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To investigate the effects of dietary fiber on follicular atresia in pigs fed a high-fat diet, we fed 32 prepubescent gilts a basal diet (CON) or a CON diet supplemented with 300 g/d dietary fiber (fiber), 240 g/d soy oil (SO), or both (fiber + SO). At the 19th day of the 4th estrus cycle, gilts fed the SO diet showed 112% more atretic follicles and greater expression of the apoptotic markers, Bax and Caspase-3, and these effects were reversed by the fiber diet. The abundance of short-chain fatty acid-producing microbes was decreased by the SO diet, but this effect was reversed by fiber treatment. Concentrations of serotonin and melatonin in the serum and follicular fluid were increased by the fiber diet. Overall, dietary fiber protected against high-fat feeding induced follicular atresia at least partly via gut microbiota-related serotonin–melatonin synthesis. These results provide insight into preventing negative effects on fertility in humans consuming a high-energy diet.
The microstructure evolution, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and precipitation of the ZM61 alloy sheets prepared with different rolling conditions were studied. The DRX grain sizes (dDRX) at four high strain rate rolling (HSRR) temperatures (275–350 °C) are 1.9, 2.3, 2.6 and 3.1 μm, respectively, while the DRX volume fractions (fVDRX) are 69, 73, 76 and 82%, respectively. 300 °C is selected as the optimal HSRR temperature. The dDRX and fVDRX of the alloys prepared by pre-rolling (PR) at 300 °C + HSRR are 1.0 μm and 91%, respectively. The PR treatment does not change the types of the precipitates but promotes the precipitation. The tensile strength (UTS) of 369 MPa and yield strength (YS) of 261 MPa can be achieved by HSRR at 300 °C, while a further increase in both UTS and YS can be obtained by PR treatment.
The present study aimed to evaluate the status of iodine nutrition and thyroid function in adults, to understand the distribution of thyroid disease in people with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) in different water iodine areas and to explore the relationship between serum iodine, urine iodine and thyroid function in people with AITD. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in areas of Shandong Province with different water iodine levels, and subsequently 1225 adults were enrolled from iodine-deficient (ID), iodine-adequate (IA) and iodine-excess (IE) areas. Urinary iodine, water iodine, salt iodine, serum iodine and thyroid function were measured. According to the urine iodine concentration, the ID and IA areas were defined as iodine sufficient and the IE area as iodine excessive. Urine iodine, serum iodine, free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were comparatively higher in the IE area. The positive rate of thyroglobulin antibody (19·1 %) and the prevalence of AITD (21·8 %) were higher in the ID areas; the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was lowest in the ID areas (7·3 %) and highest in the IE area (16·3 %). Among the AITD population, urinary iodine concentration, free triiodothyronine, FT4 and TSH had a non-linear correlation with serum iodine; abnormal TSH level, serum iodine concentration > 110 µg/l and goitre were risk factors for AITD in adults, especially females. Our data collectively suggest that universal salt iodisation has improved the iodine nutritional status of the population in ID areas in China. Non-step-by-step iodine fortification may induce the transformation of thyroid autoimmune diseases from recessive-to-dominant in susceptible people. Moreover, enhanced monitoring of thyroid function in people with AITD is important.
The nitrogen-decorated CeO2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite (CeO2/N-rGO) was one-step synthesized by a facile hydrothermal technique and applied as counter electrode materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For comparison, CeO2/rGO and rGO were also synthesized by adjusting corresponding reactants. It was found that the as-synthesized CeO2/N-rGO shows better electrocatalytic activity for triiodide/iodide reduction than that of pure rGO and CeO2/rGO, and a synergistic effect of nitrogen and CeO2 on the rGO sheets was observed. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSCs based on CeO2/N-rGO counter electrode was 3.20%, which is higher than that of CeO2/rGO (2.45%) and rGO counter electrode (1.37%). Furthermore, the synergistic effect of nitrogen and CeO2 on the rGO sheets was also discussed in detail with different CeO2 amount levels. It is believed that this one-step synthetic method is a potential way to synthesize low-cost and efficient rGO-based multiple composited counter electrode materials to replace more expensive Pt.
To determine whether ambient air pollutants and meteorological variables are associated with daily COVID-19 incidence.
