To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Interest exists in identifying the factors that specifically contribute to the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease observed in psychiatric disease. The apolipoprotein-E (APOE) gene codes for a protein that has a key role in metabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides, with increased levels of apoE found in specific areas of post-mortem schizophrenic brains. This study investigated whether apoE variants influence the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, diabetes and dyslipidaemia), in patients receiving antipsychotic treatment, due to extension of the risk seen in the general population, but also due to the role of the APOE gene in mediating antipsychotic-induced side effects. Seven polymorphisms (rs741780, rs483082, rs429358, rs7412, rs10119, rs439401 and rs405509) were genotyped in 427 American Caucasian patients who were either receiving, or had been prescribed risperidone. Our results support the hypothesis that APOE gene variants influence the prevalence of diabetes and possibly overweight in psychiatric patients. Unfortunately, due to the cross sectional nature of this study, the contribution of antipsychotic treatment was not determined. These associations warrant prospective study to assess interaction between APOE gene variants and the propensity of antipsychotics to induce cardiovascular risk factors.
To know prevalence of depression in Spanish nursing home(NH) by analysing the clinical profile of residents from RESYDEM study (Identification of patients with cognitive deterioration and dementia in NH).
A multicentral, transversal, observational study was carried out in April 2005. 71 geriatrician from 54 NH representing the Spanish state participated. Depression was analysed in patient´s history and determined by NPI of Cummings, NH version.
1037 residents were randomized, 1020 were used by clinical data analysis. 941 were used to determine depression prevalence. Median age 83,4yo, 66.6% were women, 70.9% with basic educational level, 57.4% widows, 25.7% single, 41.5% had some degree of functional deterioration, 22.1% had delirium. In 26.4% were documented Stroke(17,9% TIA). 61.7% had dementia.
Depression appears in 31.4% of elderly institutionalized with the only diagnosis of depression or independent of others. There were no significant differences in age groups. However, was most frequent in women. 95.7% of patients with diagnosis of dementia had at least one drug for depression. Most used anti-depressants were trazadone (23%), citalopram (20.9%), sertraline (15.8%), fluoxetine (10.1%). No tricyclical anti-depressant reached 1% of consumption.
Depression affects practically one in three institutionalized elderly in Spain
Institutionalized elderly with depression are largely treated with ISRS. It is believed that the use of trazadone is linked with the effects on sleep and anxiety.
The high prevalence of depression, its overlapping with other processes and the comorbility of residents requires a careful search and approach in NH which implies a challenge for professionals in order to treat it.
Adoption, twin and family studies suggest that suicide behavior is familial and heritable. Both completed and attempted suicide appear to be transmitted in a familial form. Genetics and environment influences had been detected in various studies. But suicidal behavior suggests to be inherited independently from the mental disorders usually associated with it. While traditional statistics emphasizes inference and estimations, data mining emphasizes the fulfillment of a task such as classification, estimation, or knowledge discovery.
The goal of this study was to determine in a large sample of suicide attempts which variables are associated with family history of attempted suicide.
In an emergency room, 539 adult suicide attempters were recruited. The two dichotomous dependent variables were family history of suicide attempt (10%) and of completed suicide (4%). Independent variables were 101 clinical variables explored with two data mining techniques: Random Forest and Forward Selection.
A model for family history of completed suicide could not be developed. A classificatory model for family history of attempted suicide included the use of alcohol in the intent and family history of completed suicide, provide a sensitivity of 78.4%, a specificity of 98.7% and accuracy of 96.6%.
A classificatory model for family history of completed suicide could not be developed using data mining techniques. But it suggested that the use of alcohol in the intent and family history of completed suicide may be associated with familial attempted suicide.
Determine the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), using the NPI-NH(Neuropsychiatric Inventory Nursing Home(NH) Version),in order to provide a multidimensional profile in behavioural symptoms in residents and to calculate its prevalence in Spanish NH.
From randomized population of RESYDEM study (Identification of patients with cognitive deterioration and dementia in NH) a multi-central, cross-sectional and observational study was carried out. 71 geriatrician from 54 NH representative the Spanish state participated.NPS was determinated by NPI Cummings NH version. This version includes upsets in sleep and feeding patterns.
992 residents were examined (Median age 83.4yo, 66.6% women, 91.8% received at least one type of treatment, 61.7% with dementia). 523 (52.7%) presented at least one type of NPS. In order of greatest frequency, the following were noted: alterations in sleep patterns (41.7%), depression/disphoria (31.4%), anxiety (31.2%), agitation/aggressiveness (29.6%), apathy/indifference (25.8%), delirious ideas (23.7%), irritability (22.4%), feeding/appetite upsets (18.5%), anomalous motor behaviour (15.3%), hallucinations (13.8%), desinhibition (11.1%), euphoria (4.4%).
