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Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric conditions in children and adolescents. One of the most consistent findings across studies is that anxiety disorders tend to run in families. While these high prevalence rates suggest that anxiety may be “transmitted” within the family, the exact mechanism involved in this transmission is still unclear. An area that has been suggested in the transmission of anxiety from parents to children is the role of learning experiences (i.e., through modeling and information transfer). While these studies have enhanced our knowledge on the association between learning experience and anxiety symptoms, it is not known whether these findings which were based on studies conducted in Western culture could be replicated in Eastern culture.
The present study compared the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and examined the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan) were investigated. Adolescents in England reported significantly higher levels of anxiety symptoms than adolescents in Japan. No significant differences emerged between the two countries for parent punishment/reinforcement of anxious behavior. However, for non-anxiety symptoms, adolescents in England scored significantly higher in parent punishment and the Japanese sample scored higher in parent reinforcement. Parent verbal transmission about the danger of anxiety and cold symptoms was more common in Japan than in England. The impact of learning experience on adolescent's anxiety seemed to differ across cultures, which underscore the importance of cultural factors on adolescent's anxiety.
We investigated the effects of the antiparasitic drug ivermectin on the dung beetles Copris acutidens Motschulsky, Onthophagus bivertex Heyden, O. lenzii Harold and Phelotrupes auratus auratus Motschulsky in Japan. Ivermectin was detected in cattle dung from 1 to 3 or 7 days post-treatment, with a peak at 3 days post-treatment in two pour-on administrations (500 µg kg−1). In C. acutidens, adult survivals and numbers of brood balls were significantly reduced in dung collected at 3 and 7 days post-treatment, and adult emergence rates were significantly decreased in dung collected at 7 and 14 days post-treatment. Feeding activity of C. acutidens was inhibited in dung collected at 3 days post-treatment, but was not significantly different from that seen in control dung at 7 and 14 days post-treatment. In O. bivertex and O. lenzii, there were no effects of ivermectin on adult survival or feeding activities, but the numbers of brood balls of O. bivertex constructed in dung collected at 3 and 7 days post-treatment were significantly lower than observed with control dung. The adult emergence rates of O. bivertex and O. lenzii were significantly reduced in dung collected at 1 to 3 and 1 to 7 days post-treatment, respectively. In P. auratus, there were no effects of ivermectin on adult survival, oviposition, feeding activity, or larval survival (until the third instar) in dung at 3 days post-treatment. The environmental risks affecting the populations of dung beetles in Japan are discussed.
Effects of the antiparasitic drug eprinomectin were studied on the dung beetles, Onthophagus lenzii Harold and the rare species, Copris ochus Motschulsky by pour-on administrations (500 µg kg−1) in Japan. Eprinomectin was detected in cattle dung from 1 to 7 or 14 days after treatment, with a peak at 1 day after treatment in two experiments. In O. lenzii, adult survivals and numbers of brood balls constructed were significantly reduced in dung from eprinomectin-treated cattle at 1 and 3 days post-treatment in experiment 1, and adult emergence rates were extremely reduced in dung at 1, 3, and 7 days post-treatment. In C. ochus, adult survivals were significantly reduced in dung at 3 days post-treatment (experiment 1), and equivalent levels to the control were restored in dung at 7 and 14 days post-treatment (experiment 2). Numbers of brood balls of C. ochus were nil in dung at 3 days (experiment 1), and significantly reduced in dung at 7 days (experiment 2) post-treatment compared with control. Adult emergence rates of C. ochus were 100 and 71.6% in dung from control cattle in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. However, no oviposition was observed in dung at 3 days post-treatment, and all offspring died at egg or the first instar larval stage in dung from 7 and 14 days post-treatment. Feeding activities of O. lenzii and C. ochus were significantly inhibited in dung from treated cattle at 1–3 days and 3 days post-treatment, respectively, returning to levels of the control at 7 days post-treatment.
Few electron optical inventions have revolutionized the TEM/ STEM as profoundly as the spherical aberration (Cs) corrector has. Characterization of technologically important materials increasingly needs to be done at the atomic or even sub-atomic level. This characterization includes determination of atomic structure as well as structural chemistry. With Cs correctors, the sub-Angstrom imaging barrier has been passed, and fast atomic scale spectroscopy is possible. In addition to improvements in resolution, Cs correctors offer a number of other significant improvements and benefits.
This paper summarizes research activities in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) for evaluation of the radiation effects on selected terrestrial and aquatic organisms as well as the ecosystems. Seven organisms, conifers, fungi, earthworms, springtails, algae, daphnia and Medaka are presently selected to study. For the estimation of possible radiation dose, transfers of radionuclides and related elements from medium to organisms are evaluated. Dose-effect relationships of acute gamma radiation on the survival, growth, and reproduction of selected organisms have been studied. Studies on the effect of chronic gamma radiation at low dose rate were also started. In order to understand the mechanism of radiation effects and to find possible indicators of the effects, information of genome- and metagenome-wide gene expression has been collected. Evaluation of ecological effects of radiation is more challenging task. Study methods by using three-species microcosm were established, and an index for the holistic evaluation of effects on various ecological parameters was proposed. The microcosm has been simulated as a computer simulation code. Developments of more complicated and practical model ecosystems have been started. The Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) has been applied on soil bacterial community in order to evaluate the radiation effects on soil ecosystems.
Large-sized β–Si3N4 crystals up to 10 mm in length and 0.3 mm in diameter with low impurity concentration are successfully grown from silicon melt in a nitrogen atmosphere. By controlling the concentration of impurities in the silicon melt, a new kind of β–Si3N4 crystal, that is, a transparent coloring one with an absorption edge around a wavelength of 520 nm, is obtained.
Microstructure evolution was studied in silicon nitride ceramics by a novel characterization method, and its relevance to the strength was discussed. The characterization method involves an immersion liquid for making green and partially sintered bodies transparent, and a subsequent direct optical microscopic examination. Granules for compaction process were prepared with the spray-drying process and were found to contain pores or deep dimples. Green bodies formed by CIP with these granules contain regularly arrayed pores at the center of granules and also crack-like voids at the boundaries of granules. These pores were preserved in the sintering process and resulted in large pores in the sintered body. They behave as fracture origin in ceramics and reduce the fracture strength. The Weibull modulus was high due to the presence of uniformly distributed pores.
A novel characterization method is applied to study the evolution of microstructures during densification of silicon nitride ceramics. This characterization method involves an immersion liquid for making green and sintered bodies transparent, and a subsequent direct optical microscopic examination. Granules were prepared with the spray drying processand formed into green bodies by CIP. After sintering at various temperatures, the specimens were examined for microstructural evolution. Large pores were located at the center and boundary regions of granules left in the green bodies; they were not removed by densification and resulted in large pores in the sintered body, possibly forming fracture origin in ceramics.