To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
An attempt has been made to examine the nature of 3-minute umbral oscillations in order to identify their origin. For this purpose we have calculated, on the basis of Musielak and Rosner (1987), the fast-mode energy spectra generated in a typical sunspot convection zone (Yun 1968). The computed energy spectrum is fed into the lower boundary of the sub-photospheric resonant cavity to examine the characteristics of the wave propagation through the SS umbral atmosphere (Avrett 1981). The upward velocity spectra computed at various heights are presented and their behaviour compared with observations.
Manual surveillance of healthcare-associated infections is cumbersome and vulnerable to subjective interpretation. Automated systems are under development to improve efficiency and reliability of surveillance, for example by selecting high-risk patients requiring manual chart review. In this study, we aimed to validate a previously developed multivariable prediction modeling approach for detecting drain-related meningitis (DRM) in neurosurgical patients and to assess its merits compared to conventional methods of automated surveillance.
Prospective cohort study in 3 hospitals assessing the accuracy and efficiency of 2 automated surveillance methods for detecting DRM, the multivariable prediction model and a classification algorithm, using manual chart review as the reference standard. All 3 methods of surveillance were performed independently. Patients receiving cerebrospinal fluid drains were included (2012–2013), except children, and patients deceased within 24 hours or with pre-existing meningitis. Data required by automated surveillance methods were extracted from routine care clinical data warehouses.
In total, DRM occurred in 37 of 366 external cerebrospinal fluid drainage episodes (12.3/1000 drain days at risk). The multivariable prediction model had good discriminatory power (area under the ROC curve 0.91–1.00 by hospital), had adequate overall calibration, and could identify high-risk patients requiring manual confirmation with 97.3% sensitivity and 52.2% positive predictive value, decreasing the workload for manual surveillance by 81%. The multivariable approach was more efficient than classification algorithms in 2 of 3 hospitals.
Automated surveillance of DRM using a multivariable prediction model in multiple hospitals considerably reduced the burden for manual chart review at near-perfect sensitivity.
After an outbreak of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (pH1N1) virus, we had previously reported the emergence of a recombinant canine influenza virus (CIV) between the pH1N1 virus and the classic H3N2 CIV. Our ongoing routine surveillance isolated another reassortant H3N2 CIV carrying the matrix gene of the pH1N1 virus from 2012. The infection dynamics of this H3N2 CIV variant (CIV/H3N2mv) were investigated in dogs and ferrets via experimental infection and transmission. The CIV/H3N2mv-infected dogs and ferrets produced typical symptoms of respiratory disease, virus shedding, seroconversion, and direct-contact transmissions. Although indirect exposure was not presented for ferrets, CIV/H3N2mv presented higher viral replication in MDCK cells and more efficient transmission was observed in ferrets compared to classic CIV H3N2. This study demonstrates the effect of reassortment of the M gene of pH1N1 in CIV H3N2.
Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious respiratory disease in equids, with confirmed outbreaks in Europe, America, North Africa, and Asia. Although China, Mongolia, and Japan have reported equine influenza outbreaks, Korea has not. Since 2011, we have conducted a routine surveillance programme to detect EIV at domestic stud farms, and isolated H3N8 EIV from horses showing respiratory disease symptoms. Here, we characterized the genetic and biological properties of this novel Korean H3N8 EIV isolate. This H3N8 EIV isolate belongs to the Florida sublineage clade 1 of the American H3N8 EIV lineage, and surprisingly, possessed a non-structural protein (NS) gene segment, where 23 bases of the NS1-encoding region were naturally truncated. Our preliminary biological data indicated that this truncation did not affect virus replication; its effect on biological and immunological properties of the virus will require further study.