35.9% of residents received benzodiapines, 26.7% antidepressants. Atypical neuroleptics were used in 15.8%, in contrast with 7.4% of the use of classic ones.
NPS ´s reached a high prevalence in NH and it is usual that more than one co-exists in the patients.
Alterations in sleep patterns, depression, anxiety, agitation/aggressiveness affect approximately one in three residents.
It is useful and recommendable to evaluate the 12 behavioural areas from the NH version of the NPI scale. This instrument was chosen as a sifting measure to establish neuropyschiatric symptomology in residences.
CYP2D6 metabolizes risperidone into 9-hydroxi-risperidone, as well as other drugs. CYP2D6 shows genetic polymorphism, and 6-8% of Caucasians are “slow metabolizers”. “Fast metabolizers” show lower plasma levels of risperidone and higher levels of 9-hydroxi-risperidone than “slow metabolizers”. The aim of this study is to collect information about the hypothetical relationship between metabolism phenotype and parameters related to sanitary resources utilization in patients treated with risperidone.
Plasma levels of risperidone and 9-hydroxi-risperidone were determined in 52 patients treated at the Acute Unit setting, to establish their metabolism phenotype. Patients were grouped as fast (n=11), slow (n=13) or intermediate metabolizers (n=28), according to risperidone/9-hydroxi-risperidone ratio logarithm and using eighty and twenty percentiles as cut-points. Hospitalizations, emergency services utilization and visits to community mental health center during two years were recorded in the three groups.
Fast metabolizers showed a higher mean number of visits to community mental health centers (35.7 vs 24.8, fast and slow metabolizers respectively, p=0.667), a higher mean number of hospitalizations (2.45 vs 1.3, fast and slow metabolizers respectively; p=0.091), a longer mean length of hospitalizations (57.3 vs 47.6 days, fast and slow metabolizers respectively; p=0.581) and a higher number of visits to emergency services (2.45 vs 1, fast and slow metabolizers respectively; p=0.01), although differences only reached statistical significance in this last parameter.
In spite of methodological limitations (mainly the small sample size), the present study shows some preliminary evidence about the influence of pharmacogenetic factors on the evolution of psychotic patients treated with risperidone.
Poor diet habits and a more sedentary life may contribute to a worse physical health outcome of persons with schizophrenia, who are subjected to an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and other metabolic complications. These patients report greater euphoria and stimulatory effects in response to alcohol that may contribute to the increased risk for alcohol use disorders, which complicate the functional outcome of schizophrenia. Among subjects in this diagnostic group, those exposed to caffeine consumption tend to drink heavier amount of it, although the psychobiological implication of this finding has not been elucidated. Finally, there is worldwide a greater prevalence of tobacco smoking, heavy smoking and high nicotine dependence; and the available date support a theory of shared vulnerability to both smoking and schizophrenia rather than a self-medication hypothesis. The authors, all of whom have been contributors in this area, will discuss each other presentations
Goodman expanded the conceptualization of addictions to embrace not only drug addiction but other behavioral addictions. In some cases, suicidal behaviour can be viewed as a behavioral addiction.
The main objective of the present study is to analyze the relationships between major suicide repeaters (> or =5 lifetime suicide attempts) and measures of suicidal behaviour addiction.
To characterize major suicide repeaters.
Sample and procedure: This is a transversal study of 954 suicide attempters (Montpellier, France). All suicide attempters were assessed using a protocol including: MINI (Axis I disorders), TPQ (personality traits) and BIS-10 (impulsivity), among others. Statistical Analyses: Comparisons between groups was made using logistic regression models with crude odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals.
Major repeaters were more likely to be female and having low educational level than non-major repeaters (OR[95%]=6.95[3.19–15.10]; p < 0.0001; and OR[95%]=2.17[1.38–3.33]; p < 0.001, respectively). As compared with non-major repeaters, major repeaters more often met criteria for bipolar disorder (OR[95%]=1.82[1.22–2.74]; p < 0.05), anxiety disorders (OR[95%]=1.77[1.03–3.07]; p < 0.05) and eating disorders (OR[95%]=2.81[1.79–4.41]; p < 0.0001). Furthermore, compared with non-major repeaters, major repeaters were more frequently diagnosed with cigarette smoking (63.5% vs. 53.5%), alcohol use (29.3% vs. 25.4%) and substance use (15.4% vs. 13.2%), but none of them reached statistical significance. Finally, major repeaters, as compared with non-major repeaters, were more likely to score high in harm avoidance (OR[95%]=2.52[1.52–4.18];p < 0.001), BIS-10 global score (OR[95%]=2.09[1.25–3.47]; p < 0.05) and BIS-10 non-planning impulsiveness (OR[95%]=3.31[1.37–7.99]; p < 0.05).