A retrospective cohort from January 25 to February 29, 2020.
Cities of Wuhan, Xiaogan, and Huanggang, China.
The COVID-19 cases detected each day.
We collected daily data of COVID-19 incidence, 8 ambient air pollutants (particulate matter of ≤2.5 µm [PM2.5], particulate matter ≤10 µm [PM10], sulfur dioxide [SO2], carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and maximum 8-h moving average concentrations for ozone [O3-8h]) and 3 meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, and wind) in China’s 3 worst COVID-19–stricken cities during the study period. The multivariate Poisson regression was performed to understand their correlation.
Daily COVID-19 incidence was positively associated with PM2.5 and humidity in all cities. Specifically, the relative risk (RR) of PM2.5 for daily COVID-19 incidences were 1.036 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.032–1.039) in Wuhan, 1.059 (95% CI, 1.046–1.072) in Xiaogan, and 1.144 (95% CI, 1.12–1.169) in Huanggang. The RR of humidity for daily COVID-19 incidence was consistently lower than that of PM2.5, and this difference ranged from 0.027 to 0.111. Moreover, PM10 and temperature also exhibited a notable correlation with daily COVID-19 incidence, but in a negative pattern The RR of PM10 for daily COVID-19 incidence ranged from 0.915 (95% CI, 0.896–0.934) to 0.961 (95% CI, 0.95–0.972, while that of temperature ranged from 0.738 (95% CI, 0.717–0.759) to 0.969 (95% CI, 0.966–0.973).
Our data show that PM2.5 and humidity are substantially associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 and that PM10 and temperature are substantially associated with a decreased risk of COVID-19.
The time to positivity (TTP) of blood cultures has been considered a predictor of clinical outcomes for bacteremia. This retrospective study aimed to determine the clinical value of TTP for the prognostic assessment of patients with Escherichia coli bacteremia. A total of 167 adult patients with E.coli bacteremia identified over a 22-month period in a 3500-bed university teaching hospital in China were studied. The standard cut-off TTP was 11 h in the patient cohort. The septic shock occurred in 27.9% of patients with early TTP (⩽11 h) and in 7.1% of those with a prolonged TTP (>11 h) (P = 0.003). The mortality rate was significantly higher for patients in the early than in the late group (17.7% vs. 4.0%, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that an early TTP (OR 4.50, 95% CI 1.70–11.93), intensive care unit admission (OR 8.39, 95% CI 2.01–35.14) and neutropenia (OR 4.20, 95% CI 1.55–11.40) were independently associated with septic shock. Likewise, the independent risk factors for mortality of patients were an early TTP (OR 3.80, 95% CI 1.04–12.90), intensive care unit admission (OR 6.45; 95% CI 1.14–36.53), a Pittsburgh bacteremia score ⩾2 (OR 4.34, 95% CI 1.22–15.47) and a Charlson Comorbidity Index ⩾3 (OR 11.29, 95% CI 2.81–45.39). Overall, a TTP for blood cultures within 11 h appears to be associated with worse outcomes for patients with E.coli bacteremia.
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and caused devastating epidemics during the 20th century. Due to effective control programs implemented in the last two decades, the number of reported cases has fallen to a historically low level. Although fewer than 977 cases were reported in 2018 in endemic countries, HAT is still a public health problem in endemic regions until it is completely eliminated. In addition, almost 150 confirmed HAT cases were reported in non-endemic countries in the last three decades. The majority of non-endemic HAT cases were reported in Europe, USA and South Africa, due to historical alliances, economic links or geographic proximity to disease-endemic countries. Furthermore, with the implementation of the ‘Belt and Road’ project, sporadic imported HAT cases have been reported in China as a warning sign of tropical diseases prevention. In this paper, we explore and interpret the data on HAT incidence and find no positive correlation between the number of HAT cases from endemic and non-endemic countries. This data will provide useful information for better understanding the imported cases of HAT globally in the post-elimination phase.
Multiple neurotrophic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, nerve growth factor (NGF) and insulin-like growth factor(IGF)-1, have been shown to play important roles in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. However, insufficient clinical data supporting the importance of these neurotrophic factors in mood disorders, especially manic episode, have made inconclusive to make a connection between these factors and the disorder.
