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The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
Although researchers have described numerous risk factors for salmonellosis and for infection with specific common serotypes, the drivers of Salmonella serotype diversity among human populations remain poorly understood. In this retrospective observational study, we partition records of serotyped non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from human clinical specimens reported to CDC national surveillance by demographic, geographic and seasonal characteristics and adapt sample-based rarefaction methods from the field of community ecology to study how Salmonella serotype diversity varied within and among these populations in the USA during 1996–2016. We observed substantially higher serotype richness in children <2 years old than in older children and adults and steadily increasing richness with age among older adults. Whereas seasonal and regional variation in serotype diversity was highest among infants and young children, variation by specimen source was highest in adults. Our findings suggest that the risk for infection from uncommon serotypes is associated with host and environmental factors, particularly among infants, young children and older adults. These populations may have a higher proportion of illness acquired through environmental transmission pathways than published source attribution models estimate.
Introduction: The Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) Atrial Fibrillation (AF) Guidelines prioritizes early cardioversion and discharge home in the management of rapid AF, however not all patients can be safely cardioverted in the emergency department (ED). Given limited ED-based evidence on rate control, we sought to better understand the burden of disease in AF patients not managed by rhythm control and identify opportunities for improved care. Methods: We conducted a health records review of consecutive AF patient visits at two Canadian academic hospital EDs over a 12-month period. We included all patients ≥18 years with AF on electrocardiogram, a heart rate ≥100 beats per minute (bpm), and who did not receive cardioversion. Outcomes included: (1) incidence of patients managed by rate control; (2) specific rate control management practices including choice of agent, route of administration, dosing, and timing; (3) adverse events; (4) compliance with CAEP AF Guidelines; and (5) disposition and outcomes. Results: Of 972 rapid AF patient visits, 307 were excluded and 665 were included, with mean age 77.2, female 51.6%. Of those included, 43.0% were given rate control medications, most common being metoprolol (72.0%). Admission to hospital occurred in 61.4% of visits, and 77.9% of AF cases were secondary to another medical condition. In those given rate control medications, 9.1% suffered adverse events and only 55.6% had a final ED heart rate ≤100 bpm. Inappropriate use of rate control medications was found in 44.8% of cases, specifically inappropriate choice of agent (4.5%), inappropriate route of administration (26.9%), over-dosed (2.4%), under-dosed (5.2%), and inadequate timing (5.6%). Conclusion: We demonstrated that for rapid AF patients not receiving cardioversion, most cases were secondary to a medical cause and of those receiving rate control, there were a concerning number of adverse events related to inappropriate choice of agent, route of administration, dosage, and timing. Moving forward, better awareness of the CAEP AF Guidelines by ED physicians will ensure safer use of rate control agents for rapid AF patients.
We present observations of 50 deg2 of the Mopra carbon monoxide (CO) survey of the Southern Galactic Plane, covering Galactic longitudes l = 300–350° and latitudes |b| ⩽ 0.5°. These data have been taken at 0.6 arcmin spatial resolution and 0.1 km s−1spectral resolution, providing an unprecedented view of the molecular clouds and gas of the Southern Galactic Plane in the 109–115 GHz J = 1–0 transitions of 12CO, 13CO, C18O, and C17O.
We present a series of velocity-integrated maps, spectra, and position-velocity plots that illustrate Galactic arm structures and trace masses on the order of ~106 M⊙ deg−2, and include a preliminary catalogue of C18O clumps located between l = 330–340°. Together with the information about the noise statistics of the survey, these data can be retrieved from the Mopra CO website and the PASA data store.
Functional circuits of the human brain emerge and change dramatically over the second half of gestation. It is possible that variation in neural functional system connectivity in utero predicts individual differences in infant behavioral development, but this possibility has yet to be examined. The current study examines the association between fetal sensorimotor brain system functional connectivity and infant postnatal motor ability. Resting-state functional connectivity data was obtained in 96 healthy human fetuses during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Infant motor ability was measured 7 months after birth using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Increased connectivity between the emerging motor network and regions of the prefrontal cortex, temporal lobes, posterior cingulate, and supplementary motor regions was observed in infants that showed more mature motor functions. In addition, females demonstrated stronger fetal-brain to infant-behavior associations. These observations extend prior longitudinal research back into prenatal brain development and raise exciting new ideas about the advent of risk and the ontogeny of early sex differences.
