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Effects of dietary supplemental stachyose on caecal skatole concentration, hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450, CYP) mRNA expressions and enzymatic activities in broilers were evaluated. Arbor Acre commercial mixed male and female chicks were assigned randomly into six treatments. The positive control (PC) diet was based on maize–soyabean meal, and the negative control (NC) diet was based on maize–non-soyabean meal. The NC diet was then supplemented with 4, 5, 6 and 7 g/kg stachyose to create experimental diets, named S-4, S-5, S-6 and S-7, respectively. Each diet was fed to six replicates of ten birds from days 1 to 49. On day 49, the caecal skatole concentrations in the PC, S-4, S-5, S-6 and S-7 groups were lower than those in the NC group by 42·28, 23·68, 46·09, 15·31 and 45·14 % (P < 0·01), respectively. The lowest pH value was observed in the S-5 group (P < 0·05). The stachyose-fed groups of broilers had higher caecal acetate and propionate levels compared with control groups, and propionate levels in the S-6 and S-7 groups were higher than those in the S-4 and S-5 groups (P < 0·001). The highest CYP3A4 expression was found in the S-7 group (P < 0·05), but this was not different from PC, S-4, S-5 and S-6 treatments. There was no significant difference in CYP450 (1A2, 2D6 and 3A4) enzymatic activities among the groups (P > 0·05). In conclusion, caecal skatole levels can be influenced by dietary stachyose levels, and 5 g/kg of stachyose in the diet was suggested.
A certain degree of pulmonary stenosis after total correction of tetralogy of Fallot has been considered acceptable. But the long-term outcomes are not well understood. We observed the natural course of immediate pulmonary stenosis and investigated related factors for progression.
Fifty-two patients with acceptable pulmonary stenosis immediately after operation were enrolled. Acceptable pulmonary stenosis was defined as peak pressure gradient between 15 and 45 mmHg by Doppler echocardiography. Latent class linear mixed model was used to differentiate patients with progressed pulmonary stenosis, and the factors related to progression were analysed.
Pulmonary stenosis progressed in 14 patients (27%). Between the progression group and no progression group, there were no significant differences in operative age, sex, and the use of the transannular patch technique. However, immediate gradient was higher in the progression group (32.1 mmHg versus 25.7 mmHg, p = 0.009), and the cut-off value was 26.8 mmHg (sensitivity = 65.3%, specificity = 65.8%). Main stenosis at the sub-valve was observed more frequently in the progression group (85.7% versus 52.6%, p = 0.027). Despite no difference in the preoperative pulmonary valve z value, the last follow-up pulmonary valve z value was significantly lower in the progression group (−1.15 versus 0.35, p = 0.002).
Pulmonary stenosis immediately after tetralogy of Fallot total correction might progress in patients with immediate pulmonary stenosis higher than ≥26.8 mmHg and the main site was sub-valve area.
The Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) gene has been identified as a top risk gene for schizophrenia in several large-scale genome-wide association studies. A variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) of this gene is the most significant expression quantitative trait locus, but its role in brain activity in vivo is still unknown.
We first performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan of 101 healthy subjects during a memory span task, trained all subjects on an adaptive memory span task for 1 month, and finally performed another fMRI scan after the training. After excluding subjects with excessive head movements for one or more scanning sessions, data from 93 subjects were included in the final analyses.
The VNTR was significantly associated with both baseline brain activation and training-induced changes in multiple regions including the prefrontal cortex and the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Additionally, it was associated with baseline brain activation in the striatum and the parietal cortex. All these results were corrected based on the family-wise error rate method across the whole brain at the peak level.
This study sheds light on the role of AS3MT gene variants in neural plasticity related to memory span training.
Cognitive dysfunction is a major component of schizophrenia, with deficits in executive function particularly pertinent to successful daily living and outcome.The objective of this study was to explore the long-time efficacy of Olanzapine in the treatment of cognitive control in schizophrenia.
36 cases of patients maintained treated with Olanzapine and 30 cases of patients treated with chlorpromazine were included in the 6 months follow-up study. Cognitive control was tested with Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) and Trail Making.
At the time of 6 months，all the scores of total trial, sorts, perseverative errors and random errors on WCST and all target of Trail Making Test were significantly decreased in the two groups of patients (P<0.05 or P<0.01)；but the decreased rate of perseverative errors on WCST of Olanzapine group were significantly higher than that of chlopromazine group(P<0.01).
Olanzapine have a good efficacy in the long-time treatment of cognitive control in schizophrenia.
Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neuro- psychiatric disorder characterised by multiple motor and vocal tics lasting more than one year. An immune-mediated mechanism involving molecular mimicry has been proposed for PANDAS (Paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection). PANDAS may offer a new way to explore the pathogens of GTS. IL-1Ra86bp,IL-1βexon5 gene Polymorphism and Cognitive Function are studied in 86 Children with Tourette's Syndrome.
In the present study, we genotyped a large multiplex sample of GTS affected children for polymorphisms in IL-1Ra86bp,IL-1βexon5 genes. Associations were tested by the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). 86 Han Chinese children with GTS were tested using a set of neuropsychological test(Stroop test, trail making test, verbal fluency test, modified Wisconsin Card sorting test) and compared with 51 healthy control group to understand the relationship between cognitive deficits and genetics.
No evidence for transmission disequilibrium was found for polymorphisms of IL-1 Ra86bp,IL-1 βexon5 gene in this GTS sample. The frequency of 410bp/240bp genotype and 240bp allele in combined ADHD were significantly different from GTS alone. Compared with normal children, The GTS group showed impairment on almost all psychological measures. No evidence show significantly difference among IL-1Ra86bp, IL-1βexon5 gene Polymorphism and Cognitive Function.
For the GTS+ADHD group, the 240bp allele of IL-1Ra gene Polymorphism perhaps is another risk factor.GTS patient has memory, attention and executive function defect, these defects may have something to do with the prefrontal dopamine disfunction.
Impaired executive function has been proposed as a trait marker for adult bipolar disorder. However, similar impairments in children bipolar disorder have not been yet documented. Here,we assessed executive function in 21 children and adolescents with bipolar disorder.
21 children and adolescents with bipolar disorder and 21 demographically matched healthy participants completed a standardized WCST test.
The operation result in children with bipolar disorder did not differ from that in controls. Severity of mood symptomatology was not associated with WCST performance in any bipolar subtype.
Findings suggest that executive function in children bipolar disorder are not similar to those seen in the adult form of the illness. Compares with the adult, the children bipolar disorder possibly may have different pathogenesis.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of venlafaxine HCL sustained release capsules in treatment of depression in adolescents.
A randomized，double blind and double dummy clinical trial enrolled 60 adolescents patients with depression, who were randomized 1:1 to administer venlafaxine HCL sustained release capsules 150 mg or fluoxetine 20 mg daily for 8 weeks．The efficacy of both treatment groups was evaluated based on the Hamilton Depression Scale and Clinical General Impression Scale pre- and post-treatment.
The scores of Hamilton Depression Scale at the end of therapy were significantly reduced compared with the baseline in both groups(P<0.01).The efficacy rate of venlafaxine HCL sustained release capsules versus fluoxetine treatment was 70.0％ and 65.5％, respectively;the P value showed no statistical difference(P>0.05).The common adverse reactions included dry mouth，insomnia，dizziness，and loss of appetite.
Venlafaxine HCL sustained release capsules is efective and safe agent for adolescents with major depression.
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among infectious diseases. China has a high burden of TB and accounted for almost 13% of the world's cases of multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB. Spinal TB is one reason for the resurgence of TB in China. Few large case studies of MDR spinal TB in China have been conducted. The aim of this research was to observe the epidemiological characteristics of inpatients with MDR spinal TB in six provinces and cities of China from 1999–2015. This is a multicentre retrospective observational study. Patients' information was collected from the control disease centre and infectious disease database of hospitals in six provinces and cities in China. A total of 3137 patients with spinal TB and 272 patients with MDR spinal TB were analysed. The result showed that MDR spinal TB remains a public health concern and commonly affects patients 15–30 years of age (34.19%). The most common lesions involved the thoracolumbar spine (35.66%). Local pain was the most common symptom (98.53%). Logistic analysis showed that for spinal TB patients, reside in rural district (OR 1.79), advanced in years (OR 1.92) and high education degree (OR 2.22) were independent risk factors for the development of MDR spinal TB. Women were associated with a lower risk of MDR spinal TB (OR 0.48). The most common first-line and second-line resistant drug was isoniazid (68.75%) and levofloxacin (29.04%), respectively. The use of molecular diagnosis resulted in noteworthy clinical advances, including earlier initiation of MDR spinal TB treatment, improved infection control and better clinical outcome. Chemotherapy and surgery can yield satisfactory outcomes with timely diagnosis and long-term treatment. These results enable a better understanding of the MDR spinal TB in China among the general public.