This study intended to investigate possible peripheral biomarkers in serum of manic episode of bipolar disorder.
We aimed to investigate whether or not serum levels of VEGF, FGF-2, NGF and IGF-1 varied in manic state.
Serum levels of VEGF, FGF-2, NGF and IGF-1 were examined in 70 drug-naïve patients with manic episode of bipolar disorder (BM) as well as 50 healthy controls, using an ELISA method.
The mean serum levels of VEGF, FGF-2, NGF and IGF-1 were 168.13±225.61pg/ml, 279.09±378.62pg/ml, 61.38±171.67pg/ml and 162.01±72.00ng/ml in BM patients, and 140.80±143.71pg/ml, 275.46±235.29pg/ml, 36.34±15.14pg/ml and 138.90±80.11ng/ml in healthy controls, respectively. Serum levels of FGF-2, NGF and IGF-1 in patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (Z=−2.896, P=0.004; Z=− 2.050, P=0.040; Z=−2.188, P=0.029; respectively), although there was no statistical difference in the serum levels of VEGF between two groups (Z=-0.468, P=0.639). Moreover, serum levels of NGF in patients correlated with the duration of disorder (rs=−0.241, P=0.044).
The increase in serum levels of FGF-2, NGF and IGF-1 in manic state may reflect a neuroprotective role for these factors, and these factors may be considered biological markers for manic episode.
This study examined the association between childhood conditions and arthritis among middle-aged and older adults in China. The data were derived from the 2015 wave and the life-history module of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with respondents age 45 and over across China. Multiple imputation was used to handle the missing data, generating a final analytic sample of 19,800. Doctor-diagnosed arthritis was the main outcome variable. Random-effects logistic regression models were used to test the proposed models. Approximately 8 per cent of the respondents had better family financial status in childhood than their neighbours. Close to 8 per cent had been hospitalised or encountered similar conditions (e.g. confined to bed or home) for at least one month in childhood. Around one-third reported better subjective health in childhood than their peers. The majority of the respondents (80%) reported that they had stable health resources, and that their mothers were illiterate during their childhood. Childhood family financial status, subjective health, mother's education, access to health care and medical catastrophic events were found to be significant factors associated with arthritis in later life, after controlling for adulthood and older-age conditions (family financial status: odds ratio (OR) = 0.885, 95 per cent confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.848–0.924; subjective health: OR = 0.924, 95% CI = 0.889–0.960; mother's education: OR = 0.863, 95% CI = 0.750–0.992; access to health care: OR = 0.729, 95% CI = 0.552–0.964; medical catastrophic events: OR = 1.266, 95% CI = 1.108–1.446). The study results highlight an important role that childhood conditions play in affecting the onset of arthritis in late life in China. Health-care providers may consider childhood conditions as a valuable screening criterion to identify risk populations, which could be used to guide health promotion and prevention programmes, and promote healthy ageing.
The aim of this study was to develop and externally validate a simple-to-use nomogram for predicting the survival of hospitalised human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients (hospitalised person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs)). Hospitalised PLWHAs (n = 3724) between January 2012 and December 2014 were enrolled in the training cohort. HIV-infected inpatients (n = 1987) admitted in 2015 were included as the external-validation cohort. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method was used to perform data dimension reduction and select the optimal predictors. The nomogram incorporated 11 independent predictors, including occupation, antiretroviral therapy, pneumonia, tuberculosis, Talaromyces marneffei, hypertension, septicemia, anaemia, respiratory failure, hypoproteinemia and electrolyte disturbances. The Likelihood χ2 statistic of the model was 516.30 (P = 0.000). Integrated Brier Score was 0.076 and Brier scores of the nomogram at the 10-day and 20-day time points were 0.046 and 0.071, respectively. The area under the curves for receiver operating characteristic were 0.819 and 0.828, and precision-recall curves were 0.242 and 0.378 at two time points. Calibration plots and decision curve analysis in the two sets showed good performance and a high net benefit of nomogram. In conclusion, the nomogram developed in the current study has relatively high calibration and is clinically useful. It provides a convenient and useful tool for timely clinical decision-making and the risk management of hospitalised PLWHAs.
