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This study presents zircon U–Pb geochronology and Hf and O isotope data for granitic rocks in the Zijinshan ore field, southwestern Fujian Province, China. The intrusive rocks comprise monzogranite, granite and granodiorite. The magmatic zircon U–Pb ages from these granitic rocks can be divided into four episodes: episodes 1 (157.9–159.9 Ma) and 2 (141 Ma) in the Late Jurassic and episodes 3 (108.1–103.2 Ma) and 4 (97.5–99.7 Ma) in the Middle and Late Cretaceous, respectively. Patterns of rare-earth elements (REE) show enrichment in light REE and obvious negative Eu anomalies. These rocks are also enriched in Rb, Th, U, La, Ce, Nd and Hf, and depleted in Ba, Nb, Sr, P and Ti. The increasing La/Yb ratio and decreasing heavy REE content with decreasing age may imply an increasing contribution of mantle-derived materials from the Late Jurassic to Cretaceous. The zircon ϵHf(t) and δ18O values, ranging from −37.7 to −2.8 and 12.0 ‰ to 6.3 ‰, respectively, indicate that the lower crust is an important source of granitic rocks. There was a significant increase in ϵHf(t) values and a decrease in δ18O values in the younger magmatic episodes (3 and 4), which ranged from −11.4 to −0.6 and 10.7 to 6.3 ‰, respectively. This suggests an increasing contribution of mantle-derived magma to the crustal melts from the Late Jurassic to late Early Cretaceous in response to the changing regional tectonic setting from compression to extension and an increasing interaction between the crust and mantle.
The relationship of a diet low in fiber with mortality has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) attributable to a diet low in fiber globally from 1990 to 2019.
All data were from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019, in which the mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) were estimated with Bayesian geospatial regression using data at global, regional, and country level acquired from an extensively systematic review.
All data sourced from the GBD Study 2019.
All age groups for both sexes.
The age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) declined in most GBD regions; however, in Southern Sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 4.07 (95% uncertainty interval (UI): [2.08, 6.34]) to 4.60 (95% UI: [2.59, 6.90]), and in Central Sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 7.46 (95% UI: [3.64, 11.90]) to 9.34 (95% UI: [4.69, 15.25]). Uptrends were observed in the age-standardized YLDs rates attributable to a diet low in fiber in a number of GBD regions. The burden caused by diabetes mellitus increase in Central Asia, Southern Sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe.
The burdens of disease attributable to a diet low in fiber in Southern Sub-Saharan Africa and Central Sub-Saharan Africa and the age-standardized YLDs rates in a number of GBD regions increased from 1990 to 2019. Therefore, greater efforts are needed to reduce the disease burden caused by a diet low in fiber.
To investigate the association between folate levels and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk during the whole pregnancy.
In this retrospective cohort study of pregnant women, serum folate levels were measured before 24 gestational weeks (GW). GDM was diagnosed between 24th and 28th GW based on the criteria of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups. General linear models were performed to examine the association of serum folate with plasma glucose (i.e., linear regressions) and risk of GDM (i.e., log-binomial regressions) after controlling for confounders. Restricted cubic spline regression was conducted to test the dosage-response relationship between serum folate and the risk of GDM.
A sigle, urban hospital in Shanghai, China.
A total of 42,478 women who received antenatal care from April 2013 to March 2017 were included.
Consistent positive associations were observed between serum folate and plasma glucose levels (fasting, 1-h, 2-h). The adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of GDM across serum folate quartiles were 1.00 (reference), 1.15 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.26), 1.40 (95% CI: 1.27, 1.54), and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.40, 1.69), respectively (p-for-trend < 0.001). The positive association between serum folate and GDM remained when stratified by vitamin B12 (adequate vs. deficient groups) and the GW of serum folate measurement (≤ 13 GWs vs. > 13 GWs)
The findings of this study may provide important evidence for the public health and clinical guidelines of pregnancy folate supplementation in terms of GDM prevention.
