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In 1969, a public debate between President Nixon and Congress took place during the legislative passage of the National Environmental Policy Act and centered on two very different and competing conceptions of how presidential advice should be organized in the Executive Office of the President. It focused on the proposed establishment of the Council on Environmental Quality. The outcome of the ensuing battle represented a complete victory for congressional interests against the expressed wishes of the president. The nature of the debate has been overlooked in the literature on the presidency, but it highlights fundamental issues about agency design and presidential control of the institutional presidency. It also highlights broader concerns about the degree of congressional involvement in shaping the Executive Office of the President.
The results of Bayesian analysis using 43 new high-precision AMS radiocarbon dates on maize, faunal remains, and ceramic residues from 18 precontact Iroquoian village sites in Northern New York are presented. Once thought to span AD 1350–1500, the period of occupation suggested by the modeling is approximately AD 1450–1510. This late placement now makes clear that Iroquoians arrived in the region approximately 100 years later than previously thought. This result halves the time in which population growth and significant changes in settlement occurred. The new chronology allows us to better match these events within a broader Northeast temporal framework.
In recent years, researchers in pre-Hispanic Central America have used new approaches that greatly amplify and enhance evidence of plants and their uses. This paper presents a case study from Puerto Escondido, located in the lower Ulúa River valley of Caribbean coastal Honduras. We demonstrate the effectiveness of using multiple methods in concert to interpret ethnobotanical practice in the past. By examining chipped-stone tools, ceramics, sediments from artifact contexts, and macrobotanical remains, we advance complementary inquiries. Here, we address botanical practices “in the home,” such as foodways, medicinal practices, fiber crafting, and ritual activities, and those “close to home,” such as agricultural and horticultural practices, forest management, and other engagements with local and distant ecologies. This presents an opportunity to begin to develop an understanding of ethnoecology at Puerto Escondido, here defined as the dynamic relationship between affordances provided in a botanical landscape and the impacts of human activities on that botanical landscape.
The most commonly used methods for triage in mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) rely upon providers to take exact counts of vital signs or other patient parameters. The acuity and volume of patients which can be present during an MCI makes this a time-consuming and potentially costly process.
This study evaluates and compares the speed of the commonly used Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) triage method with that of an “intuitive triage” method which relies instead upon the abilities of an experienced first responder to determine the triage category of each victim based upon their overall first-impression assessment. The research team hypothesized that intuitive triage would be faster, without loss of accuracy in assigning triage categories.
Local adult volunteers were recruited for a staged MCI simulation (active-shooter scenario) utilizing local police, Emergency Medical Services (EMS), public services, and government leadership. Using these same volunteers, a cluster randomized simulation was completed comparing START and intuitive triage. Outcomes consisted of the time and accuracy between the two methods.
The overall mean speed of the triage process was found to be significantly faster with intuitive triage (72.18 seconds) when compared to START (106.57 seconds). This effect was especially dramatic for Red (94.40 vs 138.83 seconds) and Yellow (55.99 vs 91.43 seconds) patients. There were 17 episodes of disagreement between intuitive triage and START, with no statistical difference in the incidence of over- and under-triage between the two groups in a head-to-head comparison.
Significant time may be saved using the intuitive triage method. Comparing START and intuitive triage groups, there was a very high degree of agreement between triage categories. More prospective research is needed to validate these results.
HartA, NammourE, MangoldsV, BroachJ. Intuitive versus Algorithmic TriagePrehosp Disaster Med.2018;33(4):355–361.
The Wendat (Huron) and Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) confederacies of northeastern North America are often presented as functionally equivalent political formations despite their having distinct cultural traits and unique geopolitical and developmental histories. In this article we employ social network analysis of collar decoration on ceramic vessels both to examine organizational differences in the social network that composed each group and to evaluate women's participation in political activities as potters who produced and transmitted social and political signals. The concept of social capital and the dimensions along which it varies are employed to understand variability in network statistics and topologies. Our results indicate that the Wendat confederacy formed a “complete” network characterized by bonding ties of social capital, whereas the Haudenosaunee confederacy was a “coalitional” network characterized by bridging ties. The results suggest that women's signaling networks were integral to how each confederacy functioned and the norms of reciprocity, trust, and information-sharing that defined each political formation.