Our preliminary results give partial support to the addictive hypothesis of suicidal behaviour.
Background: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a children’s neuromuscular disorder. Although motor neuron loss is a major feature of the disease, we have identified fatty acid abnormalities in SMA patients and in preclinical animal models, suggesting metabolic perturbation is also an important component of SMA. Methods: Biochemical, histological, proteomic, and high resolution respirometry were used. Results: SMA patients are more susceptible to dyslipidemia than the average population as determined by a standard lipid profile in a cohort of 72 pediatric patients. As well, we observed a non-alcoholic liver disease phenotype in apreclinical mouse model. Denervation alone was not sufficient to induce liver steatosis, as a mouse model of ALS, did not develop fatty liver. Hyperglucagonemia in Smn2B/-mice could explain the hepatic steatosis by increasing plasma substrate availability via glycogen depletion and peripheral lipolysis. Proteomic analysis identified mitochondrion and lipid metabolism as major clusters. Alterations in mitochondrial function were revealed by high-resolution respirometry. Finally, low-fat diets led to increased survival in Smn2B/-mice. Conclusions: These results provide strong evidence for lipid metabolism defects in SMA. Further investigation will be required to establish the primary mechanism of these alterations and understand how they lead to additional co-morbidities in SMA patients.
The disease caused by the influenza virus is a global public health problem due to its high rates of morbidity and mortality. Thus, analysis of the information generated by epidemiological surveillance systems has vital importance for health decision making. A retrospective analysis was performed using data generated by the four molecular diagnostic laboratories of the Mexican Social Security Institute between 2010 and 2016. Demographics, influenza positivity, seasonality, treatment choices and vaccination status analyses were performed for the vaccine according to its composition for each season. In all cases, both the different influenza subtypes and different age groups were considered separately. The circulation of A/H1N1pdm09 (48.7%), influenza A/H3N2 (21.1%), influenza B (12.6%), influenza A not subtyped (11%) and influenza A/H1N1 (6.6%) exhibited well-defined annual seasonality between November and March, and there were significant increases in the number of cases every 2 years. An inadequate use of oseltamivir was determined in 38% of cases, and the vaccination status in general varied between 12.1 and 18.5% depending on the season. Our results provide current information about influenza in Mexico and demonstrate the need to update both operational case definitions and medical practice guidelines to reduce the inappropriate use of antibiotics and antivirals.
Background: Greater than 80% of patient visits to emergency departments (EDs) are for a pain-related concerns. Approximately 38,000 patients per year have such complaints in our academic hospital ED. 3,300 (8.6%) of those visits are for musculoskeletal (MSK) pain (i.e. back or extremity injury/pain), which are typically triaged as low-acuity presentations, leading to longer times to clinician assessment. Delays to adequate analgesia result in unnecessary suffering, worse patient care and satisfaction, and increased patient complaints. Aim Statement: We aimed to reduce the time-to-analgesia (TTA; time from patient triage to receipt of analgesia) for patients with MSK pain in our ED by 55% (to under 60 minutes) in 9 months’ time (May 2018). Measures & Design: Our outcome measures were TTA (in minutes) and ED length of stay (LOS; in minutes). Process measures included nurses’ use of medical directive and rate of analgesia administration. Balancing measures included patient adverse events and time spent triaging for nurses. We utilized weekly data capture for the Statistical Process Control (SPC) chart, and we used Mann-Whitney U test for our before-and-after evaluation. Utilizing the Model for Improvement, we performed wide stakeholder engagement and root cause analyses, and we created a Pareto chart. This led to our Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles: 1) nurse-initiated analgesia (NIA) at triage; 2) new triage documentation aid for medication administration; 3) quick reference medical directive badge tag for nurses; 4) weekly targeted feedback of the project's progress at clinical team huddle. Evaluation/Results: TTA decrease from 129 minutes (n = 153) to 100 minutes (22.5%; n = 87, p < 0.05). ED LOS decreased from 580 minutes (n = 361) to 519 minutes (10.5%; n = 187; p = 0.77). Special cause variation was identified on the ED LOS SPC chart with eight consecutive points below the midline, after PDSA 1. The number of patients who received any analgesia increased from 42% (n = 361) to 47% (n = 187; p = 0.13). The number of patients who received medications via medical directives increased from 22% (n = 150) to 44% (n = 87; p < 0.001). Balancing measures were unchanged. Discussion/Impact: The significant reduction in the TTA and increase in the use of medical directives in the before-and-after analyses were likely due to our front-line focused improvements and deliberate nursing engagement. With continued success and sustainable processes, we are planning to spread our project to other EDs and broaden our initiative to all pain-related concerns.