The codling moth Cydia pomonella is a major pest of global significance impacting pome fruits and walnuts. It threatens the apple industry in the Loess Plateau and Bohai Bay in China. Sterile insect technique (SIT) could overcome the limitations set by environmentally compatible area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches such as mating disruption and attract-kill that are difficult to suppress in a high-density pest population, as well as the development of insecticide resistance. In this study, we investigated the effects of X-ray irradiation (183, 366, 549 Gy) on the fecundity and fertility of a laboratory strain of C. pomonella, using a newly developed irradiator, to evaluate the possibility of X-rays as a replacement for Cobalt60 (60Co-γ) and the expanded future role of this approach in codling moth control. Results show that the 8th-day is the optimal age for irradiation of male pupae. The fecundity decreased significantly as the dosage of radiation increased. The mating ratio and mating number were not influenced. However, treated females were sub-sterile at a radiation dose of 183 Gy (20.93%), and were almost 100% sterile at a radiation dose of 366 Gy or higher. Although exposure to a radiation dose of 366 Gy resulted in a significant reduction in the mating competitiveness of male moths, our radiation biology results suggest that this new generation of X-ray irradiator has potential applications in SIT programs for future codling moth control.
Maternal obesity may compromise the micronutrient status of the offspring. Vitamin A (VA) is an essential micronutrient during neonatal development. Its active metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), is a key regulator of VA homeostasis, which also regulates adipose tissue (AT) development in obese adults. However, its role on VA status and AT metabolism in neonates was unknown and it was determined in the present study. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised to a normal fat diet (NFD) or a high fat diet (HFD). From postnatal day 5 (P5) to P20, half of the HFD pups received oral RA every 3 d (HFDRA group). NFD pups and the remaining HFD pups (HFD group) received placebo. Six hours after dosing on P8, P14 and P20, n 4 pups per group were euthanised for different measures. It was found that total retinol concentration in neonatal liver and lung was significantly lower in the HFD group than the NFD group, while the concentrations were significantly increased in the HFDRA group. The HFD group exhibited significantly higher body weight (BW) gain, AT mass, serum leptin and adiponectin, and gene expression of these adipokines in white adipose tissue compared with the NFD group; these measures were significantly reduced in the HFDRA group. BAT UCP2 and UCP3 gene expression were significantly higher in pups receiving RA. In conclusion, repeated RA treatment during the suckling period improved the tissue VA status of neonates exposed to maternal obesity. RA also exerted a regulatory effect on neonatal obesity development by reducing BW gain and adiposity and modulating AT metabolism.
Hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is a severe and life-threatening complication, characterised by multi-organ failure and high short-term mortality. However, there is limited information on the impact of various comorbidities on HBV-ACLF in a large population. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between comorbidities, complications and mortality. In this retrospective observational study, we identified 2166 cases of HBV-ACLF hospitalised from January 2010 to March 2018. Demographic data from the patients, medical history, treatment, laboratory indices, comorbidities and complications were collected. The mortality rate in our study group was 47.37%. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was the most common comorbidity, followed by alcoholic liver disease. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, pneumonia and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) were common in these patients. Diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism are risk factors for death within 90 days, together with gastrointestinal bleeding and HE at admission, HE and hepatorenal syndrome during hospitalisation. Knowledge of risk factors can help identify HBV-ACLF patients with a poor prognosis for HBV-ACLF with comorbidities and complications.
To address the shortcomings of existing methods for rotorcraft searching, positioning, tracking and landing on a ship at sea, a dual-channel LIDAR searching, positioning, tracking and landing system (DCLSPTLS) is proposed in this paper, which utilises the multi-pulse laser echoes accumulation method and the physical phenomenon that the laser reflectivity of the ship deck in the near-infrared band is four orders of magnitude higher than that of the sea surface. The DCLSPTLS searching and positioning model, tracking model and landing model are established, respectively. The searching and positioning model can provide estimates of the azimuth angle, the distance of the ship relative to the rotorcraft and the ship's course. With the above parameters as inputs, the total tracking time and the direction of the rotorcraft tracking speed can be obtained by using the tracking model. The landing model can calculate the pitch and the roll angles of the ship's deck relative to the rotorcraft by using the least squares method and the laser irradiation coordinates. The simulation shows that the DCLSPTLS can realise the functions of rotorcraft searching, positioning, tracking and landing by using the above parameters. To verify the effectiveness of the DCLSPTLS, a functional test is performed using a rotorcraft and a model ship on a lake. The test results are consistent with the results of the simulation.