BACKGROUND: IGTS is a rare phenomenon of paradoxical germ cell tumor (GCT) growth during or following treatment despite normalization of tumor markers. We sought to evaluate the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of IGTS in patients in 21 North-American and Australian institutions. METHODS: Patients with IGTS diagnosed from 2000-2017 were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Out of 739 GCT diagnoses, IGTS was identified in 33 patients (4.5%). IGTS occurred in 9/191 (4.7%) mixed-malignant GCTs, 4/22 (18.2%) immature teratomas (ITs), 3/472 (0.6%) germinomas/germinomas with mature teratoma, and in 17 secreting non-biopsied tumours. Median age at GCT diagnosis was 10.9 years (range 1.8-19.4). Male gender (84%) and pineal location (88%) predominated. Of 27 patients with elevated markers, median serum AFP and Beta-HCG were 70 ng/mL (range 9.2-932) and 44 IU/L (range 4.2-493), respectively. IGTS occurred at a median time of 2 months (range 0.5-32) from diagnosis, during chemotherapy in 85%, radiation in 3%, and after treatment completion in 12%. Surgical resection was attempted in all, leading to gross total resection in 76%. Most patients (79%) resumed GCT chemotherapy/radiation after surgery. At a median follow-up of 5.3 years (range 0.3-12), all but 2 patients are alive (1 succumbed to progressive disease, 1 to malignant transformation of GCT). CONCLUSION: IGTS occurred in less than 5% of patients with GCT and most commonly after initiation of chemotherapy. IGTS was more common in patients with IT-only on biopsy than with mixed-malignant GCT. Surgical resection is a principal treatment modality. Survival outcomes for patients who developed IGTS are favourable.
The aim of the study was to assess the effect on rectal consistency, of introducing a micro-enema in the preparation of patients receiving radiotherapy treatment of urinary bladder cancer.
Materials and methods
The treatment cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images from patients receiving radiotherapy for bladder cancer were retrospectively assessed. CBCT datasets from nine patients treated without rectal preparation (97 CBCT), and 13 patients (134 CBCT) treated following micro-enema use before planning and treatment were evaluated. CBCT were compared with the planning computed tomography for rectal status, rectal diameter and presence of gas.
Reproducibility of an empty rectum was achieved in 70% of treatment fractions delivered using an enema protocol compared with 33% of fractions delivered without preparation. In total, 10% of fractions were delivered with the presence of faeces or faeces and gas, compared with 46% of fractions for the non-intervention group. Enemas did not affect the proportion of fractions delivered with gas, however, where gas was present, 65% of CBCT fractions had <5% gas for patients using enemas compared with 32% without.
The use of a micro-enema before planning scan and each fraction was well tolerated and proved effective in managing and reducing inter-fraction variations in rectal volume and contents.
To ascertain determinants of an interest in a career in ENT surgery through a survey of medical students and junior doctors.
A survey was administered, comprising Likert scales, forced response and single option questions, and free text responses, at five different courses or events for those interested in a career in ENT.
The survey had an 87 per cent response rate; respondents consisted of 43 applicants for national selection, 15 foundation doctors and 23 medical students. The most important factors that encourage ENT as a career included: the variety of operative procedures, work–life balance, inherent interest in this clinical area and inspirational senior role models. Exposure to ENT in undergraduate or post-graduate training is critical in deciding to pursue this specialty.
It is important to promote those aspects of ENT surgery that attract people to it, and to argue for greater exposure to ENT during undergraduate and post-graduate training.
The structure of a series of lanthanide iron cobalt perovskite oxides, R(Fe0.5Co0.5)O3 (R = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd), have been investigated. The space group of these compounds was confirmed to be orthorhombic Pnma (No. 62), Z = 4. From Pr to Gd, the lattice parameter a varies from 5.466 35(13) Å to 5.507 10(13) Å, b from 7.7018(2) to 7.561 75(13) Å, c from 5.443 38(10) to 5.292 00(8) Å, and unit-cell volume V from 229.170(9) Å3 to 220.376(9) Å3, respectively. While the trend of V follows the trend of the lanthanide contraction, the lattice parameter “a” increases as the ionic radius r(R3+) decreases. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy confirm that Fe and Co are disordered over the octahedral sites. The structure distortion of these compounds is evidenced in the tilt angles θ, ϕ, and ω, which represent rotations of an octahedron about the pseudocubic perovskite p, p, and p axes. All three tilt angles increase across the lanthanide series (for R = Pr to R = Gd: θ increases from 12.3° to 15.2°, ϕ from 7.5° to 15.8°, and ω from 14.4° to 21.7°), indicating a greater octahedral distortion as r(R3+) decreases. The bond valence sum for the sixfold (Fe/Co) site and the eightfold R site of R(Fe0.5Co0.5)O3 reveal no significant bond strain. Density Functional Theory calculations for Pr(Fe0.5Co0.5)O3 support the disorder of Fe and Co and suggest that this compound to be a narrow band gap semiconductor. XRD patterns of the R(Fe0.5Co0.5)O3 samples were submitted to the Powder Diffraction File.
