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This paper presents the current state of mathematical modelling of the electrochemical behaviour of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) as they are charged and discharged. It reviews the models developed by Newman and co-workers, both in the cases of dilute and moderately concentrated electrolytes and indicates the modelling assumptions required for their development. Particular attention is paid to the interface conditions imposed between the electrolyte and the active electrode material; necessary conditions are derived for one of these, the Butler–Volmer relation, in order to ensure physically realistic solutions. Insight into the origin of the differences between various models found in the literature is revealed by considering formulations obtained by using different measures of the electric potential. Materials commonly used for electrodes in LIBs are considered and the various mathematical models used to describe lithium transport in them discussed. The problem of upscaling from models of behaviour at the single electrode particle scale to the cell scale is addressed using homogenisation techniques resulting in the pseudo-2D model commonly used to describe charge transport and discharge behaviour in lithium-ion cells. Numerical solution to this model is discussed and illustrative results for a common device are computed.
Additional active ingredients are needed for use in aquatic systems to respond to new threats or treatment scenarios, enhance selectivity, reduce use rates, and mitigate the risk of herbicide resistance. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl is a new synthetic auxin developed for use as an aquatic herbicide. A study was conducted at North Carolina State University in which 10 µg L−1 of 25% radiolabeled florpyrauxifen-benzyl was applied to the isolated shoot tissue of 10 different aquatic plant species to elucidate absorption and translocation patterns in these species. Extremely high levels of shoot absorption were observed for all species, and uptake was rapid. Highest shoot absorptions were observed for crested floatingheart [Nymphoides cristata (Roxb.) Kuntze] (A192 = 20 µg g−1), dioecious hydrilla [Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle] (A192 = 25.3 µg g−1), variable watermilfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx.) (A192 = 40.1 µg g−1), and Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) (A192 = 25.3 µg g−1). Evidence of translocation was observed in all rooted species tested, with the greatest translocation observed in N. cristata (1.28 µg g−1 at 192 h after treatment). The results of this study add to the growing body of knowledge surrounding the behavior of this newly registered herbicide within aquatic plants.
In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology has expanded to include UAV sprayers capable of applying pesticides. Very little research has been conducted to optimize application parameters and measure the potential of off-target movement from UAV-based pesticide applications. Field experiments were conducted in Raleigh, NC during spring 2018 to characterize the effect of different application speeds and nozzle types on target area coverage and uniformity of UAV applications. The highest coverage was achieved with an application speed of 1 m s−1 and ranged from 30% to 60%, whereas applications at 7 m s−1 yielded 13% to 22% coverage. Coverage consistently decreased as application speed increased across all nozzles, with extended-range flat-spray nozzles declining at a faster rate than air-induction nozzles, likely due to higher drift. Experiments measuring the drift potential of UAV-applied pesticides using extended-range flat spray, air-induction flat-spray, turbo air–induction flat-spray, and hollow-cone nozzles under 0, 2, 4, 7, and 9 m s−1 perpendicular wind conditions in the immediate 1.75 m above the target were conducted in the absence of natural wind. Off-target movement was observed under all perpendicular wind conditions with all nozzles tested but was nondetectable beyond 5 m away from the target. Coverage from all nozzles exhibited a concave-shaped curve in response to the increasing perpendicular wind speed due to turbulence. The maximum target coverage in drift studies was observed when the perpendicular wind was 0 and 8.94 m s−1, but higher turbulence at the two highest perpendicular wind speeds (6.71 and 8.94 m s−1) increased coverage variability, whereas the lowest variability was observed at 2.24 m s−1 wind speed. Results suggested that air-induction flat-spray and turbo air–induction flat-spray nozzles and an application speed of 3 m s−1 provided an adequate coverage of target areas while minimizing off-target movement risk.
