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This article examines the theoretical connections between identity and linked fate, extending the latter concept across three countries and four types of (potential) identity groups. This belief, that what happens to one's ethnic group, religious group, region, or class shapes one's own life chances, is an understudied middle ground between ideational and material drivers of political attitudes. The study uses experimental and observational analyses to show that the strength of individuals' beliefs in linked fate and that belief's consequences vary in systematic and predictable ways. From the very material effect of labor market uncertainty to the highly ideational effect of regional identity, linked fate is a cognitive bridge between two very different kinds of social–psychological experiences that can (and should) be applied across a wide range of countries and groups.
Marine plastic pollution is a global environmental concern. With reference to approaches in contemporary archaeology, object biographies and psychology, this article presents the application of a novel participatory (‘World Café’) methodology that aims both to understand how marine plastic pollution occurs and to demonstrate the value of the approach for encouraging behaviour change. As proof of concept, the authors present the preliminary results of fieldwork involving local people in the Galápagos archipelago to demonstrate the benefits of an archaeological approach in developing new frameworks to help mitigate this critical environmental threat.
This article makes a case for incorporating the concept of ‘Critical Security History’ (CSH) into security studies. While history plays a powerful role in a cornucopia of security stories, we contend that it often goes unnoticed in scholarly research and teaching. Against this backdrop, we present a detailed guide to study how history is told and enacted in non-linear ways. To do this, the article outlines how CSH can contribute to securitisation and ontological security studies. As shown, this lens casts a new light on the legacies of (de)securitisation processes and how they are commemorated. It also illustrates that ontological security studies have only begun to call into question the concept of historicity. Working through these observations, the article marshals insights from Halvard Leira's notion of ‘engaged historical amateurism’ to entice scholars interested in ‘doing’ CSH. While acknowledging that this research agenda is hard to achieve, our study of the 2012 Sarajevo Red Line project helps to illustrate the added value of trying to ‘do’ CSH in theory and in practice. We end with some reflections for future research and continued conversations.
Mental health is regarded as more than the absence of mental health difficulties, with clinical and research focus moving towards measurement of well-being. The Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) was developed to assess overall and emotional, social and psychological well-being. Little is known about the use of the MHC-SF with young people engaging with mental health services. The current pilot study sought to examine the performance of the MHC-SF in an Irish primary care youth mental health service for 12–25 year olds.
A sample of 229 young people (female n=143; male n=85, unknown n=1) aged 12–24 years (M=15.87, SD=2.51) who completed the MHC-SF prior to commencing their first intervention session in Jigsaw participated in this study. The psychometric properties of the MHC-SF were investigated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency.
CFA supported the three-factor structure of the MHC-SF for emotional, social, and psychological well-being, and very good internal consistency was observed.
Findings provide evidence for the psychometric properties of the MHC-SF in a primary care youth mental health setting, and suggest that the MHC-SF’s three-factor structure is valid for use in this context. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Infant protein intake has been associated with child growth, however, research on maternal protein intake during pregnancy is limited. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) play a role in early fetal development and maternal protein intake may influence child body composition via IGF-1. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of maternal protein intake throughout pregnancy on cord blood IGF-1 and child body composition from birth to 5 years of age. Analysis was carried out on 570 mother–child dyads from the Randomised cOntrol trial of LOw glycaemic index diet study. Protein intake was recorded using 3-d food diaries in each trimester of pregnancy and protein intake per kg of maternal weight (g/d per kg) was calculated. Cord blood IGF-1 was measured at birth. Infant anthropometry was measured at birth, 6 months, 2 and 5 years of age. Mixed modelling, linear regression, and mediation analysis were carried out. Birth weight centiles were positively associated with early-pregnancy protein intake (g/d per kg), while weight centiles from 6 months to 5 years were negatively associated (B=−21·6, P<0·05). These associations were not mediated by IGF-1. Our findings suggest that high protein intake in early-pregnancy may exert an in utero effect on offspring body composition with a higher weight initially at birth but slower growth rates into childhood. Further research is needed to elucidate the exact mechanisms by which dietary protein modulates fetal growth.