During the past three years radiocarbon assay has emerged as a primary tool in the quantitative assignment of sources of urban and rural particulate pollution. Its use in several major field studies has come about because of its excellent (fossil/biogenic) discriminating power, because of advances in 14C measurements of small samples, and because of the increased significance of carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere. The problem is especially important in the cities, where increased concentrations of fine particles lead to pollution episodes characterized by poor visibility and changes in the radiation balance (absorption, scattering), and immediate and possibly long-term health effects. Efforts in source apportionment in such affected areas have been based on emissions inventories, dispersion modeling, and receptor modeling – ie, chemical and physical (and statistical) characterization of particles collected at designated receptor sites. It is in the last category that 14C has become quite effective in helping to resolve particle sources. Results are presented for studies carried out in Los Angeles, Denver, and Houston which incorporated 14C measurements, inorganic and organic chemical characterization, and receptor modeling. The 14C data indicated wide ranging contributions of biogenic and fossil carbon sources – eg, <10% to 60% contemporary (biogenic) in Houston – depending on meteorological, biological, and anthropological activity. The combined (chemical, isotopic, statistical) data point to sources such as vehicles, wood combustion, power plants, and vegetation.
We present a new estimate of the mass of the Milky Way based on the escape velocity of a sample of distant stars, about 12 kpc from the Galactic centre and about 5 kpc from the plane of the Galaxy. Our sample is very different from previous escape-velocity studies, being compiled from an all-object spectroscopic survey of a region of sky. the derived mass within 12 kpc of the Galactic centre is (1.3 ±0.3) × 1011M⊙.
Plasmodium knowlesi a simian malaria parasite is currently affecting humans in Southeast Asia. Malaysia has reported the most number of cases and P. knowlesi is the predominant species occurring in humans. The vectors of P. knowlesi belong to the Leucosphyrus group of Anopheles mosquitoes. These are generally described as forest-dwelling mosquitoes. With deforestation and changes in land-use, some species have become predominant in farms and villages. However, knowledge on the distribution of these vectors in the country is sparse. From a public health point of view it is important to know the vectors, so that risk factors towards knowlesi malaria can be identified and control measures instituted where possible. Here, we review what is known about the knowlesi malaria vectors and ascertain the gaps in knowledge, so that future studies could concentrate on this paucity of data in-order to address this zoonotic problem.
Jupiter’s microwave emission was observed throughout the SL9 impact period by many different telescopes, among which the NRAO 140-foot telescope in Green Bank (21 cm), Westerbork (92 cm), Effelsberg (6, 11 cm), Parkes (21 cm), NASA DSN (13 cm), and the Very Large Array (22, 90 cm). We determined the “average” total nonthermal flux density from the planet after having subtracted the thermal contribution, following the formulation by de Pater and Klein, (1989) and Klein et al., (1989). The flux density increased typically by 40-50% at 6 cm wavelength, 27% at 11-13 cm, 22%at 21 cm and 10-15% at 90 cm. Thus the radio spectrum hardened considerably during the week of cometary impacts. Following the week of cometary impacts, the flux density began to subside at all wavelength.
VLA images show the brightness distribution of the planet; a comparison of images taken before and during the week of impacts show marked changes in the brightness distribution. At a central meridian longitude λIII≈ 110°, the left side of the belts increased considerably and moved inwards by ~ 0.2 RJ. This suggests that the increase in flux density is caused by energization of the resident particle population.
We previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and
outcome following cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety
(Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele
showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed
results, with most reporting no association between genotype and CBT
To replicate the association between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcome in child
anxiety from the Genes for Treatment study (GxT Cohort 2,
n = 829).
Logistic and linear mixed effects models were used to examine the
relationship between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcomes. Mega-analyses using both
cohorts were performed.
There was no significant effect of 5HTTLPR on CBT outcomes in Cohort 2.