In this paper, we report the recent progress on the
laser beamline of Shanghai Superintense Ultrafast Laser Facility (SULF). The SULF-1 PW laser beamline is based on the double chirped pulse amplification (CPA) scheme, which can generate laser pulses of 50.8 J at 0.1 Hz after the final amplifier; the shot-to-shot energy fluctuation of the amplified pulse is as low as 1.2% (std). After compression, the pulse duration of 29.6 fs is achieved, which can support a maximal peak power of 1 PW. The contrast ratio at
before main pulse is measured to be
. The focused peak intensity is improved by optimizing the angular dispersion in the grating compressor. The maximal focused peak intensity can reach
even with an
off-axis parabolic mirror. The horizontal and vertical angular pointing fluctuations in 1 h are measured to be 1.89 and
, respectively. The moderate repetition rate and the good stability are desirable characteristics for laser–matter interactions. The SULF-1 PW laser beamline is now in the phase of commissioning, and preliminary experiments of particle acceleration and secondary radiation under 300–400 TW/0.1 Hz laser condition have been implemented. The progress on the experiments and the daily stable operation of the laser demonstrate the availability of the SULF-1 PW beamline.
Lao PDR is one of the poorest countries in the world, ranked the 138th of 188 developing countries. Although household food insecurity has been prevalent in Northern Rao PDR, no valid measurement of household food insecurity exists. Therefore, the study was to develop a household food insecurity questionnaire and verify the validity of the questionnaire in the rural areas of Lao PDR.
Materials and Methods
Using a multistage-sampling cross-sectional study, the sample included 373 households with children under 5 years of age living in Xieng Khouang, Lao PDR. The questionnaire was composed of 18 items based on the US household Food Security Survey Module and partially modified to local circumstances. Internal consistency of questions measured with Cronbach's α was adequate, result of 0.746. External validity was evaluated through comparison analyses between food insecurity levels and household socioeconomic indicators.
Results and discussion
Among 373 households, 42.7% were food-insecure and 4.3% were food-insecure with hunger. There were more food-insecure households in those with lower maternal education levels (P < 0.001), greater number of household members (P < 0.001), longer travel time to farmland (P = 0.003), and lower household asset scores (P < 0.001). Households with the residence made of natural material for walls (P < 0.001), roofs (P < 0.001) and floors (P < 0.001) as well as without electricity (P < 0.001), pipe to supply drinking water (P < 0.001), and income other than agriculture (P < 0.001) had higher food insecurity than their counterparts. In addition, inadequate maternal prenatal care and education, child health care, and vaccinations increased household food insecurity. Mothers and children in food-insecure households had lower intakes of various food groups including protein-source foods. This study would provide a valid instrument to assess food insecurity and be used in the future as an evaluation tool for the improvement of nutritional deficiencies as well as a tool for selection of target subjects in Northern Rao PDR.
In this work, a new reconfigurable discrete 1D beam-steering Fabry–Perot cavity antenna with enhanced radiation performance is presented. It consists of a probe-fed patch antenna printed on the ground plane and a reconfigurable metasurface acting as the upper partially reflective surface to realize beam steering. By utilizing 6 × 6 proposed reconfigurable unit cells on the superstrate, the beam-steering angle can be effectively enhanced from ±7° to ±17° with fewer active elements and a much simpler biasing network. The proposed antenna was fabricated to validate the feasibility. Good agreement between the simulated and measured results is achieved. Moreover, the measured realized gains are over 11 dBi with a gain variation from the boresight direction to the tilted direction <0.2 dBi.
The gut is composed of a single layer of intestinal epithelial cells and plays important roles in the digestion and absorption of nutrients, immune and barrier functions and amino acid metabolism. Weaning stress impairs piglet intestinal epithelium structural and functional integrities, which results in reduced feed intake, growth rates and increased morbidity and mortality. Several measures are needed to maintain swine gut development and growth performance after weaning stress. A large body of evidence indicates that, in weaning piglets, glutamine, a functional amino acid, may improve growth performance and intestinal morphology, reduce oxidative damage, stimulate enterocyte proliferation, modulate cell survival and death and enhance intestinal paracellular permeability. This review focuses on the effects of glutamine on intestinal health in piglets. The aim is to provide evidentiary support for using glutamine as a feed additive to alleviate weaning stress.
Image stitching is important for the perception and manipulation of undersea robots. In spite of a well-developed technique, it is still challenging for undersea images because of their inevitable appearance ambiguity caused by the limited light in the undersea environment, and local disturbance caused by moving objects, ocean current, etc. To get a clean and stable background panorama in the undersea environment, this paper proposes an undersea image-stitching method by introducing graph-based registration and blending procedures. Specifically, in the registration procedure, matching the features in each undersea image pair is formulated and solved by graph matching, to incorporate the structural information between features. In the blending procedure, an energy function on the indirect graph Markov random field is proposed, which takes both image consistency and neighboring consistency into consideration. Coincidentally, both graph matching and energy minimization can be mathematically formulated by integer quadratic programming problems with different constraints; the recently proposed graduated nonconvexity and concavity procedure is used to optimize both problems. Experiments on both synthetic images and real-world undersea images witness the effectiveness of the proposed method.