COVID-19 is erupting globally, and Wuhan successfully controlled it within a month. Infections arose from infectious persons outside hospitals. After data revision, data-based and model-based analyses were implemented, and the conclusions are as follows. The incubation period of most infected people may be 6-7 days. The number of infectious persons outside hospitals in Wuhan on January 20, 2020 was about 10000 and reached more than 20000 on the day of Lockdown; it exceeded 72000 on February 4. Both data-based and model-based analyses gave out the evolution of the reproduction number, which was over 2.5 in early January, went down to 1.62 in late January and 1.20 in early February, with a sudden drop to less than 0.5 due to the strict Stay-at-home management after February 11. Strategies of Stay-at-home, Safe-protective measures, and Ark hospitals were the main contributions to control COVID-19 in Wuhan. In Wuhan, 2 inflection points of COVID-19, exactly correspond to February 5 and February 15, the 2 days when Ark hospitals were introduced, and the complete implementation of Stay-at-home. Based on the expression of the reproduction number, group immunity is also discussed. It shows that only when the group immunization rate is over 75% can COVID-19 be under control; group immunity would be full infection and the total deaths will be 220000 for a city as big as Wuhan. Sensitivity analysis suggests that 30% of people staying at home in combination with better behavior changes, such as social-distancing and frequent handwashing, can effectively contain COVID-19. However, only when this proportion is over 60% can the controlled effect and efficiency like Wuhan be obtained.
Pregnancy is a complex biological process. The establishment and maintenance of foetal–maternal interface are pivotal events. Decidual immune cells and inflammatory cytokines play indispensable roles in the foetal–maternal interface. The disfunction of decidual immune cells leads to adverse pregnancy outcome. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a common inflammatory cytokine, has critical roles in different stages of normal pregnancy process. However, the relationship between the disorder of TNF-α and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), spontaneous abortion (SA), preterm birth and so on, is still indefinite. In this review, we thoroughly reviewed the effect of TNF-α disorder on pathological conditions. Moreover, we summarized the reports about the adverse pregnancy outcomes (PE, IUGR, SA and preterm birth) of using anti-TNF-α drugs (infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab, certolizumab and golimumab) currently in the clinical studies. Overall, IUGR, SA and preterm birth are the most common adverse pregnancy outcomes of anti-TNF-α drugs. Our review may provide insight for the immunological treatment of pregnancy-related complication, and help practitioners make informed decisions based on the current evidences.
Republican Shanghai was a renowned art capital. This article is based on a large-scale digital mapping project of the residential locations of 1,349 Shanghai artists. We analysed the transformative spatial distribution patterns of artists in relation to the city's social and urban conditions, and developed an artists’ habitation approach to elucidating the issues of Republican-period Shanghai urban and art history from the perspective of Chinese cosmopolitanism. We mapped areas of high artist concentration and identified a higher percentage of artists residing in the concessions (compared with the Shanghai general population) and the incremental convergence of art clusters in the concessions. We argue that the concessions provided a favourable environment for cultural diversity and the ungovernable, elite spirit of the literati tradition. The mainstream Shanghai art practices, known as haipai, were modern, as they were rooted in the urban modernity of the concessions and embodied Chinese cosmopolitanism.