Objectives: The goal of the present study was to elucidate the influence of demographic and neuropathological moderators on the longitudinal trajectory neuropsychological functions during the first year after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition to examining demographic moderators such as age and education, we included a measure of whole-brain diffuse axonal injury (DAI), and examined measures of processing speed (PS), executive function (EF), and verbal learning (VL) separately. Methods: Forty-six adults with moderate to severe TBI were examined at 3, 6, and 12 months post-injury. Participants underwent neuropsychological evaluation and neuroimaging including diffusion tensor imaging. Using linear mixed effects modeling, we examined longitudinal trajectories and moderating factors of cognitive outcomes separately for three domains: PS, VL, and EF. Results: VL and EF showed linear improvements, whereas PS exhibited a curvilinear trend characterized by initial improvements that plateaued or declined, depending on age. Age moderated the recovery trajectories of EF and PS. Education and DAI did not influence trajectory but were related to initial level of functioning for PS and EF in the case of DAI, and all three cognitive domains in the case of education. Conclusions: We found disparate recovery trajectories across cognitive domains. Younger age was associated with more favorable recovery of EF and PS. These findings have both clinical and theoretical implications. Future research with a larger sample followed over a longer time period is needed to further elucidate the factors that may influence cognitive change over the acute to chronic period after TBI. (JINS, 2018, 24, 237–246)
Ancient carbon reservoirs in freshwater bodies have the potential to introduce ancient carbon into charred cooking residues adhering to pottery wall interiors when aquatic organisms are parts of cooked resource mixes. This ancient carbon results in old apparent ages when these cooking residues are subjected to accelerator mass spectrometry dating, the so-called freshwater reservoir effect (FRE). Roper's (2013) assessment of the FRE on 14C ages from cooking residue in the Central Plains is only the second such peer-reviewed regional assessment in eastern North America. Roper suggests that 13 of 23 14C ages on residue are too old as a result of ancient carbon from fish or leached from shell temper or old carbon introduced via maize nixtamalization. Herein, we re-assess Roper's data set of 14C ages on cooking residues and annual plants and argue that she is mistaken in her assessment of the accuracies of 14C ages from residues. This outcome is placed in the context of the larger FRE literature.
The freshwater reservoir effect (FRE) hypothesis suggests that ancient carbon from aquatic organisms incorporated into AMS-dated charred, encrusted cooking residues on interior pottery walls produces old apparent radiocarbon ages. This hypothesis has been used primarily in northern European final Mesolithic contexts to explain 14C ages on cooking residues that are thought to be too old relative to 14C ages obtained on terrestrial samples, resulting in so-called freshwater reservoir offsets (FROs). More recently, the hypothesis has been cited in interpretations of 14C ages from residues in the North American Plains and elsewhere. This article presents a model using an Excel spreadsheet that allows calculation of FROs with varying inputs of dead carbon and aquatic and terrestrial resources.
Fischer and Heinemeier (2003) present a hypothesis that the freshwater reservoir effect produces old apparent ages for radiocarbon dates run on charred cooking residues in regions where fossil carbon is present in groundwater. The hypothesis is based in part on their analysis of dates on charred cooking residues from 3 inland archaeological sites in Denmark in relation to contextual dates from those sites on other materials. A critical assessment of the dates from these sites suggests that rather than a pattern of old apparent dates, there is a single outlying date—not sufficient evidence on which to build a case for the freshwater reservoir effect.
Fabry-Perot instruments have been extensively used for many years for the study of spatially extended emission nebulae because they offer a potential luminosity resolution product (L × Rpot) which exceeds by a high factor tha attainable by aerating spectrometer. Meaburn (1970) shows that this product is given by the relation
where P is the number of resolution elements each containing a maximum solid angle, Ω observed simultaneously, ti is the refractive index of the medium between the plates, A is the acceptance area of the device, εo is the transmission coefficient of the associated optics and εF the transmission coefficient of the Fabry-Perot (which if coated with dielectric multilayers can be very high).
A review of current research reveals multiple lines of evidence suggesting that no single freshwater reservoir offset (FRO) correction can be applied to accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) ages obtained on carbonized food residue from cooking vessels. Systematically evaluating the regional presence, magnitude, and effects of a freshwater reservoir effect (FRE) is a demonstrably difficult analytic problem given the variation of ancient carbon reservoirs in both space and time within water bodies, and which should be performed in advance of AMS assays. In coastal and estuarine contexts, a priori partitioning FRE from known marine reservoir effects (MRE) is also necessary to eliminate potential mixed effects. Likewise, any FRE varies based on the proportional mix of resources producing the residues and the ancient carbon uptake of those products. Processing techniques are a significant component of assessing potential FRE, and each pot/cooking vessel is therefore an independent context requiring analytic evaluation. In northeastern North America, there is little ethnohistoric/ethnographic evidence for fish boiling/stewing in ceramic cooking vessels; rather, fish were more often dried, smoked, or cooked for immediate consumption on open fires. Assays of fatty acids extracted from prehistoric vessel fabrics even on known fishing sites reveals no evidence for fish in the food mix. These observations suggest that the likelihoods of FRE in carbonized food residue in northeastern North America is therefore low, and that assays potentially suffering from FRO are minimal. In turn, this suggests that AMS ages from carbonized food residues are reliable unless analytically demonstrated otherwise for specific cases, and should take primacy over ages on other associated materials that have historically been employed for critical threshold chronological events.