A homogeneous structured CoCrNi medium-entropy alloy was synthesized by gas atomization and spark plasma sintering (SPS). The mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and magnetic properties were reported in this study. The as-atomized CoCrNi MEA powder, with a spherical morphology in shape and a mean particle diameter of 61 μm, consisted of a single face-centered cubic (FCC) phase with homogeneous distributions of Co, Cr, and Ni elements. Also, the cross-sectional microstructure of powder particles gradually transformed from fully cellular structure into equiaxed-type structure with increasing particle size. After being sintered by SPS, the CoCrNi MEA consisted of a single FCC phase with a mean grain size of 20.8 μm. Meanwhile, the CoCrNi MEA can capable of offering an ultimate tensile strength of 799 MPa, yield strength of 352 MPa, elongation of 53.6%, and hardness of 195.3 HV. In addition, this MEA showed superior corrosion resistance to that of 304 SS (stainless steel) in both 0.5 mol/L HCl and 1 mol/L NaOH solutions. The magnetization loop indicated that this MEA has good soft magnetic properties.
The trace elements in quartz, Al and Ti, contain considerable information about mineral genesis, and determining their concentrations is of great importance in geology. Electron probe microanalysis has the advantages of non-destructive testing and high spatial resolution; however, it is a challenge to improve the accuracy and precision of trace element detection using this method. The important factors affecting accuracy include the fragility of quartz lattices at high beam currents and the methods used to determine the background. In this paper, the peaks of Al-Kα and Ti-Kα, and their backgrounds, were found to exhibit intensity variations at high beam currents and small beam diameters; therefore, it is necessary to select a large beam diameter (up to 20 µm) to avoid variations in intensity at high currents (500 nA). For background determination of Al, a multipoint background method is proposed to determine the background value, which greatly improves the accuracy of the results. For Ti, the choice of background measurement does not affect the result. In addition, it is verified that the background obtained from other quartz samples can be used as the background of an unknown quartz sample, which reduces the analysis time and minimizes sample damage.
Research suggests an association between metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and schizophrenia. However, the risk of metabolic disorders in the unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia remains unclear.
Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 3135 unaffected siblings of schizophrenia probands and 12,540 age-/sex-matched control subjects were included and followed up to the end of 2011. Individuals who developed metabolic disorders during the follow-up period were identified.
The unaffected siblings of schizophrenia probands had a higher prevalence of T2DM (3.4% vs. 2.6%, p = 0.010) than the controls. Logistic regression analyses with the adjustment of demographic data revealed that the unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia were more likely to develop T2DM (odds ratio [OR]: 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–1.75) later in life compared with the control group. Moreover, only female siblings of schizophrenia probands had an increased risk of hypertension (OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.07–2.01) during the follow-up compared with the controls.
The unaffected siblings, especially sisters, of schizophrenia probands had a higher prevalence of T2DM and hypertension compared with the controls. Our study revealed a familial link between schizophrenia and T2DM in a large sample. Additional studies are required to investigate the shared pathophysiology of schizophrenia and T2DM.
Given its diverse disease courses and symptom presentations, multiple phenotype dimensions with different biological underpinnings are expected with bipolar disorders (BPs). In this study, we aimed to identify lifetime BP psychopathology dimensions. We also explored the differing associations with bipolar I (BP-I) and bipolar II (BP-II) disorders.
We included a total of 307 subjects with BPs in the analysis. For the factor analysis, we chose six variables related to clinical courses, 29 indicators covering lifetime symptoms of mood episodes, and 6 specific comorbid conditions. To determine the relationships among the identified phenotypic dimensions and their effects on differentiating BP subtypes, we applied structural equation modeling.
We selected a six-factor solution through scree plot, Velicer's minimum average partial test, and face validity evaluations; the six factors were cyclicity, depression, atypical vegetative symptoms, elation, psychotic/irritable mania, and comorbidity. In the path analysis, five factors excluding atypical vegetative symptoms were associated with one another. Cyclicity, depression, and comorbidity had positive associations, and they correlated negatively with psychotic/irritable mania; elation showed positive correlations with cyclicity and psychotic/irritable mania. Depression, cyclicity, and comorbidity were stronger in BP-II than in BP-I, and they contributed significantly to the distinction between the two disorders.
We identified six phenotype dimensions; in addition to symptom features of manic and depressive episodes, various comorbidities and high cyclicity constructed separate dimensions. Except for atypical vegetative symptoms, all factors showed a complex interdependency and played roles in discriminating BP-II from BP-I.