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Evaluating the association of water intake and hydration status with nephrolithiasis risk at the population level.
It is a cross-sectional study in which daily total plain water intake and total fluid intake were estimated together with blood osmolality, urine creatinine, urine osmolality, urine flow rate (UFR), free water clearance (FWC) and urine/blood osmolality ratio (Uosm:Bosm). The associations of fluid intake and hydration markers with nephrolithiasis were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression.
General US population.
A total of 8195 adults aged 20 years or older from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2009–2012 cycles.
The population medians (interquartile ranges, IQR) for daily total plain water intake and total fluid intake were 807 (336–1481) and 2761 (2107–3577) ml/d, respectively. The adjusted OR (95 % CI) of nephrolithiasis for each IQR increase in total plain water intake and total fluid intake were 0·92 (95 % CI 0·79, 1·06) and 0·84 (95 % CI 0·72, 0·97), respectively. The corresponding OR of nephrolithiasis for UFR, blood osmolality, Uosm:Bosm and urine creatinine were 0·87 (95 % CI 0·76, 0·99), 1·18 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·32), 1·38 (95 % CI 1·17, 1·63) and 1·27 (95 % CI 1·11, 1·45), respectively. A linear protective relationship of fluid intake, UFR and FWC with nephrolithiasis risk was observed. Similarly, positive dose–response associations of nephrolithiasis risk with markers of insufficient hydration were identified. Encouraging a daily water intake of >2500 ml/d and maintaining a urine output of 2 l/d was associated with a lower prevalence of nephrolithiasis.
This study verified the beneficial role of general water intake recommendations in nephrolithiasis prevention in the general US population.
Epilobium belongs to the family Onagraceae, which consists of approximately 200 species distributed worldwide, and some species have been used as medicinal plants. Epilobium nankotaizanense is an endemic and endangered herb that grows in the high mountains in Taiwan at an elevation of more than 3300 m. Alpine herbs are severely threatened by climate change, which leads to a reduction in their habitats and population sizes. However, only a few studies have addressed genetic diversity and population genetics. In the present study, we developed a new set of microsatellite markers for E. nankotaizanense using high-throughput genome sequencing data. Twenty polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed and tested on 30 individuals collected from three natural populations. These loci were successfully amplified, and polymorphisms were observed in E. nankotaizanense. The number of alleles per locus (A) ranged from 2.000 to 3.000, and the observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.929 and from 0.034 to 0.631, respectively. The developed polymorphic microsatellite markers will be useful in future conservation genetic studies of E. nankotaizanense as well as for developing an effective conservation strategy for this species and facilitating germplasm collections and sustainable utilization of other Epilobium species.
The relationship between the subtypes of psychotic experiences (PEs) and common mental health symptoms remains unclear. The current study aims to establish the 12-month prevalence of PEs in a representative sample of community-dwelling Chinese population in Hong Kong and explore the relationship of types of PEs and common mental health symptoms.
This is a population-based two-phase household survey of Chinese population in Hong Kong aged 16–75 (N = 5719) conducted between 2010 and 2013 and a 2-year follow-up study of PEs positive subjects (N = 152). PEs were measured with Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ) and subjects who endorsed any item on the PSQ without a clinical diagnosis of psychotic disorder were considered as PE-positive. Types of PEs were characterized using a number of PEs (single v. multiple) and latent class analysis. All PE-positive subjects were assessed with common mental health symptoms and suicidal ideations at baseline and 2-year follow-up. PE status was also assessed at 2-year follow-up.
The 12-month prevalence of PEs in Hong Kong was 2.7% with 21.1% had multiple PEs. Three latent classes of PEs were identified: hallucination, paranoia and mixed. Multiple PEs and hallucination latent class of PEs were associated with higher levels of common mental health symptoms. PE persistent rate at 2-year follow-up was 15.1%. Multiple PEs was associated with poorer mental health at 2-year follow-up.
Results highlighted the transient and heterogeneous nature of PEs, and that multiple PEs and hallucination subtype of PEs may be specific indices of poorer common mental health.
Anxiety disorders are prevalent yet under-recognized in late life. We examined the prevalence of anxiety disorders in a representative sample of community dwelling older adults in Hong Kong.