Mega-analyses identified a significant association between 5HTTLPR and
remission from all anxiety disorders at follow-up (odds ratio 0.45,
P = 0.014), but not primary anxiety disorder
The association between 5HTTLPR genotype and CBT outcome did not
replicate. Short-allele homozygotes showed more positive treatment
outcomes, but with small, non-significant effects. Future studies would
benefit from utilising whole genome approaches and large, homogenous
Hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) is becoming increasingly established in Asian hospitals. The primary aim of this study was to decompose the risk factors for HA-MRSA based on conceptual clinical pathways. The secondary aim was to show the amount of effect attributable to antibiotic exposure and total length of stay before outcome (LBO) so that institutions can manage at-risk patients accordingly. A case-control study consisting of 1200 inpatients was conducted in a large tertiary hospital in Singapore between January and December 2006. Results from the generalized structural equation model (GSEM) show that LBO [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 14·9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8·7–25·5], prior hospitalization (aOR 6·2, 95% CI 3·3–11·5), and cumulative antibiotic exposure (aOR 3·5, 95% CI 2·3–5·3), directly affected HA-MRSA acquisition. LBO accounted for the majority of the effects due to age (100%), immunosuppression (67%), and surgery (96%), and to a lesser extent for male gender (22%). Our model enabled us to account and quantify effects of intermediaries. LBO was found to be an important mediator of age, immunosuppression and surgery on MRSA infection. Traditional regression approaches will not only give different conclusions but also underestimate the effects. Hospitals should minimize the hospital stay when possible to reduce the risk of MRSA.
It is increasingly recognised that intersectoral linkages between mental health and other health and support sectors are essential for providing effective care for individuals with severe and persistent mental illness. The extent to which intersectoral collaboration and approaches to achieve it are detailed in mental health policy has not yet been systematically examined.
Thirty-eight mental health policy documents from 22 jurisdictions in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Ireland and Canada were identified via a web search. Information was extracted and synthesised on: the extent to which intersectoral collaboration was an objective or guiding principle of policy; the sectors acknowledged as targets for collaboration; and the characteristics of detailed intersectoral collaboration efforts.
Recurring themes in objectives/guiding principles included a whole of government approach, coordination and integration of services, and increased social and economic participation. All jurisdictions acknowledged the importance of intersectoral collaboration, particularly with employment, education, housing, community, criminal justice, drug and alcohol, physical health, Indigenous, disability, emergency and aged care services. However, the level of detail provided varied widely. Where detailed strategies were described, the most common linkage mechanisms were joint service planning through intersectoral coordinating committees or liaison workers, interagency agreements, staff training and joint service provision.
Sectors and mechanisms identified for collaboration were largely consistent across jurisdictions. Little information was provided about strategies for accountability, resourcing, monitoring and evaluation of intersectoral collaboration initiatives, highlighting an area for further improvement. Examples of collaboration detailed in the policies provide a useful resource for other countries.
Cu-paddle-wheel-based Cu3(BTC)2 (nicknamed Cu-BTC, where BTC ≡ benzene 1,3,5-tricarboxylate) is a metal organic framework (MOF) compound that adopts a zeolite-like topology. We have determined the pore-size distribution using the Gelb and Gubbins technique, the microstructure using small-angle neutron scattering and (ultra) small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS\SAXS) techniques, and X-ray powder diffraction reference patterns for both dehydrated d-Cu-BTC [Cu3(C9H3O6)2] and hydrated h-Cu-BTC [Cu3(C9H3O6)2(H2O)6.96] using the Rietveld refinement technique. Both samples were confirmed to be cubic Fm
m (no. 225), with lattice parameters of a = 26.279 19(3) Å, V = 18 148.31(6) Å3 for d-Cu-BTC, and a = 26.3103(11) Å, and V = 18 213(2) Å3 for h-Cu-BTC. The structure of d-Cu-BTC contains three main pores of which the diameters are approximately, in decreasing order, 12.6, 10.6, and 5.0 Å. The free volume for d-Cu-BTC is approximately (71.85 ± 0.05)% of the total volume and is reduced to approximately (61.33 ± 0.03)% for the h-Cu-BTC structure. The d-Cu-BTC phase undergoes microstructural changes when exposed to moisture in air. The reference X-ray powder patterns for these two materials have been determined for inclusion in the Powder Diffraction File.
Scattering of electromagnetic (EM) waves by small (ka ≪ 1) impedance particle
D of an
arbitrary shape, embedded in a homogeneous medium, is studied. Analytic, closed form,
formula for the scattered field is derived. The scattered field is of the order
κ), where κ ∈ [ 0,1)
is a number. This field is much larger than in the case of Rayleigh-type scattering. The
numerical results demonstrate a wide range of applicability of the analytic formula for
the scattered field. Comparison with Mie-type solution is carried out for various boundary
impedances and radii of the particle.