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In this chapter we provide an overview of the development of green criminology and focus specifically on a political economic perspective within green criminology that builds on the treadmill of production tradition in environmental sociology and ecological Marxism. This perspective calls for a scientifically grounded harms-based approach that studies green crimes, which are defined as unnecessary ecological disorganization. The treadmill of production framework organizes environmental destruction (or, ecological disorganization) into ecological withdrawals (i.e. the removal of resources from nature) and ecological additions (i.e. pollution). We review green criminological work in these two areas. We next provide an overview of research that links the traditional criminological perspective, social disorganization, to green crimes. We then turn to a discussion of how the treadmill of production impacts nonhuman species. We finish our review of political economic green criminology with some thoughts on the role of non-state actors in the treadmill of production, environmental enforcement and what we call the treadmill of law.
To conduct a pilot study implementing combined genomic and epidemiologic surveillance for hospital-acquired multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) to predict transmission between patients and to estimate the local burden of MDRO transmission.
Pilot prospective multicenter surveillance study.
The study was conducted in 8 university hospitals (2,800 beds total) in Melbourne, Australia (population 4.8 million), including 4 acute-care, 1 specialist cancer care, and 3 subacute-care hospitals.
All clinical and screening isolates from hospital inpatients (April 24 to June 18, 2017) were collected for 6 MDROs: vanA VRE, MRSA, ESBL Escherichia coli (ESBL-Ec) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-Kp), and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPa) and Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb). Isolates were analyzed and reported as routine by hospital laboratories, underwent whole-genome sequencing at the central laboratory, and were analyzed using open-source bioinformatic tools. MDRO burden and transmission were assessed using combined genomic and epidemiologic data.
In total, 408 isolates were collected from 358 patients; 47.5% were screening isolates. ESBL-Ec was most common (52.5%), then MRSA (21.6%), vanA VRE (15.7%), and ESBL-Kp (7.6%). Most MDROs (88.3%) were isolated from patients with recent healthcare exposure.
Combining genomics and epidemiology identified that at least 27.1% of MDROs were likely acquired in a hospital; most of these transmission events would not have been detected without genomics. The highest proportion of transmission occurred with vanA VRE (88.4% of patients).
Genomic and epidemiologic data from multiple institutions can feasibly be combined prospectively, providing substantial insights into the burden and distribution of MDROs, including in-hospital transmission. This analysis enables infection control teams to target interventions more effectively.
Body mass index, race/ethnicity, and payer status are associated with operative mortality in congenital heart disease (CHD). Interactions between these predictors and impacts on longer term outcomes are less well understood. We studied the effect of body mass index, race/ethnicity, and payer on 1-year outcomes following elective CHD surgery and tested the degree to which race/ethnicity and payer explained the effects of body mass index. Patients aged 2–25 years who underwent elective CHD surgery at our centre from 2010 to 2017 were included. We assessed 1-year unplanned cardiac re-admissions, re-interventions, and mortality. Step-wise, multivariable logistic regression was performed.
Of the 929 patients, 10.4% were underweight, 14.9% overweight, and 8.5% obese. Non-white race/ethnicity comprised 40.4% and public insurance 29.8%. Only 0.5% died prior to hospital discharge with one additional death in the first post-operative year. Amongst patients with continuous follow-up, unplanned re-admission and re-intervention rates were 14.7% and 12.3%, respectively. In multivariable analyses adjusting for surgical complexity and surgeon, obese, overweight, and underweight patients had higher odds of re-admission than normal-weight patients (OR 1.40, p = 0.026; OR 1.77, p < 0.001; OR 1.44, p = 0.008). Underweight patients had more than twice the odds of re-intervention compared with normal weight (OR 2.12, p < 0.001). These associations persisted after adjusting for race/ethnicity, payer, and surgeon.
Pre-operative obese, overweight, and underweight body mass index were associated with unplanned re-admission and/or re-intervention 1-year following elective CHD surgery, even after accounting for race/ethnicity and payer status. Body mass index may be an important modifiable risk factor prior to CHD surgery.
