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We hypothesised that men and women who engage in extreme or high-risk sports would score higher on standardised measures of bipolarity and impulsivity compared to age and gender matched controls.
Four-hundred and eighty extreme or high-risk athletes (255 males and 225 females) and 235 age-matched control persons (107 males and 128 females) were enrolled into the web-based case-control study. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) were administered to screen for bipolarity and impulsive behaviours, respectively.
Results indicated that extreme or high-risk athletes had significantly higher scores of bipolarity and impulsivity, and lower scores on cognitive complexity of the BIS-11, compared to controls. Further, there were positive correlations between the MDQ and BIS-11 scores.
These results showed greater rates of bipolarity and impulsivity, in the extreme or high-risk athletes, suggesting these measures are sensitive to high-risk behaviours.
It is unclear whether there is a direct link between economic crises and changes in suicide rates.
The Lopez-Ibor Foundation launched an initiative to study the possible impact of the economic crisis on European suicide rates.
Data was gathered and analysed from 29 European countries and included the number of deaths by suicide in men and women, the unemployment rate, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, the annual economic growth rate and inflation.
There was a strong correlation between suicide rates and all economic indices except GPD per capita in men but only a correlation with unemployment in women. However, the increase in suicide rates occurred several months before the economic crisis emerged.
Overall, this study confirms a general relationship between the economic environment and suicide rates; however, it does not support there being a clear causal relationship between the current economic crisis and an increase in the suicide rate.
A case of agomelatine-induced hepatotoxicity is described in a 47-year female patient who has received the drug, 25 mg/day, for 4 months, for the treatment of depression.
The patient was admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology because of fatigue and nausea, with concomitant elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 550 U/L, and asparagine aminotransferase (AST), 300 U/L.
Liver biopsy showed diffuse lymphocyte infiltration in the dilated portal spaces without lesion of hepatic lobules. Several weeks after stopping agomelatine, the liver enzymes returned to normal. Subsequently, small gallstones in common bile duct were detected and removed by the endoscopic sphincterotomy.
It is hypothesized that choledocholithiasis could theoretically increase a risk of developing agomelatine-induced hepatotoxicity in this patient. Any pre-existing liver disease should be a contraindication for treatment with agomelatine.
Evidence for a possible association between a low level of cholesterol and increased suicidal behaviour has accumulated in the recent 3 decades. The present study investigates whether lipid levels can make state-dependent markers of suicidal behaviour in Polish patients with mood disorder recently admitted to a psychiatric hospital owing to an acute depressive episode.
Materials and methods
The study was conducted on 223 patients (73 male and 150 female) with unipolar (n=171) and bipolar (n=52) depression. They were interviewed to assess any occurrence of suicidal thoughts, suicidal tendencies and/or suicidal attempts during the 3 months before admission. Laboratory measurements [total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total lipids] were obtained within 24–72 h after hospital admission.
Suicidal thoughts, tendencies, and attempts were associated with low total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and total lipids in both male and female patients, in both diagnostic categories. Triglycerides were significantly lower in male and female patients with suicidal thoughts compared with their non-suicidal counterparts. No association with suicidality was found with HDL cholesterol.
The results of our study support a majority of research showing the association in depressed patients between suicidal behaviour and low levels of total and LDL cholesterol. In addition, the data suggest a similar association with low total lipids, and in some instances, with low triglycerides.
Studies on the determinants of the quality of life (QOL) after stroke bring differing results depending on the applied concept of QOL. This may lead to confusion about the contribution of various factors to the post-stroke QOL.
The aim of the study was: (i) to investigate functional and psychological QOL in the individuals after the first ischemic stroke; (ii) to identify the most important correlates of QOL; and (iii) to examine the significance of depression among the other possible predictors of QOL.
A hospital-based sample of 72 stroke patients was followed up to 6 months after stroke onset. QOL was assessed using the Polish version of the Quality of Life Index and the Sickness Impact Profile. A multiple regression procedure was performed to examine relationships between QOL and the study variables.
In spite of good recovery, the psychological and functional QOL of the examined patients was impaired, although the negative impact of stroke was greater on the objective QOL than on the subjective QOL. Stroke-related impairment, depression, functional disability and marital status predicted 80% of the variance in the functional QOL. Emotional support, depression and functional disability explained 38% of the variance in psychological well-being.
Depression and physical disability were the most important predictors of QOL after stroke since their impact on QOL was more robust in comparison to the remaining variables. For improving QOL, a comprehensive care for patients aimed at reducing physical dependence and ameliorating depressive symptoms could be recommended.
There is considerable evidence that major depressive episode (MDE) in general, and treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in particular, may be accompanied by an immune-inflammatory response, as demonstrated by: an acute phase response (APR); an increased production of cytokines such as IL-6; and, activation of lymphocytes (T cells). Many studies have demonstrated an excessive hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) activity in TRD. The APR seen in MDE is often accompanied by reduced levels of total serum protein (TSP) and changes in electrophoretically separated serum protein fractions. Acute phase proteins (APPs) migrate electrophoretically between albumin and γ-globulin fractions. The presence of APPs suggests that 5HT system disregulation may be related to the APR and to autoimmune pathogenesis in some MDE patients. The induction of anti-5HT and antiganglioside antibodies has been found to occur with viral infections and in response to stress and the production of cytokines.
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