Estimating population sizes in the heavily traded grey parrots of West and Central Africa would provide insights into conservation status and sustainability of harvests. Ideally, density estimates would be derived from a standardized method such as distance sampling, but survey efforts are hampered by the extensive ranges, patchy distribution, variable abundance, cryptic habits and high mobility of the parrots as well as by logistical difficulties and limited resources. We carried out line transect distance sampling alongside a simpler encounter rate method at 10 sites across five West and Central African countries. Density estimates were variable across sites, from 0–0.5 individuals km−2 in Côte d'Ivoire and central Democratic Republic of the Congo to c. 30 km−2 in Cameroon and > 70 km−2 on the island of Príncipe. Most significantly, we identified the relationship between densities estimated from distance sampling and simple encounter rates, which has important applications in monitoring grey parrots: (1) to convert records of parrot groups encountered in a day's activities by anti-poaching patrols within protected areas into indicative density estimates, (2) to confirm low density in areas where parrots are so rare that distance sampling is not feasible, and (3) to provide a link between anecdotal records and local density estimates. Encounter rates of less than one parrot group per day of walking are a reality in most forests within the species’ ranges. Densities in these areas are expected to be one individual km−2 or lower, and local harvest should be disallowed on this basis.
In their recent report, Cook and Comstock (2014) purport to address the "old wood" problem in temperate eastern North America. Here we point out several interpretive and analytical errors in their work. We conclude that careful selection of wood charcoal for radiocarbon assay can result in accurate chronology for events of interest. However, this does not obviate the need to critically assess the extant database of wood charcoal dates in any chronology building effort.
John Bryden, Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute in Oslo,
Keith Hart, University of Pretoria
John Bryden, Professor, University of Aberdeen and Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute,Lesley Riddoch, Director, Nordic Horizons,Ottar Brox, Senior Researcher, Norwegian Institute of Urban and Regional Research
In this chapter we look at the history of money and banking in Scotland and Norway, and make some comparisons between the monetary experience of the two countries in the period up to the recent financial crisis and its immediate aftermath, with the main focus being on Scotland. We then consider the options facing small open economies like these two countries at a moment of dramatic change in the global organisation of money. This in turn allows us to open up important questions about the future that as yet are hardly being considered in the debates over Scotland's possible independence.
The referendum debates have identified three main monetary alternatives in the event of Scottish independence: to remain in the sterling area; to join the European Monetary Union (EMU); and to issue an independent currency, with or without a peg to sterling or the euro. There has been no discussion so far of a dual or multiple system where the national currency coexists with others as legal tender – as in Zimbabwe today or indeed Scotland before the late seventeenth century, Scandinavia between 1873 and 1914, and the Hanseatic city states between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries. Indeed, we will argue that national monopoly currencies were an invention of the mid-nineteenth century and are now in disarray, as are fixed-exchange rate currency unions. Throughout history the circulation of several independent currencies within a territory has been normal and this situation is being restored now. It would be a shame if the debate concerning Scotland's money system after possible independence were limited to models that are already anachronistic.
Both the reports cited above agree that the optimal solution is to stick with sterling in a monetary union after independence. The UK Government report, however, emphasises that effective ‘supervision’ will limit Scotland's fiscal policy independence. Many other observers have made the same point, while some have ruled out such a solution even before negotiations.5 However, a recent paper by Angus Armstrong and Monique Ebell on ‘Monetary Unions and Fiscal Constraints’, argues that ‘any negotiation to form a monetary union between two sovereign states substantially different in size, and each acting in their own self-interest, is likely to result in a currency arrangement that resembles “dollarization” in practice’, and that fiscal control by the larger partner is neither necessary nor feasible.
The okapi Okapia johnstoni, a rainforest giraffid endemic to the Democratic Republic of Congo, was recategorized as Endangered on the IUCN Red List in 2013. Historical records and anecdotal reports suggest that a disjunct population of okapi may have occurred south-west of the Congo River but the current distribution and status of the okapi in this region are not well known. Here we describe the use of non-invasive genetic identification for this species and assess the success of species identification from dung in the wild, which varied throughout the range. This variation is probably attributable to varying okapi population densities and/or different sample collection strategies across the okapi's distribution. Okapi were confirmed to occur south-west of the Congo River, in scattered localities west of the Lomami River. We demonstrated that non-invasive genetic methods can provide information on the distribution of cryptic, uncommon species that is difficult to obtain by other methods. Further investigation is required to genetically characterize the okapi across its range and to investigate the biogeographical processes that have led to the observed distribution of okapi and other fauna in the region.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is likely to disrupt structural network properties due to diffuse white matter pathology. The present study aimed to detect alterations in structural network topology in TBI and relate them to cognitive and real-world behavioral impairment. Twenty-two people with moderate to severe TBI with mostly diffuse pathology and 18 demographically matched healthy controls were included in the final analysis. Graph theoretical network analysis was applied to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data to characterize structural connectivity in both groups. Neuropsychological functions were assessed by a battery of psychometric tests and the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe). Local connection-wise analysis demonstrated reduced structural connectivity in TBI arising from subcortical areas including thalamus, caudate, and hippocampus. Global network metrics revealed that shortest path length in participants with TBI was longer compared to controls, and that this reduced network efficiency was associated with worse performance in executive function and verbal learning. The shortest path length measure was also correlated with family-reported FrSBe scores. These findings support the notion that the diffuse form of neuropathology caused by TBI results in alterations in structural connectivity that contribute to cognitive and real-world behavioral impairment. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–10)