Early in a foodborne disease outbreak investigation, illness incubation periods can help focus case interviews, case definitions, clinical and environmental evaluations and predict an aetiology. Data describing incubation periods are limited. We examined foodborne disease outbreaks from laboratory-confirmed, single aetiology, enteric bacterial and viral pathogens reported to United States foodborne disease outbreak surveillance from 1998–2013. We grouped pathogens by clinical presentation and analysed the reported median incubation period among all illnesses from the implicated pathogen for each outbreak as the outbreak incubation period. Outbreaks from preformed bacterial toxins (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens) had the shortest outbreak incubation periods (4–10 h medians), distinct from that of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (17 h median). Norovirus, salmonella and shigella had longer but similar outbreak incubation periods (32–45 h medians); campylobacter and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli had the longest among bacteria (62–87 h medians); hepatitis A had the longest overall (672 h median). Our results can help guide diagnostic and investigative strategies early in an outbreak investigation to suggest or rule out specific etiologies or, when the pathogen is known, the likely timeframe for exposure. They also point to possible differences in pathogenesis among pathogens causing broadly similar syndromes.
The stellar winds of hot stars have an important impact on both stellar and galactic evolution, yet their structure and internal processes are not fully understood in detail. One of the best nearby laboratories for studying such massive stellar winds is the O4I(n)fp star ζ Pup. After briefly discussing existing X-ray observations from Chandra and XMM, we present a simulation of X-ray emission line profile measurements for the upcoming 840 kilosecond Chandra HETGS observation. This simulation indicates that the increased S/N of this new observation will allow several major steps forward in the understanding of massive stellar winds. By measuring X-ray emission line strengths and profiles, we should be able to differentiate between various stellar wind models and map the entire wind structure in temperature and density. This legacy X-ray spectrum of ζ Pup will be a useful benchmark for future X-ray missions.
Background: EMBRACE (NCT02462759) Part 1 is a randomized, double-blind, sham-procedure controlled study assessing safety/tolerability of intrathecal nusinersen (12-mg equivalent dose) in symptomatic infants/children with SMA who were not eligible to participate in ENDEAR or CHERISH. Methods: Eligible participants had onset of SMA symptoms at ≤6 months with 3 SMN2 copies; onset at ≤6 months, age >7 months and 2 copies; or onset at >6 months, age ≤18 months, and 2/3 copies. Safety/tolerability was the primary endpoint. Exploratory endpoints included Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination Section 2 (HINE-2) motor milestone attainment, change in ventilator use, and growth. Results: EMBRACE Part 1 was terminated early based on positive results from ENDEAR. Safety/tolerability was similar to previous trials. More nusinersen-treated (11/14;79%) vs. sham–treated individuals (2/7;29%) were HINE-2 motor milestone responders. Between Day 183 and 302, mean (SD) hours of ventilator use changed by +1.236 (3.712) hours in nusinersen-treated (n=12) and +2.123 (3.023) hours in sham–treated individuals (n=7). Similar increases in weight and body length were observed in nusinersen-treated and sham–treated individuals by Day 183. Conclusions: In EMBRACE Part 1, nusinersen demonstrated a favorable benefit-risk profile. These results add to the aggregated efficacy, safety/tolerability data of nusinersen in SMA.
Research has shown both production and health benefits for the use of chicory (Cichorium intybus) within ruminant diets. Despite this, little was known about the effects of this forage, containing differing fatty acid profiles and secondary plant compounds compared with ryegrass, on beef stability, fatty acid composition or sensory properties. An experiment was conducted to investigate whether the inclusion of chicory in the diet of grazing beef steers would alter these three properties in the M. Longissimus muscle when compared with beef steers grazing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Triplicate 2 ha plots were established with a chicory (cv. Puna II)/perennial ryegrass mix or a perennial ryegrass control. A core group of 36 Belgian Blue – cross steers were used within a 2-year beef finishing experiment (n=6/replicate plot). In the 2nd grazing year, steers were slaughtered as they reached a target fat class of 3. Muscle pH was checked 2 and 48 h post-slaughter. A section of the hindloin joint containing the M. Longissimus lumborum muscle was removed and a 20 mm-thick steak was cut and muscle samples were taken for analysis of vitamin E and fatty acid analysis. The remaining section of the loin was vacuum packed in modified atmosphere packs and subjected to simulated retail display. A section of the conditioned loin was used for sensory analysis. Data on pH, vitamin E concentration and colour stability in a simulated retail display showed there were no effects of including chicory in the diet of grazing beef steers on meat stability. There were also no differences found in the fatty acid composition or the overall eating quality of the steaks from the two treatments. In conclusion, there were no substantive effects of including chicory in the swards of grazing beef cattle on meat stability, fatty acid composition or sensory properties of the M. Longissimus muscle when compared with beef steers grazing ryegrass-only swards.