This study is performed to figure out how the presence of diabetes affects the infection, progression and prognosis of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and the effective therapy that can treat the diabetes-complicated patients with COVID-19. A multicentre study was performed in four hospitals. COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or hyperglycaemia were compared with those without these conditions and matched by propensity score matching for their clinical progress and outcome. Totally, 2444 confirmed COVID-19 patients were recruited, from whom 336 had DM. Compared to 1344 non-DM patients with age and sex matched, DM-COVID-19 patients had significantly higher rates of intensive care unit entrance (12.43% vs. 6.58%, P = 0.014), kidney failure (9.20% vs. 4.05%, P = 0.027) and mortality (25.00% vs. 18.15%, P < 0.001). Age and sex-stratified comparison revealed increased susceptibility to COVID-19 only from females with DM. For either non-DM or DM group, hyperglycaemia was associated with adverse outcomes, featured by higher rates of severe pneumonia and mortality, in comparison with non-hyperglycaemia. This was accompanied by significantly altered laboratory indicators including lymphocyte and neutrophil percentage, C-reactive protein and urea nitrogen level, all with correlation coefficients >0.35. Both diabetes and hyperglycaemia were independently associated with adverse prognosis of COVID-19, with hazard ratios of 10.41 and 3.58, respectively.
The extinct family Hylicellidae, as the ancestral group of modern cicadomorphans, had a wide distribution and a very high species-level biodiversity from the Triassic to Early Cretaceous. We herein report 11 new hylicellid specimens from the Jurassic Daohugou beds of Inner Mongolia, NE China, and execute geometric morphometric analysis (GMA) to elucidate their systematic position. Our GMA and subsequent morphometric statistics indicate that 10 of our new specimens can be compared to the holotype of Cycloscytina gobiensis, and one is new to science. Cycloscytina incompleta new species is erected based on this specimen, with the following discriminatory tegminal traits: C3 almost as long as and slightly narrower than C2, and the forking position of stem M distinctly migrates towards wing apex and much apicad of the stem CuA bifurcating. Additionally, Cycloscytina plachutai is herein transferred to the procercopid genus Procercopina, resulting in P. plachutai new combination. To date, just a few body structures of Hylicellidae have been revealed, and the new whole-bodied hylicellids reported herein provide some novel insights on the evolution of basal Clypeata. This study also emphasizes the use of morphometric analysis in the systematics of wing-bearing insects such as hylicellids.
Schwarz methods use a decomposition of the computational domain into subdomains and need to impose boundary conditions on the subdomain boundaries. In domain truncation one restricts the unbounded domain to a bounded computational domain and must also put boundary conditions on the computational domain boundaries. In both fields there are vast bodies of literature and research is very active and ongoing. It turns out to be fruitful to think of the domain decomposition in Schwarz methods as a truncation of the domain onto subdomains. Seminal precursors of this fundamental idea are papers by Hagstrom, Tewarson and Jazcilevich (1988), Després (1990) and Lions (1990). The first truly optimal Schwarz method that converges in a finite number of steps was proposed by Nataf (1993), and used precisely transparent boundary conditions as transmission conditions between subdomains. Approximating these transparent boundary conditions for fast convergence of Schwarz methods led to the development of optimized Schwarz methods – a name that has become common for Schwarz methods based on domain truncation. Compared to classical Schwarz methods, which use simple Dirichlet transmission conditions and have been successfully used in a wide range of applications, optimized Schwarz methods are much less well understood, mainly due to their more sophisticated transmission conditions.
A key application of Schwarz methods with such sophisticated transmission conditions turned out to be time-harmonic wave propagation problems, because classical Schwarz methods simply do not work in this case. The past decade has given us many new Schwarz methods based on domain truncation. One review from an algorithmic perspective (Gander and Zhang 2019) showed the equivalence of many of these new methods to optimized Schwarz methods. The analysis of optimized Schwarz methods, however, is lagging behind their algorithmic development. The general abstract Schwarz framework cannot be used for the analysis of these methods, and thus there are many open theoretical questions about their convergence. Just as for practical multigrid methods, Fourier analysis has been instrumental for understanding the convergence of optimized Schwarz methods and for tuning their transmission conditions. Similar to local Fourier mode analysis in multigrid, the unbounded two-subdomain case is used as a model for Fourier analysis of optimized Schwarz methods due to its simplicity. Many aspects of the actual situation, e.g. boundary conditions of the original problem and the number of subdomains, were thus neglected in the unbounded two-subdomain analysis. While this gave important insight, new phenomena beyond the unbounded two-subdomain models were discovered.