A new stream of research proposes how people can increase their income in retirement by pooling their mortality risk. How one of these mortality risk-sharing rules could be implemented in practice, as part of a retirement income scheme, is considered. A potential advantage of the scheme is that a retiree’s housing wealth can be monetised to provide an income stream. This would mean that retirees can continue living in their home, without needing to downsize. It may be most attractive to the millions of single pensioners, particularly those who are “asset-rich and cash-poor”. Other types of assets that could be included and how to mitigate selection risks are assessed. A way of smoothing the raw mortality credits in order to make the scheme more appealing to potential members is proposed. An illustrative premium calculation suggests that the cost of the smoothing is very small compared to the potential attractiveness of an enhanced, smoothed income.
This edited collection looks closely at the range and scope of contemporary film musicals, from stage adaptations like Mamma Mia! (2008) and Les Miserables (2012), to less conventional works that elide the genre, like Team America: World Police (2004) and Quentin Tarantino's Kill Bill (2003/04).
Film musicals are one of the key places where music and film join most clearly. They are the antecedent of modern digital audio-visual culture, where sound and image combine, and film aesthetics and music aesthetics merge into something different and more than the sum of their parts. Sonic excess becomes visual spectacle, both vying for ascendency. The film musical is a site of tension: between innovation and tradition, between sound and image, musical number and narrative, and between professionalism and amateurism. It is the continuous discord and synthesis that these tensions raise that forces the musical to never be in stasis, but rather always in a constant state of transition. It is the extent and form of these transitions that this collection focuses upon.
Although one of the staples of classical Hollywood, the film musical became more intermittent in the post-studio era. Indeed, in the last decades of the twentieth century it had become almost a rarity, the tent-pole musical productions of the 1960s, such as Star! (Robert Wise, 1968) and Hello Dolly! (Gene Kelly, 1969), heralding an era of lower budget caution and ‘independent’ production. However, in recent years there has been a remarkable resurgence in the success of film musicals. This edited collection explores the breadth and diversity of recent film musicals, celebrating their energy and diversity, and addressing the genre traditions and innovations, looking to the essential relationship between film and live entertainment, innovation and conservatism.
While at times the film musical genre might have seemed over, merely a historical curio, in the last couple of decades it has re-emerged with a renewed vigour. Although the ‘classical musical’ of Hollywood's heyday – the big white sets, full orchestral scores, dancing stars and elaborate production numbers – might seem long gone, its modes are still very much alive, and its sibling on the stage (embodied by Broadway and London's West End) remains tremendously successful. The old mantra that the musical is dead has long taken on muted tones and the form's past popularity discussed with diminishing reverence excepting by those who have remained stalwart to the genre. Yet, it has never been proven true.
For a number of years, I have been wrestling with the notion of rock music being dead and have eventually reluctantly admitted that it has suffered an ignominious but unspectacular slow fade out. I do not wish to lament, merely to register a significant change that is evident in film and across culture generally. Perhaps the grotesque corpse of rock can be summed up by rock group AC/DC's last tour. Founder member Malcolm Young retired to a nursing home with Alzheimer's disease in 2014 and later in the year drummer Phil Rudd was arrested and found guilty of drug possession and threatening behaviour. They were replaced. In early 2016 singer Brian Johnson withdrew from the band for medical reasons (due to hearing issues), to be replaced on the 2016 world tour by Guns N’ Roses singer Axl Rose. For much of the tour, Rose had his leg in plaster and was confined to a ‘throne’ on casters in the middle of the stage throughout the performances. Little was left of the ‘real’ group and the spectacle was bizarre and confounding in the extreme, but perhaps emblematic of rock music.
This chapter is an attempt to write about films in which I can find few redeeming features. Since the millennium, a number of film musicals have presented a particularly tame and standardised image of rock music. This appears to correspond very directly with the increasingly prominent notion of rock being ‘dead’. Films such as School of Rock (Richard Linklater, 2003), Camp Rock (Mathew Diamond, 2008), and Rock of Ages (Adam Shankman, 2012) depict a world where rock's socially and culturally problematic aspects have been dissipated or assimilated. This chapter investigates how this cycle of films makes a cultural statement on the death and transfiguration of rock music, as well as embodying rock's destiny.
This recent cycle of films appears to mark nails in the coffin of rock. While over the years many journalists have declared rock moribund, scholars have been slow to have an opinion on something that is not easily substantiated. Although rock-style music continues to be produced, it seems to me that the crucial point is the loss of its socio-cultural milieu.