Resource depression and garden hunting are major topics of archaeological interest, with important implications for understanding cultural and environmental change. Garden hunting is difficult to study using traditional zooarchaeological approaches, but isotopic analyses of animals may provide a marker for where and when people exploited nondomesticated animals that fed on agricultural resources. To realize the full potential of isotopic approaches for reconstructing garden hunting practices—and the impacts of agriculture on past nondomesticated animal populations more broadly—a wider range of species, encompassing many “ecological perspectives,” is needed. We use bone-collagen isotopic compositions of animals (n = 643, 23 taxa, 39 sites) associated with the Late Woodland (~AD 900−1650) in what is now southern Ontario to test hypotheses about the extent to which animals used maize, an isotopically distinctive plant central to subsistence practices of Iroquoian-speaking peoples across the region. Results show that although some taxa—particularly those that may have been hard to control—had substantial access to maize, most did not, regardless of the animal resource requirements of local populations. Our findings suggest that this isotopic approach to detecting garden hunting will be more successful when applied to smaller-scale societies.
The Late Triassic fauna of the Lossiemouth Sandstone Formation (LSF) from the Elgin area, Scotland, has been pivotal in expanding our understanding of Triassic terrestrial tetrapods. Frustratingly, due to their odd preservation, interpretations of the Elgin Triassic specimens have relied on destructive moulding techniques, which only provide incomplete, and potentially distorted, information. Here, we show that micro-computed tomography (μCT) could revitalise the study of this important assemblage. We describe a long-neglected specimen that was originally identified as a pseudosuchian archosaur, Ornithosuchus woodwardi. μCT scans revealed dozens of bones belonging to at least two taxa: a small-bodied pseudosuchian and a specimen of the procolophonid Leptopleuron lacertinum. The pseudosuchian skeleton possesses a combination of characters that are unique to the clade Erpetosuchidae. As a basis for investigating the phylogenetic relationships of this new specimen, we reviewed the anatomy, taxonomy and systematics of other erpetosuchid specimens from the LSF (all previously referred to Erpetosuchus). Unfortunately, due to the differing representation of the skeleton in the available Erpetosuchus specimens, we cannot determine whether the erpetosuchid specimen we describe here belongs to Erpetosuchus granti (to which we show it is closely related) or if it represents a distinct new taxon. Nevertheless, our results shed light on rarely preserved details of erpetosuchid anatomy. Finally, the unanticipated new information extracted from both previously studied and neglected specimens suggests that fossil remains may be much more widely distributed in the Elgin quarries than previously recognised, and that the richness of the LSF might have been underestimated.
The objective of the current study was to identify challenges of making and sustaining healthy lifestyle changes for families with children/adolescents affected by obesity, who were referred to a multicomponent healthy lifestyle assessment and intervention programme in Aotearoa/New Zealand (NZ).
Secondary qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews.
Taranaki region of Aotearoa/NZ.
Thirty-eight interviews with parents/caregivers (n 42) of children/adolescents who had previously been referred to a family-focused multidisciplinary programme for childhood obesity intervention, who identified challenges of making healthy lifestyle changes. Participants had varying levels of engagement, including those who declined contact after their referral.
Participant-identified challenges included financial cost, impact of the food environment, time pressures, stress, maintaining consistency across households, independence in adolescence, concern for mental health and frustration when not seeing changes in weight status.
Participants recognised a range of factors that contributed towards their ability to make and sustain change, including factors at the wider socio-environmental level beyond their immediate control. Even with the support of a multidisciplinary healthy lifestyle programme, participants found it difficult to make sustained changes within an obesogenic environment. Healthy lifestyle intervention programmes and families’ abilities to make and sustain changes require alignment of prevention efforts, focusing on policy changes to improve the food environment and eliminate structural inequities.
In order to maximize the utility of future studies of trilobite ontogeny, we propose a set of standard practices that relate to the collection, nomenclature, description, depiction, and interpretation of ontogenetic series inferred from articulated specimens belonging to individual species. In some cases, these suggestions may also apply to ontogenetic studies of other fossilized taxa.
Increasing evidence links unhealthy food environments with diet quality and overweight/obesity. Recent evidence has demonstrated that relative food environment measures outperform absolute measures. Few studies have examined the interplay between these two measures. We examined the separate and combined effects of the absolute and relative densities of unhealthy food outlets within 1600 m buffers around elementary schools on children’s diet- and weight-related outcomes.
