the left fusiform gyrus was associated with better socialization (r = .53, p < .05).
This study offers initial evidence of atypical activation in a key face processing area in PBTS. Such atypical activation may underlie some of the social difficulties of PBTS. Social cognitive neuroscience methodologies may elucidate the neurobiological bases for PBTS social behavior.
Electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities are greater in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with Lewy bodies (MCI-LB) than in MCI due to Alzheimer’s disease (MCI-AD) and may anticipate the onset of dementia. We aimed to assess whether quantitative EEG (qEEG) slowing would predict a higher annual hazard of dementia in MCI across these etiologies. MCI patients (n = 92) and healthy comparators (n = 31) provided qEEG recording and underwent longitudinal clinical and cognitive follow-up. Associations between qEEG slowing, measured by increased theta/alpha ratio, and clinical progression from MCI to dementia were estimated with a multistate transition model to account for death as a competing risk, while controlling for age, cognitive function, and etiology classified by an expert consensus panel.
Over a mean follow-up of 1.5 years (SD = 0.5), 14 cases of incident dementia and 5 deaths were observed. Increased theta/alpha ratio on qEEG was associated with increased annual hazard of dementia (hazard ratio = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.01–3.35). This extends previous findings that MCI-LB features early functional changes, showing that qEEG slowing may anticipate the onset of dementia in prospectively identified MCI.
We present the data and initial results from the first pilot survey of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU), observed at 944 MHz with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The survey covers
of an area covered by the Dark Energy Survey, reaching a depth of 25–30
rms at a spatial resolution of
11–18 arcsec, resulting in a catalogue of
220 000 sources, of which
180 000 are single-component sources. Here we present the catalogue of single-component sources, together with (where available) optical and infrared cross-identifications, classifications, and redshifts. This survey explores a new region of parameter space compared to previous surveys. Specifically, the EMU Pilot Survey has a high density of sources, and also a high sensitivity to low surface brightness emission. These properties result in the detection of types of sources that were rarely seen in or absent from previous surveys. We present some of these new results here.
This essay explores ideas of the untimely in connection with a queer politics in Faulkner: queer a commitment to imagining novel forms of dissident desire, pleasure, and affiliation; untimeliness an effect of the non-coincidence of chronological and political temporalities. Faulkner’s fiction is staggered temporally not only as a result of his well-known determination to recollect the traumatic past of nation, region, and individual, but also by less noticed efforts to grasp, in that past, alternative futures, some now foreclosed, others still biding their time. In Faulkner’s historical fiction like Absalom, Absalom! and Go Down, Moses, we find materializations in the past of futures that may not come to pass; in novels set in the present such as Light in August, we encounter dissident ways of life that resist modern normative constraints; in If I Forget Thee, Jerusalem another dimension of the untimely appears, in forms of futurity that beckon with unprecedented gratifications of desire while threatening the resurgence of past forms of bondage.
Psychological attachment to political parties can bias people’s attitudes, beliefs, and group evaluations. Studies from psychology suggest that self-affirmation theory may ameliorate this problem in the domain of politics on a variety of outcome measures. We report a series of studies conducted by separate research teams that examine whether a self-affirmation intervention affects a variety of outcomes, including political or policy attitudes, factual beliefs, conspiracy beliefs, affective polarization, and evaluations of news sources. The different research teams use a variety of self-affirmation interventions, research designs, and outcomes. Despite these differences, the research teams consistently find that self-affirmation treatments have little effect. These findings suggest considerable caution is warranted for researchers who wish to apply the self-affirmation framework to studies that investigate political attitudes and beliefs. By presenting the “null results” of separate research teams, we hope to spark a discussion about whether and how the self-affirmation paradigm should be applied to political topics.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common childhood rheumatologic disease childhood and a cause of pain and potential disability. JIA has a strong genetic component and no known cure. The goal of this study is to evaluate allele-dependent effects of a novel JIA risk variant at 1q24.3. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: JIA patients meeting criteria for the two most common disease subtypes (oligoarticular and RF neg polyarthritis) were genotyped using the Immunochip, an Illumina array with dense coverage of the HLA region and 186 other loci previously reported in autoimmune diseases. Phase I association findings (Hinks, 2013) and Phase II analysis (unpublished) of an expanded cohort (4,271 JIA and 14,390 controls) identified new risk loci, including rs78037977 at 1q24.3. We prioritized rs78037977 and predicted possible impacted mechanisms based on Bayesian predictions of attributable risk, the surrounding chromatin landscape, and transcription factor binding data. A luciferase reporter assay was used to assess allele-dependent enhancer activity. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: rs78037977 is located between FASLG and TNFSF18 at chromosome 1q24.3 is associated with JIA (p = 6.3x10−09), and explains 94% of the posterior probability at this locus; no other SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (r2>0.6). The chromatin landscape around rs78037977 contains H3K4Me1 and H3K27Ac marks, which are indicative of enhancer activity. Further, >160 transcription factors have chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) peaks overlapping rs78037977 in various cellular contexts. In luciferase reporter assays, the region around rs78037977 containing the reference A allele had ~2-fold increased enhancer activity compared to the non-reference allele. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This work provides in vitro evidence to support allele-dependent enhancer activity of a novel JIA-risk variant at 1q24.3. Our ongoing work investigates the effect of the DNA-containing region of rs78037977 on gene expression and differential transcription factor binding at rs78037977.
In 2019, a 42-year-old African man who works as an Ebola virus disease (EVD) researcher traveled from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), near an ongoing EVD epidemic, to Philadelphia and presented to the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania Emergency Department with altered mental status, vomiting, diarrhea, and fever. He was classified as a “wet” person under investigation for EVD, and his arrival activated our hospital emergency management command center and bioresponse teams. He was found to be in septic shock with multisystem organ dysfunction, including circulatory dysfunction, encephalopathy, metabolic lactic acidosis, acute kidney injury, acute liver injury, and diffuse intravascular coagulation. Critical care was delivered within high-risk pathogen isolation in the ED and in our Special Treatment Unit until a diagnosis of severe cerebral malaria was confirmed and EVD was definitively excluded.
This report discusses our experience activating a longitudinal preparedness program designed for rare, resource-intensive events at hospitals physically remote from any active epidemic but serving a high-volume international air travel port-of-entry.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may gradually worsen to dementia, but often remains stable for extended periods of time. Little is known about the predictors of decline to help explain this variation. We aimed to explore whether this heterogeneous course of MCI may be predicted by the presence of Lewy body (LB) symptoms in a prospectively-recruited longitudinal cohort of MCI with Lewy bodies (MCI-LB) and Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD).
A prospective cohort (n = 76) aged ⩾60 years underwent detailed assessment after recent MCI diagnosis, and were followed up annually with repeated neuropsychological testing and clinical review of cognitive status and LB symptoms. Latent class mixture modelling identified data-driven sub-groups with distinct trajectories of global cognitive function.
Three distinct trajectories were identified in the full cohort: slow/stable progression (46%), intermediate progressive decline (41%) and a small group with a much faster decline (13%). The presence of LB symptomology, and visual hallucinations in particular, predicted decline v. a stable cognitive trajectory. With time zeroed on study end (death, dementia or withdrawal) where available (n = 39), the same subgroups were identified. Adjustment for baseline functioning obscured the presence of any latent classes, suggesting that baseline function is an important parameter in prospective decline.
These results highlight some potential signals for impending decline in MCI; poorer baseline function and the presence of probable LB symptoms – particularly visual hallucinations. Identifying people with a rapid decline is important but our findings are preliminary given the modest cohort size.