Pleated membrane filters are widely used in many applications, and offer significantly better surface area to volume ratios than equal-area unpleated membrane filters. However, their filtration characteristics are markedly inferior to those of equivalent unpleated membrane filters in dead-end filtration. While several hypotheses have been advanced for this, one possibility is that the flow field induced by the pleating leads to spatially non-uniform fouling of the filter, which in turn degrades performance. In this paper we investigate this hypothesis by developing a simplified model for the flow and fouling within a pleated membrane filter. Our model accounts for the pleated membrane geometry (which affects the flow), for porous support layers surrounding the membrane, and for two membrane fouling mechanisms: (i) adsorption of very small particles within membrane pores; and (ii) blocking of entire pores by large particles. We use asymptotic techniques based on the small pleat aspect ratio to solve the model, and we compare solutions to those for the closest-equivalent unpleated filter.
The main question that Firestone & Scholl (F&S) pose is whether “what and how we see is functionally independent from what and how we think, know, desire, act, and so forth” (sect. 2, para. 1). We synthesize a collection of concerns from an interdisciplinary set of coauthors regarding F&S's assumptions and appeals to intuition, resulting in their treatment of visual perception as context-free.
Government support uncertainty, scarce yield information, and the inherent risk in bioeconomic phenomena are some of the deterrents faced by investors in the nascent cellulosic biofuel industry. A financial probabilistic model was developed to contrast the economic feasibility of producing cellulosic biofuels from energy cane and sweet sorghum using three technologies: hydrolysis, pyrolysis, and gasification. Hydrolysis and pyrolysis proved feasible (showed possibilities of a positive net present value) without government support and conditioned to stochastic feedstock yields and biofuel prices. Gasification was feasible with government support. Improved feedstock and biofuel productivity would considerably raise the feasibility probabilities for hydrolysis and pyrolysis without government support.
The synthetic auxin herbicides, aminocyclopyrachlor and clopyralid, control dicotyledonous weeds in turf. Clippings of turfgrass treated with synthetic auxin herbicides have injured off-target plants exposed to herbicide-laden clippings. Labels of aminocyclopyrachlor and clopyralid recommend that clippings of treated turfgrass remain on the turf following a mowing event. Alternative uses for synthetic auxin-treated turfgrass clippings are needed because large quantities of clippings on the turf surface interfere with the functionality and aesthetics of golf courses, athletic fields, and residential turf. A white clover bioassay was conducted to determine the persistence and bioavailability of aminocyclopyrachlor and clopyralid in turfgrass clippings. Aminocyclopyrachlor and clopyralid were each applied at 79 g ae ha−1 to mature tall fescue at 56, 28, 14, 7, 3.5, and 1.75 d before clipping collection (DBCC). Clippings were collected, and the treated clippings were recycled onto adjacent white clover plots to determine herbicidal persistence and potential for additional weed control. Clippings of tall fescue treated with aminocyclopyrachlor produced a nonlinear regression pattern of response on white clover. Calculated values for 50% response (GR50) for visual control, for normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI), and for reduction in harvested biomass were 20.5, 17.3, and 18.7 DBCC, respectively, 8 wk after clippings were applied. Clippings of tall fescue treated with clopyralid did not demonstrate a significant pattern for white clover control, presumably because clopyralid was applied at a less-than-label rate. The persistence and bioavailability of synthetic auxin herbicides in clippings harvested from previously treated turfgrass creates the opportunity to recycle clippings for additional weed control.
Patients experience reductions in quality of life (QOL) while receiving cancer treatment and several approaches have been proposed to address QOL issues. In this project, the QOL differences between older adult (age 65+) and younger adult (age 18–64) advanced cancer patients in response to a multidisciplinary intervention designed to improve QOL were examined.
This study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01360814. Newly diagnosed advanced cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy were randomized to active QOL intervention or control groups. Those in the intervention group received six multidisciplinary 90-minute sessions designed to address the five major domains of QOL. Outcomes measured at baseline and weeks 4, 27, and 52 included QOL (Linear Analogue Self-Assessment (LASA), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–General (FACT-G)) and mood (Profile of Mood States (POMS)). Kruskall–Wallis methodology was used to compare scores between older and younger adult patients randomized to the intervention.