This is a cross-sectional study of 812 children from thirty-nine schools. The Youth Healthy Eating Index (Y-HEI) and daily vegetables and fruit servings were derived from the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire for Children and Youth. Measured heights and weights determined BMI Z-scores. Food outlets were ranked as healthy, somewhat healthy and unhealthy according to provincial paediatric nutrition guidelines. Multilevel mixed-effects regression models were used to assess the effect of absolute (number) and relative (proportion) densities of unhealthy food outlets within 1600 m around schools on diet quality and weight status.
Two urban centres in the province of Alberta, Canada.
Grade 5 students (10–11 years).
For children attending schools with a higher absolute number (36+) of unhealthy food outlets within 1600 m, every 10 % increase in the proportion of unhealthy food outlets was associated with 4·1 lower Y-HEI score and 0·9 fewer daily vegetables and fruit.
Children exposed to a higher relative density of unhealthy food outlets around a school had lower diet quality, specifically in areas where the absolute density of unhealthy food outlets was also high.
The distribution of genetic diversity in invasive plant populations can have important management implications. Alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.) was introduced into the United States around 1900 and has since spread throughout much of the southern U.S. and California. A successful biological control program was initiated in the late 1960s which reduced alligator weed in the southern U.S., although control has varied geographically. The degree to which variation among genotypes may be responsible for variation in control efficacy has not been well studied due to a lack of genetic data. We sampled 373 plants from 90 sites across the U.S. and genotyped all samples at three chloroplast regions to help inform future management efforts. Consistent with clonal spread, there was high differentiation between sites, yet we found six haplotypes and high haplotype diversity (mean h = 0.48) across states, suggesting this plant has been introduced multiple times. Two of the haplotypes correspond to previously described biotypes that differ in their susceptibility to herbicides and herbivory. The geographic distribution of the three common haplotypes varied by latitude and longitude while the other haplotypes were widespread or localized to one or a few sites. All the haplotypes we screened are hexaploid (6n = 102) which may enhance biological control. Future studies can use these genetic data to determine if genotypes differ in their invasiveness or respond differently to control measures. Some states for instance, have mainly a single haplotype and so may respond more uniformly to a single control strategy compared to other states which may require a variety of control strategies. These data will also provide the basis for identifying the source regions in South America, which may lead to the discovery of new biological control agents more closely matched to particular genotypes.
The radiocarbon (14C) dating facility at the Centre for Isotope Research, University of Groningen went through a major upgrade in 2017 and this included installation of a MICADAS accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS). In the first 18 months, we performed 4000 sample and 3000 reference measurements. A careful evaluation of those measurement results is presented, to characterize the various sources of uncertainty and to ultimately assign, for every sample measurement, a realistic expanded uncertainty. This analysis was performed on the measurements of secondary references and sample duplicates in various phases of their processing steps. The final expanded uncertainty includes both the 14C measurement uncertainties and uncertainties originating from pretreatment steps. Where the 14C measurement uncertainty includes straightforward uncertainties arising from Poisson statistics, background subtraction, calibration on Oxalic Acid II and δ13C correction, the uncertainties originating from pretreatment steps are based on the spread of actual measurement results for secondary references and sample duplicates. We show that the 14C measurement uncertainty requires expansion, depending on the number of processing steps involved prior to a 14C measurement, by a maximum factor of 1.6 at our laboratory. By using these expansion (multiplication) factors, we make our reported uncertainty both more realistic and reliable.
The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment (GAD-7) are widely used in the evaluation of interventions for depression and anxiety. The smallest reduction in depressive symptoms that matter to patients is known as the Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID). Little empirical study of the MCID for these scales exists.
A prospective cohort of 400 patients in UK primary care were interviewed on four occasions, 2 weeks apart. At each time point, participants completed all three questionnaires and a ‘global rating of change’ scale (GRS). MCID estimation relied on estimated changes in symptoms according to reported improvement on the GRS scale, stratified by baseline severity on the Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R).
For moderate baseline severity, those who reported improvement on the GRS had a reduction of 21% (95% confidence interval (CI) −26.7 to −14.9) on the PHQ-9; 23% (95% CI −27.8 to −18.0) on the BDI-II and 26.8% (95% CI −33.5 to −20.1) on the GAD-7. The corresponding threshold scores below which participants were more likely to report improvement were −1.7, −3.5 and −1.5 points on the PHQ-9, BDI-II and GAD-7, respectively. Patients with milder symptoms require much larger reductions as percentage of their baseline to endorse improvement.