Hierarchically porous materials are of interest in a wide range of applications. If the materials are electronic or ionic conductors such materials are of interest as electrodes for use in fuel cells, flow batteries, electrocatalysis, and pseudo/supercapacitors. We have demonstrated the synthesis of hierarchically porous carbon, metal and metal oxide monoliths. Hierarchically porous silica with porosity at three length scales: 0.5-30 micrometer, 200-500 nm, and 3-8 nm, is used as a template to form these materials. The porosity of the silica template is produced by spinodal decomposition (0.5-30 micrometer), particle agglomeration (200-500 nm) and addition of surfactant or block copolymer (3-8 nm). Nanocasting: replication of all or part of the structure via one of a number of chemical replication techniques has been used to produce the carbon, metal oxide and metal replicas. The final surface areas of the materials can be as high as 1200 m2/g for carbon replicas, and >300 m2/g for metals and metal oxides. The use of the nanocasting technique allows for formation of materials that are compositionally or spatially heterogeneous.
We report here results on the synthesis and characterization of hierarchically porous monoliths of carbon and, nickel and the use of some of these monoliths in catalysis and electrochemical capacitors.
The development of a multifunctional, micron-scaled, reticulated copper foam that reliably exhibits high intrinsic thermal conductivity, efficient capillary fluid and evaporative transport over a wide area presents a unique challenge. In this work, the relationship of critical foam processing variables such as sintering temperature and template size on the pore size distribution and pore neck/body ratio is investigated using image analysis. The resulting fluid permeability values of these foams are estimated by using the Kozeny Carman equation and the porosity, surface area per unit area and tortuosity obtained through image analysis. Estimating the fluid permeability of these foams is useful for predicting the mass and heat transfer within the porous network, and provides a metric for optimizing the foam’s structural characteristics for a particular application.
Y-Ba-Cu-o fine powders were prepared by coprecipitating in the oxalate form from metal nitrates solution. The stoichiometry of metals in the precipitate was adjusted by systematic change of copper nitrate (or yttrium nitrate) concentration for a fixed concentration of barium nitrate in the ruactant. Approximately one micron size powders, with a uniform size distribution, were obtained by this new approach. The optimum condition for calcination and sintering was studied by thermal gravimetric analysis(TGA), X-ray powder diffraction(XRD) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM).
The use of gaseous discharge for ion plating and related techniques have been well known to improve coating properties in several ways. IN the arc-induced ion plating (AIIP), the ionization efficiency for the evaporants is so enhanced without any introduction of inert gases that the bias voltage for, and the temperature of the substrate are reduced in the preparation of the coatings. Highly transparent (> 90% transmission in the visible range) and highly conductive (resistivity ≅ 1.5 x 10-4 Ω cm) in-oxide films were deposited at a rate of 500 - 900 Å/min by aIIP of pure in in an O2 atmosphere of 10-4 Torr. Hall-effect measurement revealed that the observed low resistivity is due primarily to the excellent electron mobilty (≥ 70 cm2 / V sec) with carrier density up to 7 х 1020/cm3. Electrochromic WO3 films were also prepared and characterized.
We investigated the formation of a buried HfSi2 layer by high fluence ion implantation of isotopically mass separated 179–180 Hf+ on heated silicon (100) substrates. It is shown that for the substrate temperature of 600°C a buried HfSi 2 layer is formed. By subsequent annealing at 1000 °C a continuous 12 nm HfSi2 layer on the Si surface is formed followed by 130 nm big almost spherodized HfSi2 ellipsoid and 80 nm small HfSi2 and Si grains. The annealing of samples implanted at lower temperatures show that HfSi2 is also formed but with reduced yield. A summary of the relevant data is presented.
For high density FeRAM devices small cell sizes are essential. The combination of the capacitor on plug (COP) structure with the Chain FeRAM™ cell design is used to develop a 32Mb FeRAM. Based on a 0.2 μm standard CMOS process a silicide capped polysilicon plug is used to contact the bottom electrode of the ferroelectric capacitor to the transistor. The barrier contact to the plug is formed by IrO2/Ir and a sputter deposited PZT (40/60) is used as ferroelectric material. The function of SrRuO3 (SRO) layers at the electrode/PZT interfaces is described in more detail. Double sided SRO results in slightly lower coercive voltage and imprint behavior compared to capacitors without SRO. Double sided SRO is essential to achieve excellent fatigue behavior measured up to 1×1011 switching cycles.