This present situation is the motivation for our survey: to give a comprehensive review and precise exploration of convergence behaviours of optimized Schwarz methods based on Fourier analysis, taking into account the original boundary conditions, many-subdomain decompositions and layered media. We consider as our model problem the operator
$-\Delta + \eta $
in the diffusive case
(screened Laplace equation) or the oscillatory case
(Helmholtz equation), in order to show the fundamental difference in behaviour of Schwarz solvers for these problems. The transmission conditions we study include the lowest-order absorbing conditions (Robin), and also more advanced perfectly matched layers (PMLs), both developed first for domain truncation. Our intensive work over the last two years on this review has led to several new results presented here for the first time: in the bounded two-subdomain analysis for the Helmholtz equation, we see strong influence of the original boundary conditions imposed on the global problem on the convergence factor of the Schwarz methods, and the asymptotic convergence factors with small overlap can differ from the unbounded two-subdomain analysis. In the many-subdomain analysis, we find the scaling with the number of subdomains, e.g. when the subdomain size is fixed, robust convergence of the double-sweep Schwarz method for the free-space wave problem, either with fixed overlap and zeroth-order Taylor conditions or with a logarithmically growing PML, and we find that Schwarz methods with PMLs work like smoothers that converge faster for higher Fourier frequencies; in particular, for the free-space wave problem, plane waves (in the error) passing through interfaces at a right angle converge more slowly. In addition to our main focus on analysis in Sections 2 and 3, we start in Section 1 with an expository historical introduction to Schwarz methods, and in Section 4 we give a brief interpretation of the recently proposed optimal Schwarz methods for decompositions with cross-points from the viewpoint of transmission conditions. We conclude in Section 5 with a summary of open research problems. In Appendix A we provide a Matlab program for a block LU form of an optimal Schwarz method with cross-points, and in Appendix B we give the Maple program for the two-subdomain Fourier analysis.
Nicotine 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate is a nicotine salt that can be used as the nicotine source in tobacco products. X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for nicotine 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate, C10H15N2⋅C7H5O4, are reported [a = 7.726(8) Å, b = 11.724(3) Å, c = 9.437(1) Å, α = 90°, β = 109.081(3)°, γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 802.902 Å3, Z = 2, ρcal = 1.309 g cm−3, and space group P21] at room temperature. All measured lines were indexed and were consistent with the P21 space group.
Mounting evidence showed that insula contributed to the neurobiological mechanism of suicidal behaviors in bipolar disorder (BD). However, no studies have analyzed the dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) of insular Mubregions and its association with personality traits in BD with suicidal behaviors. Therefore, we investigated the alterations of dFC variability in insular subregions and personality characteristics in BD patients with a recent suicide attempt (SA).
Thirty unmedicated BD patients with SA, 38 patients without SA (NSA) and 35 demographically matched healthy controls (HCs) were included. The sliding-window analysis was used to evaluate whole-brain dFC for each insular subregion seed. We assessed between-group differences of psychological characteristics on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2. Finally, a multivariate regression model was adopted to predict the severity of suicidality.
Compared to NSA and HCs, the SA group exhibited decreased dFC variability values between the left dorsal anterior insula and the left anterior cerebellum. These dFC variability values could also be utilized to predict the severity of suicidality (r = 0.456, p = 0.031), while static functional connectivity values were not appropriate for this prediction. Besides, the SA group scored significantly higher on the schizophrenia clinical scales (p < 0.001) compared with the NSA group.
Our findings indicated that the dysfunction of insula–cerebellum connectivity may underlie the neural basis of SA in BD patients, and highlighted the dFC variability values could be considered a neuromarker for predictive models of the severity of suicidality. Moreover, the psychiatric features may increase the vulnerability of suicidal behavior.