The advantage of alcohol–calcium method on the formation and the stability of vaterite against ethanol–water binary solvents (EWBS) method was studied through comparative experiment. The polymorphs and morphologies of CaCO3 were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results show that vaterite slowly decreases from 90.4 to 82.5% as increasing aging time from 0 to 1320 min in alcohol–calcium system, while quickly decreases from 46.5% to 0% at the same aging time in EWBS system. The similar variation as reaction temperature was found in both systems. SEM images indicate that calcite presents its typical rhombohedral morphology in both systems, while the morphologies of vaterite particles in two systems are different. In alcohol–calcium system, small vaterite nanoparticles aggregate into spherical microparticles, and these microparticles become porous, loose, and irregular, even incomplete, as increasing aging time and reaction temperature, while in EWBS system, vaterite nanoparticles aggregate into irregular microparticles. The advantage of alcohol–calcium method was discussed from the formation of the complex compound CaCl2·n(C2H5OH) in alcohol and its decomplexation in aqueous medium.
To improve the prenatal diagnosis for anomalous origin of pulmonary artery branches by comparing and analyzing different types of fetal echocardiography features.
Between June 2012 and December 2018, fetal echocardiographic features were analyzed retrospectively from fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of anomalous origin of pulmonary artery branch. The main points of identification were summarized.
A total of 12 fetuses were diagnosed, including anomalous origin of a pulmonary artery branch from the innominate artery and six cases with unilateral absence of pulmonary artery. The shared characteristic sonographic finding was the lack of confluence at the bifurcation of the main pulmonary artery. The differences between the two conditions are highlighted by the origin of the anomalous vessel. In fetuses with anomalous origin of one pulmonary artery branch, the affected pulmonary artery arose from the posterior wall of the ascending aorta as noted on three vessels and trachea view as well as the long axis of the left ventricular outflow tract. This is in contrast to fetuses with unilateral absence of pulmonary artery, where the origin of affected pulmonary artery arises from the base of the innominate artery via the ipsilateral patent arterial duct as evident on the three vessels and trachea view and the coronal view of innominate (brachiocephalic) artery.
(1) The main similarity is an absence of a confluence at the bifurcation of the main pulmonary artery. (2) The main distinguishing feature is the origin of the anomalous vessel from either the subclavian or directly from the aorta.
The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary threonine (Thr) on growth performance and muscle growth, protein synthesis and antioxidant-related signalling pathways of hybrid catfish Pelteobagrus vachelli♀ × Leiocassis longirostris♂. A total of 1200 fish (14·19 (se 0·13) g) were randomly distributed into six groups with four replicates each, fed six diets with graded level of Thr (9·5, 11·5, 13·5, 15·4, 17·4 and 19·3 g/kg diets) for 56 d. Results showed (P < 0·05) that dietary Thr (1) increased percentage weight gain, specific growth rate, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio; (2) up-regulated growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), proliferating cell nuclear antigen, myogenic regulation factors (MyoD, Myf5, MyoG and Mrf4) and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) mRNA levels; (3) increased muscle protein content via regulating the protein kinase B/target of rapamycin signalling pathway and (4) decreased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents, increased catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and GSH activities, up-regulated mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes related to NFE2-related factor 2 and γ-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit. These results suggest that Thr has a potential role to improve muscle growth and protein synthesis, which might be due to the regulation of GH-IGF system, muscle growth-related gene, antioxidative capacity and protein synthesis-related signalling pathways. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of specific growth rate, the Thr requirement of hybrid catfish (14·19–25·77 g) was estimated to be 13·77 g/kg of the diet (33·40 g/kg of dietary protein).
In this study, coatings containing Ca and P elements on Ti6Al4V alloy were fabricated by micro-arc oxidation at different applied voltages. Subsequently, evaluation of the phase structure, morphology, element composition, corrosion mechanism, and tribocorrosion behavior of these coatings was performed. The results showed that the coatings consisted of rutile TiO2 and anatase TiO2. The ratio of rutile/anatase, surface roughness, and hardness increase with the increase of applied voltage. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results indicated the corrosion resistance of coatings in simulated body fluid of 400 V > 380 V > 420 V. The open circuit potential of sample 400 V declined during the tribocorrosion test. Sample 420 V possessed the highest wear volume after the tribocorrosion process. The tribocorrosion mechanism of samples 380 and 420 V was mainly confirmed as the wear effect, and the decline of corrosion resistance due to the micro-cracks formed during the abrasive wear of the coating accounts for the tribocorrosion mechanism of sample 400 V.