Objectives: Children with acquired brain injury (ABI) can present with disruptive behavior, which is often a consequence of injury and parent factors. Parent factors are associated with child disruptive behavior. Furthermore, disinhibition in the child also leads to disruptive behavior. However, it is unclear how these factors interact. We investigated whether parental factors influence child disruptive behavior following ABI and how these factors interact. Methods: Parents of 77 children with ABI participated in the study. Parent factors (executive dysfunction, trait-anxiety), potential intervention targets (dysfunctional parenting practices, parental stress, child disinhibition), and child disruptive behavior were assessed. A hypothetical model based on the literature was tested using mediation and path analysis. Results: Mediation analysis revealed that child disinhibition and dysfunctional parenting practices mediated the association of parent factors and child disruptive behavior. Parents’ executive dysfunction mediated the association of dysfunctional parenting practices, parental stress and parent trait-anxiety. Parenting practices mediated the association of executive dysfunction and child disruptive behavior. Path analysis indices indicated good model adjustment. Comparative and Tucker-Lewis Index were >0.95, and the root mean square error of approximation was 0.059, with a chi-square of 0.25. Conclusions: A low level of parental trait-anxiety may be required to reduce dysfunctional parenting practices and child disinhibition. Impairments in child disinhibition can be exacerbated when parents present with high trait-anxiety. Child disinhibition is the major contributor of disruptive behavior reported by parents and teachers. The current study provides evidence of parent anxiety and child disinhibition as possible modifiable intervention targets for reducing child disruptive behavior. (JINS, 2019, 25, 237–248)
Completed suicide (CS) is a leading cause of death worldwide and its rates are available for most developed countries. On the other hand, attempted suicide (AS) is a risk factor for CS but there are limited data on its rates in various countries. In constructing a ratio for AS/CS rates, most would agree that for CS, the denominator should be the annual suicide rate (per 100 000). As for the ratio's numerator (AS) per 100 000, there are three possible calculations: (1) annual prevalence from population surveys, (2) annual prevalence from national clinical registers or (3) lifetime prevalence from population surveys. We think that the first possibility would probably be the best choice but, unfortunately, surveys providing the annual prevalence of AS are lacking for most countries. Annual prevalence from national registers is also lacking for most countries and is contaminated by under-reporting. Therefore, in this editorial, we are left with only the last option, a ratio for lifetime prevalence of AS (per 100 000) divided by annual rate of CS (per 100 000). This ratio for AS/CS rates appears to differ substantially across countries worldwide but presents no big regional differences other than two remarkable exceptions, one per continent. In Europe, Spain and France had greater ratios (174.4 and 152.5, respectively) than Italy (64.1). In Asia/Pacific, New Zealand has a higher ratio (345.9) compared with China (75.8) and Japan (76.9). The ratio for AS/CS rates could be a good index for implementing evidence-informed decision-making regarding suicidal behaviour (SB) among health service managers, and for helping them in the allocation of health resources for the prevention of SB.