Routine coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) screening found 1 asymptomatic COVID-19 patient. An emergency sampling team was organized consisting of 1200 health-care workers, and a total of 3.2228 million COVID-19 samples had been collected and detected. This study summarizes the on-site management experience in large-scale COVID-19 nucleic acid testing from various aspects: staff preparation, materials preparation, site layout, logistics support, and information system support. Suggestions are put forward for the deficiencies and parts needing improvement. Such deficiencies included some sampling sites were not properly chosen, different areas were unclearly marked off from each other, and some site moving lines were confounding; how to communicate with the street service workers who had little professional knowledge on the epidemic spread or the working principles of the workflow and site layout; and the way to resolve conflicts on site.
Older adults with exceptional memory function, designated “SuperAgers,” include individuals over age 80, with episodic memory at least as good as individuals ages 50s–60s. The Northwestern University SuperAging cohort is defined by performance on an established test of verbal memory. The purpose of this study was to determine if superior verbal memory extends to nonverbal memory in SuperAgers by examining differences in the National Institutes of Health Toolbox® (NIHTB) between older adults with exceptional memory and those with average-for-age cognition.
SuperAgers (n = 46) and cognitively average-for-age older adults (n = 31) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and the NIHTB Cognition module. Multiple linear regressions were used to examine differences on subtests between groups.
There was a significant effect of group on the Picture Sequence Memory score, (p = .007), such that SuperAgers had higher scores than cognitively average-for-age older adults. There were no other group effects across other non-episodic memory NIHTB Cognition measures.
Findings from this study demonstrated stronger performance on the memory measure of the NIHTB in SuperAgers compared to cognitively average-for-age older adults demonstrating superior memory in not only verbal but also nonverbal episodic memory in this group. Additionally, this study adds to the literature validating the NIHTB in older adults, particularly in a novel population of adults over age 80 with exceptional memory.
Athetis lepigone Möschler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) is a common maize pest in Europe and Asia. However, there is no long-term effective management strategy is available yet to suppress its population. Adults rely heavily on olfactory cues to locate their optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are believed to be responsible for recognizing and transporting different odorant molecules to interact with receptor membrane proteins. In this study, the ligand-binding specificities of two AlepPBPs (AlepPBP2 and AlepPBP3) for sex pheromone components and host plant (maize) volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assay. The results demonstrated that AlepPBP2 had a high affinity with two pheromones [(Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate, Ki = 1.11 ± 0.1 μM, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, Ki = 1.32 ± 0.15 μM] and ten plant volatiles, including (-)-limonene, α-pinene, myrcene, linalool, benzaldehyde, nonanal, 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 2-heptanone and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. In contrast, we found that none of these chemicals could bind to AlepPBP3. Our results clearly show no significant differences in the functional characterization of the binding properties between AlepPBP2 and AlepPBP3 to sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. Furthermore, molecular docking was employed for further detail on some crucial amino acid residues involved in the ligand-binding of AlepPBP2. These findings will provide valuable information about the potential protein binding sites necessary for protein-ligand interactions which appear as attractive targets for the development of novel technologies and management strategies for insect pests.
The complex sea ice conditions in Arctic waters has different impacts on the legs of the Arctic passage, and ships of specific ice classes face different navigation risks. Therefore, the quantitative analysis of the navigation risks faced in different legs has important practical significance. Based on the POLARIS introduced by IMO, the sea ice condition data from 2011 to 2020 was used to quantify the navigation risk of the Arctic Northeast passage. The risk index outcome (RIO) of the Arctic Northeast Passage were calculated. The navigable windows of the route for ice class 1A ships sailing independently under different sea ice conditions in the last decade were determined, with a navigable period of 91 days under normal sea ice conditions, approximately 175 days under light sea ice conditions and only week 40 close to navigation under severe sea ice conditions. The three critical waters affecting the safety of ships were identified. Combined with the navigable windows and critical waters, recommendations on ship's navigation and manipulation and recommendations for stakeholders were given. The method and results provided reference and support for the assessment of the navigation risk of ships in the Northeast Passage and safety navigation and operations of ships, and satisfied the needs of relevant countries and enterprises to rationally arrange shipment dates and sailing plans based on different ice classes of ships.