Of 131 patients in the larger randomized controlled study, we report data on 54 evaluable patients (16 older adults and 38 younger adults) randomized to the intervention. Older adult patients reported better overall QOL (LASA 74.4 vs. 62.9, p = 0.040), higher social well-being (FACT-G 91.1 vs. 83.3, p = 0.045), and fewer problems with anger (POMS anger–hostility 95.0 vs. 86.4, p = 0.028). Long-term benefits for older patients were seen in the anger–hostility scale at week 27 (92.2 vs. 84.2, p = 0.027) and week 52 (96.3 vs. 85.9, p = 0.005).
Older adult patients who received a multidisciplinary intervention to improve QOL while undergoing advanced cancer treatments benefited differently in some QOL domains, compared to younger adult patients. Future studies can provide further insight on how to tailor QOL interventions for these age groups.
Synthetic auxin herbicides are commonly used in forage, pasture, range, and turfgrass settings for dicotyledonous weed control. Aminocyclopyrachlor (AMCP) is a newly developed pyrimidine carboxylic acid with a chemical structure and mode of action similar to the pyridine carboxylic acids—aminopyralid, clopyralid, and picloram. Injury to sensitive dicotyledonous plants has been observed following exposure to monocotyledonous plant material previously treated with pyridine compounds. The absorption, translocation, and metabolism of AMCP has been documented in susceptible broadleaf weeds; however, no information is available, to our knowledge, regarding AMCP fate in tolerant Poaceae, which may serve as the vector for off-target plant injury. Based on this premise, research was conducted to characterize absorption, translocation, and metabolism of AMCP in tall fescue. 14C-AMCP was applied to single tiller tall fescue plant foliage under controlled laboratory conditions at North Carolina State University (Raleigh, NC). Radiation was quantified in leaf wash, treated leaf, foliage, crown, roots, and root exudates at 3, 12, 24, 48, 96, and 192 h after treatment (HAT). 14C-AMCP was rapidly absorbed by tall fescue, reaching 38 and 68% at 3 and 48 HAT, respectively. Translocation of 14C-AMCP was limited to the foliage, which reached maximum translocation (34%) at 96 HAT. Most of the recovered 14C-AMCP remained in the leaf wash, treated leaf, or foliage, whereas minimal radiation was detected in the crown, roots, or root exudates throughout the 192-h period. No AMCP metabolism was observed in tall fescue through the 192 HAT. These data suggest AMCP applied to tall fescue can remain bioavailable, and mishandling treated plant material could result in off-target injury.
We present the results of an all sky survey for binary systems among the massive stars that we made with the HST Fine Guidance Sensors. The sample of 225 stars is comprised mainly of Galactic O- and B-type stars and Luminous Blue Variables, plus a few luminous stars in the LMC. The FGS TRANS mode observations are sensitive to detection of companions with an angular separation of 0.01–1 arcsec and brighter than △m = 5 mag. The FGS observations resolved 52 binary and 6 triple star systems and detected partially resolved binaries in 7 additional targets, yielding a companion detection frequency of 29%. We also gathered literature results on the numbers of close spectroscopic binaries and wider astrometric binaries among the sample. These results confirm the high multiplicity fraction. The period distribution is essentially flat in increments of log P, although there remains an observational gap in detections for periods of years and decades.
Introduction of pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPV23) and conjugate vaccine (PCV7) programmes were expected to change the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumonia in the UK. We describe the epidemiology of IPD and hospitalization with pneumonia using high-quality surveillance data over an 8-year period, 2002–2009. Although PPV23 uptake increased from 49% to 70% and PCV7 uptake reached 98% by 2009, the overall incidence of IPD increased from 11·8/100 000 to 16·4/100 000 (P=0·13), and the incidence of hospitalization with pneumonia increased from 143/100 000 to 207/100 000 (P<0·001). Although a reduction in the proportion of IPD caused by PCV7 serotypes was observed, concurrent increases in PPV23 and non-vaccine serotype IPD contributed to an increased IPD burden overall. Marked inequalities in the geographical distribution of disease were observed. Existing vaccination programmes have, so far, not been sufficient to address an increasing burden of pneumococcal disease in our locality.