Eleven athyridoid species are described and other related species are revised from the Lopingian (late Permian) of South China and Transcaucasia in southern Azerbaijan and northern Iran. The family Comelicaniidae Merla, 1930 is adopted. It includes six subfamilies, of which Araxathyriinae is proposed as a new subfamily. Comparisons of species based on detailed internal structures indicate that some previously commonly recorded species from South China and Transcaucasia actually belong to different genera. Araxathyris coexisted in the two regions. Comelicania, Gruntallina, Janiceps, Transcaucasathyris, and Comelicothyris are only found in the southern Alps, Hungary, and/or Transcaucasia; whereas Tongzithyris and Rectambitus are restricted to South China. Other new taxa are Transcaucasathyris n. gen., Araxathyris sinensis n. sp., Rectambitus xui n. sp., and R. spondomarginata n. sp.