Introduction: Treat and Release (T&R) patients are seen and discharged home from the emergency department (ED), and asked to return within 12-72 hours for follow-up care (e.g., ultrasound, repeat blood work). Our two academic teaching hospitals see approximately 2,000 T&R patients per year. Handover of care for T&R patientsdone through charting only and therefore dependent on the charts adequacy and completenessis crucial to the safety and quality of care they receive. An 18-month retrospective chart audit at our sites identified quality gaps, including suboptimal documentation that ultimately impedes patient disposition. Our projects aim was to reduce the time-to-disposition (TTD; time spent by patients between provider initial assessment and discharge from the ED) by a third (from 70min) in 6-months time (March 2017), a target felt to be both meaningful and realistic by our stakeholder team. Methods: Our primary outcome measure was the TTD (in minutes). Our process measure was the quality of documentation, using a modified version of QNOTE, a validated tool used to assess the quality of health-care documentation. PDSA cycles included: 1) Involvement of stakeholders for the creation and refinement of an improved T&R handover tool to cue more specific documentation; 2) Education of health-care providers (HCPs) about T&R patients; 3) Replacement of the previous T&R handover tool with a newly designed and mandatory tool (i.e. a forcing function); 4) Refinement of the process for T&R patients and chart hold-over. Results: Run charts for both the median TTD and median modified QNOTE scores over time demonstrate a shift (i.e., run chart rule) associated with the second and third clustered PDSA cycles. After the first three clusters of PDSA cycles (i.e., before-and-after), mean TTD was reduced by 40% (70min to 42min, p=0.005). The quality of documentation (mean modified QNOTE scores) was also significantly improved (all results p<0.0001): patient assessment from 81% to 92%, plan of care from 58% to 85% and follow-up plan from 67% to 90%. Conclusion: We reduced the time-to-disposition for T&R patients by identifying gaps in the quality of documentation of their chart. Using iterative PDSA cycles, we improved their time-to-disposition through improved communication between health-care providers and a new T&R handover tool working as a forcing function. Other centers could use similar assessment methods and interventions to improve the care of T&R patients.
A new species of Laeonereis from a shrimp farm associated with a subtropical coastal lagoon on the Mexican Pacific coast is described. The new species is characterized by a deep anterior groove on the prostomium, which is shared only with L. culveri. However, longer tentacular cirri extending back to the anterior margin of chaetiger two, the number of papillae of each group on the maxillary ring of the pharynx, and the relative size of the homogomph falcigers in the new species, allow us to separate the two species. Although the species has not been previously detected in the coastal lagoon surrounding the shrimp farm, we postulate that L. watsoni n. sp. is likely to be part of the invertebrate communities of the upper parts of similar coastal lagoons that are common along the tropical coasts of Mexico.
Since April 2015, whole genome sequencing (WGS) has been the routine test for Salmonella identification, surveillance and outbreak investigation at the national reference laboratory in England and Wales. In May 2015, an outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis cases was detected using WGS data and investigated. UK cases were interviewed to obtain a food history and links between suppliers were mapped to produce a food chain network for chicken eggs. The association between the food chain network and the phylogeny was explored using a network comparison approach. Food and environmental samples were taken from premises linked to cases and tested for Salmonella. Within the outbreak single nucleotide polymorphism defined cluster, 136 cases were identified in the UK and 18 in Spain. One isolate from a food containing chicken eggs was within the outbreak cluster. There was a significant association between the chicken egg food chain of UK cases and phylogeny of outbreak isolates. This is the first published Salmonella outbreak to be prospectively detected using WGS. This outbreak in the UK was linked with contemporaneous cases in Spain by WGS. We conclude that UK and Spanish cases were exposed to a common source of Salmonella-contaminated chicken eggs.
The AMIGA project carries out a multiwavelength study of the largest catalogue of isolated galaxies from the Local Universe (CIG, Karachentseva 1973). Compared to any other sample —field galaxies included— and using highly strict isolation criteria (unperturbed for at least ~3 Gyr, Verdes-Montenegro et al. 2005), all the results show that these galaxies have the lowest values of the physical magnitudes expected to be enhanced by interactions. This strongly supports isolated galaxies as ideal laboratories for the study of galaxy formation and evolution. Despite CIG galaxies show the lowest HI integrated profile asymmetry level when compared to any other sample, some cases present up to 50% HI asymmetry (Espada et al. 2011b). We aim to shed light over the causes and sources of such asymmetries with our deep radiointerferometric and optical observations of CIG targets. Since major mergers are ruled out by the isolation criteria, in this work we are addressing whether minor mergers, internal processes or primordial gas accretion are responsible for such asymmetries.
Lolium rigidum L. (rigid ryegrass) is one of the most extensive and harmful weeds in winter cereal crops. A bioclimatic model for this species was developed using CLIMEX. The model was validated with records from North America and Oceania and used to assess the global potential distribution of L. rigidum under the current climate and under two climate change scenarios. Both scenarios represent contrasting temporal patterns of economic development and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The projections under current climatic conditions indicated that L. rigidum does not occupy the full extent of the climatically suitable area available to it. Under future climate scenarios, the suitable potential area increases by 3·79% in the low-emission CO2 scenario and by 5·06% under the most extreme scenario. The model's projection showed an increase in potentially suitable areas in North America, Europe, South America and Asia; while in Africa and Oceania it indicated regression. These results provide the necessary knowledge for identifying and highlighting the potential invasion risk areas and for establishing the grounds on which to base the planning and management measures required.