An MCID representing 20% reduction of scores in these scales, is a useful guide for patients with moderately severe symptoms. If treatment had the same effect on patients irrespective of baseline severity, those with low symptoms are unlikely to notice a benefit.
Individuals with eating disorders have a high mortality risk. Few population-based studies have estimated this risk in eating disorders other than anorexia nervosa.
To investigate all-cause mortality in a population-based cohort of individuals who received hospital-based care for an eating disorder (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or eating disorder not otherwise specified) in Ontario, Canada.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 19 041 individuals with an eating disorder from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2013 using administrative healthcare data. The outcome of interest was death. Excess mortality was assessed using standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and potential years of life lost (PYLL). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine sociodemographic and medical comorbidities associated with greater mortality risk.
The cohort had 17 108 females (89.9%) and 1933 males (10.1%). The all-cause mortality for the entire cohort was five times higher than expected compared with the Ontario population (SMR = 5.06; 95% CI 4.82–5.30). SMRs were higher for males (SMR = 7.24; 95% CI 6.58–7.96) relative to females (SMR = 4.59; 95% CI 4.34–4.85) overall, and in all age groups in the cohort. For both genders, the cohort PYLL was more than six times higher than the expected PYLL in the Ontario population.
Patients with eating disorders diagnosed in hospital settings experience five to seven times higher mortality rates compared with the overall population. There is an urgent need to understand the mortality risk factors to improve health outcomes among individuals with eating disorders.
This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
Ag3O was synthesized by jet-milling magnetron-sputtered Ag–Ag2O thin films. Heating the jet-milled powders in air and N2 from 40 to 148 °C at ambient pressure produced Ag3O-rich powders. The phase composition and unit-cell parameters of the jet-milled powders were measured as a function of temperature with in situ X-ray powder diffraction experiments from −186 to 293 °C. Ag3O was also produced by ball milling and sonicating jet-milled films at ambient conditions. The phase composition, unit-cell parameters, and thermal-reaction rates indicate nonstoichiometric Ag3O was produced from the reaction of metastable, nonstoichiometric Ag2O (cuprite structure) and ccp Ag. The thermal expansion of Ag3O is anisotropic; below 25 °C, the a-axis expansion is about twice the c-axis expansion resulting in a negative slope of c/a(T). The reversal of the sign of c/a(T) near 25 °C is dramatic. The thermal reaction is arrested when the temperature is rapidly increased from ambient to 130 °C. Ag3O is metastable and decreases its unit-cell volume during kinetic decomposition to Ag when heated above ambient temperature in air and nitrogen. The relative volume expansion of Ag3O is about 80% less than Ag at room temperature and below. The suite of nonstoichiometric Ag3O produced by heating displays a linear relation between c/a and unit-cell volume at room temperature. The c/a and unit-cell volume of a hydrothermally grown Ag3O single crystal reported in a published structure determination was the Ag-rich, low-volume end member of the linear series. The c/a and unit-cell volume are sensitive indicators of the oxygen content and state of disorder.
The Triassic–Jurassic Upper Karoo Group of the Mid-Zambezi Basin (MZB; Zimbabwe) includes a thick succession of terrestrial sediments with high palaeontological potential that has been neglected since the 1970s. Here, we review the Upper Karoo Group stratigraphy, present detailed sedimentological work and identify new vertebrate-bearing sites at several measured sections along the southern shore of Lake Kariba. These fossil-bearing sites fall within the Pebbly Arkose and Forest Sandstone formations, and are the first to be recorded from the region since the discovery of Vulcanodon karibaensis nearly 50 years ago. The unique and diverse assemblage of aquatic and terrestrial fauna reported includes phytosaurs, metoposaurid amphibians, lungfish, non-dinosaurian archosauromorphs and non-sauropod sauropodomorph dinosaurs. This improvement of Upper Karoo Group biostratigraphy is important in refining its temporal resolution, and impacts both regional and global studies. Finally, the new fossil sites demonstrate the palaeontological importance of the MZB and its role in providing a holistic understanding of early Mesozoic ecosystems in southern Gondwana.