Data on 1,158 non-demented respondents aged 60–75 years were extracted from the Hong Kong Mental Morbidity survey (HKMMS). Anxiety was assessed with the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R).
One hundred and thirty-seven respondents (11.9%, 95% CI = 10–13.7%) had common mental disorders with a CIS-R score of 12 or above. 8% (95% CI = 6.5–9.6%) had anxiety, 2.2% (95% CI = 1.3–3%) had an anxiety disorder comorbid with depressive disorder, and 1.7% (95% CI = 1–2.5%) had depression. Anxious individuals were more likely to be females (χ2 = 25.3, p < 0.001), had higher chronic physical burden (t = −9.3, p < 0.001), lower SF-12 physical functioning score (t = 9.2, p < 0.001), and poorer delayed recall (t = 2.3, p = 0.022). The risk of anxiety was higher for females (OR 2.8, 95% C.I. 1.7–4.6, p < 0.001) and those with physical illnesses (OR 1.4, 95% C.I. 1.3–1.6, p < 0.001). The risk of anxiety disorders increased in those with disorders of cardiovascular (OR 1.9, 95% C.I. 1.2–2.9, p = 0.003), musculoskeletal (OR 2.0, 95% C.I. 1.5–2.7, p < 0.001), and genitourinary system (OR 2.0, 95% C.I. 1.3–3.2, p = 0.002).
The prevalence of anxiety disorders in Hong Kong older population was 8%. Female gender and those with poor physical health were at a greater risk of developing anxiety disorders. Our findings also suggested potential risk for early sign of memory impairment in cognitively healthy individuals with anxiety disorders.
To investigate the reciprocal relationship between unhealthy eating behaviours and depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence.
Unhealthy eating behaviours were measured by the frequencies of eating foods with excess salt, sugar or fat in the past week. Depressive symptoms in the past two weeks were measured using a seven-item scale. Hierarchical linear growth models were used to analyse longitudinal associations between unhealthy eating behaviours and depressive symptoms. Time-fixed variables (sex, parents’ education level and household monthly income) and time-varying variables (parents’ marital status, family activities, body weight, vegetable or fruit consumption, exercising and smoking) were controlled for.
The Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-Term Evolution study, which commenced in 2001 and has annual follow-up.
Students (n 2630) followed from 2nd grade (8 years old in 2002) to 11th grade.
The frequency of unhealthy eating behaviours in the previous year and the difference between the frequency in the previous and successive year were positively associated with the initiation and growth rate of depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms in the previous year and the difference in depressive symptoms between the previous and successive year were positively associated with the initial state and growth rate of unhealthy eating behaviours.
Our results suggest a reciprocal relationship between depressive symptoms and unhealthy eating behaviours. This relationship should be considered when developing programmes targeting depressive symptoms and unhealthy diet in children and adolescents.
All suicides (n=12 497) in Taiwan in 2001–2004 were identified from mortality records retrieved from the National Health Insurance Database. Altogether, 95.1% of females and 84.9% of males had been in contact with healthcare services in the year before their death. Females received significantly more diagnoses of psychiatric disorders (48.0% v. 30.2%) and major depression (17.8% v. 7.4%) than males. Such differences were consistent across different medical settings where contact with hospital-based non-psychiatric physicians was as common as with general practitioners (GPs). However, diagnoses of psychiatric disorders were underdiagnosed in both genders.
Ink jet technology is applied to the industry application of CPU cooling in this study. The PZT actuated micro-cooling device which generating the micro-scale liquid droplet is used in the CPU cooling of desktop and laptop PCs. It consists the advantages of long lifetime of operation, simple and easily manufactured of the structure with PZT actuator. Since the high latent heat transfer rate, 2260 J/g, of water droplet for the liquid-vapor phase change cooling system, it removes heat from the CPU surface effectively for over 100 W. In order to design an efficient cooling device, it is important to study the PZT material property varies after the laser cutting process and the dimensional effects of PZT actuator on the nozzle plate vibration mode. The frequency and amplitude of the voltage used to energize the PZT transducer are also important parameters that should be properly controlled in order to achieve the optimal liquid breakup conditions. It also reveals the low noise and power consumption in the CPU cooling system with some appropriate operational conditions.
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