The present study investigated the effects of condensed tannins (CT) on intestinal immune function in on-growing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 healthy grass carp were fed six diets containing different levels of CT (0, 10·00, 20·00, 30·00, 40·00 and 50·00 g/kg diet) for 70 d and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 d. The results showed that, compared with the control group, dietary CT (1) induced intestinal histopathological lesions and aggravated enteritis; (2) decreased lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 (C3), C4 and IgM contents and down-regulated the Hepcidin, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2A, LEAP-2B, Mucin2 and β-defensin-1 mRNA levels in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) (P < 0·05); (3) down-regulated the mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2 (not in MI and DI), IL-4/13A (not IL-4/13B), IL-10 and IL-11 partly correlated with target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling; and (4) up-regulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 (not in PI), IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-15 and IL-17D partly related to NF-κB signalling in the intestine of on-growing grass carp. Overall, the results indicated that CT could impair the intestinal immune function, and its potential regulation mechanisms were partly associated with the TOR and NF-κB signalling pathways. Finally, based on the percentage weight gain and enteritis morbidity, the maximum allowable levels of CT for on-growing grass carp (232·22–890·11 g) were estimated to be 18·6 and 17·4 g/kg diet, respectively.
Autonomous ships are gaining in importance and are expected to shape the future of the global shipping industry. This evolutionary shift raises serious issues about compliance with the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972 (COLREGs). This paper reviews the literature on autonomous ships from the perspective of the obligations of good seamanship imposed by COLREGs. The authors conclude that to facilitate the introduction of autonomous ships, the application barriers presented by COLREGs need to be analysed. With this goal, this paper presents a perspective from navigational practice. Four nautical scientists and two deck officers were invited to give their opinions. The analysis indicates that COLREGs require further elaboration and amendments to eliminate uncertainty of interpretation. In particular, the paper highlights the need to amend the ‘look-out’ rule (COLREGs Rule 5) to permit look-out by ‘computer vision’ alone while, at the same time, preserving the distinction between vessels navigating in restricted visibility and in sight of one another.
The Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR), initiated in 2001, has now become the largest twin registry in Asia. From 2015 to 2018, the CNTR continued to receive Chinese government funding and had recruited 61,566 twin-pairs by 2019 to study twins discordant for specific exposures such as environmental factors, and twins discordant for disease outcomes or measures of morbidity. Omic data, including genetics, genomics, metabolomics, and proteomics, and gut microbiome will be tested. The integration of omics and digital technologies in public health will advance our understanding of precision public health. This review introduces the updates of the CNTR, including study design, sample size, biobank, zygosity assessment, advances in research and future systems epidemiologic research.
The effect of hot streaks from a gas turbine combustor on the thermodynamic load of internally air-cooled nozzle guide vanes (NGVs) and shrouds has been numerically investigated under flight conditions. The study follows two steps: one for the high-fidelity 60° combustor sector with simplified ten NGVs and three thermocouples attached; and the other for the NGV sectors where each sector consists of one high-fidelity NGV (probe NGV) and nine dummy NGVs. The first step identifies which NGV has the highest thermal load and provides the inlet flow boundary conditions for the second step. In the second step, the flow fields and thermal loads of the probe NGVs are resolved in detail.
With the systematically validated physical models, the two-phase flowfield of the combustor-NGVs sector has been successfully simulated. The predicted mean and maximum temperature at the combustor sector exit are in excellent agreement with the experimental data, which provides a solid basis for the hot-streak effect investigation. The results indicate that the second NGV, looking upstream from left, has the highest thermal load. Its maximum surface temperature is 8.4% higher than that for the same NGV but with the mean inlet boundary conditions, and 14.1% higher than the ninth NGV. The finding is consistent with the field-observed NGV damage pattern. To extend the service life of these vulnerable NGVs, some protection methods should be considered.