To lower the temperature of oxide-passivation processing the high- purity ozone (more than 98 mole %) was used instead of usual thermal oxidation. Initial oxide formation on a Si(111) surface with high-purity ozone is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). From the comparison of the suboxides formed with ozone and oxygen exposures, it is clear that ozone forms less suboxide than oxygen. The oxidation with ozone also proceeds on the hydrogen passivated surface which oxygen molecules do not oxidize.
A novel methodology has been developed for the preparation of amorphous semiconductor samples for use in transmission extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements. Epitaxial heterostructures were fabricated by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (group III-Vs) or molecular beam epitaxy (group IVs). An epitaxial layer of ∼2 μm thickness was separated from the underlying substrate by selective chemical etching of an intermediate sacrificial layer. Ion implantation was utilised to amorphise the epitaxial layer either before or after selective chemical etching. The resulting samples were both stoichiometric and homogeneous in contrast to those produced by conventional techniques. The fabrication of amorphous GaAs, InP, In0.53Ga0.47As and SixGe1-x samples is described. Furthermore, EXAFS measurements comparing both fluorescence and transmission detection, and crystalline and amorphised GaAs, are shown.
High quality ZnS epilayers were grown on GaAs and GaP substrates by hot wall epitaxy. The optimum temperature conditions for high quality ZnS epilayer were found. The photoluminescence(PL) spectrum of high quality ZnS epilayers showed sharp and narrow exciton peaks and no self-activated peaks. The room temperature energy gap of ZnS/GaAs was found to be 3.729 eV from the experimentally observed free exciton PL peaks. The temperature dependence of the PL intensity showed a two step quenching process and the temperature dependence of the PL linewidth broadening was tried to analyze in terms of exciton scattering process. From the splitting of the heavy hole and the light hole exciton peaks, the strain was identified.
Poly-Si TFTs with high field effect mobility are fabricated by using PECVD SiO2 layer deposited with a new method: two-step (graded) oxide deposition. To adjust stoichiometry of the poly-Si/oxide interface and the bulk oxide layer, the double layer oxide films were deposited. The oxide films near the interface were deposited with high N2O/SiH4 gas ratio to obtain the stoichiometric layer for good matching between poly-Si and SiO2. The remaining bulk oxide films were deposited with low N2O/SiH4 gas ratio. The composition of the bulk oxide film was measured by using ESCA and the interface layer was analized with ESR. The poly-Si TFT with the double layer gate oxide resulted to the better performance than conventional TFT wth single layer gate oxde.
A modification of the jogged-screw model has been adopted recently by the authors to explain observations of 1/2-type jogged-screw dislocations in equiaxed Ti-48Al under creep conditions. The aim of this study has been to verify and validate the parameters and functional dependencies that have been assumed in this previous work. The original solution has been reformulated to take into account the finite length of the moving jog. This is a better approximation of the tall jog. The substructural model parameters have been further investigated in light of the Finite Length Moving Line (FLML) source approximation. The original model assumes that the critical jog height (beyond which the jog is not dragged) is inversely proportional to the applied stress. By accounting for the fact that there are three competing mechanisms (jog dragging, dipole dragging, dipole bypass) possible, we can arrive at a modified critical jog height. The critical jog height was found to be more strongly stress dependent than assumed previously. The original model assumes the jog spacing to be invariant over the stress range. However, dynamic simulation using a line tension model has shown that the jog spacing is inversely proportional to the applied stress. This has also been confirmed by TEM measurements of jog spacings over a range of stresses. Taylor's expression assumed previously to provide the dependence of dislocation density on the applied stress, has now been confirmed by actual dislocation density measurements. Combining all of these parameters and dependencies, derived both from experiment and theory, leads to an excellent prediction of creep rates and stress exponents. The further application of this model to other materials, and the important role of atomistic and dislocation dynamics simulations in its continued development is also discussed.