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Considerable progress has been made over the last few years in ground based optical interferometery. The Mark III optical interferometer at Mount Wilson which at this time is operating with a 12 meter north south baseline is capable of measuring amplitude and phase. Experience gained from this facility will allow for the development of a large optical array. Preliminary plans are described for a facility that will be capable of milliarcsecond imaging of celestial objects at wavelengths from 0.4 to 10 microns. If funded this array will be in operation by 1993.
This article presents an analysis of challenges and considerations when developing digital mental health innovations. Recommendations include collaborative working between clinicians, researchers, industry and service users in order to successfully navigate challenges and to ensure e-therapies are engaging, acceptable, evidence based, scalable and sustainable.
A saltern associated with salt production was excavated at Pyde Drove, near Woolavington. The large assemblage of briquetage recovered has allowed for some novel interpretations of the function of the different component types within the hearth structures. The saltern comprised a mound of waste material adjacent to 12 brine-settling tank pits and two salt water channels. A further settling tank was revealed beneath the mound. The pottery indicates that activity on the site dates to the later Romano-British period.
We present low-frequency spectral energy distributions of 60 known radio pulsars observed with the Murchison Widefield Array telescope. We searched the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array survey images for 200-MHz continuum radio emission at the position of all pulsars in the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) pulsar catalogue. For the 60 confirmed detections, we have measured flux densities in 20 × 8 MHz bands between 72 and 231 MHz. We compare our results to existing measurements and show that the Murchison Widefield Array flux densities are in good agreement.
Dark-field x-ray microscopy is a new way to three-dimensionally map lattice strain and orientation in crystalline matter. It is analogous to dark-field electron microscopy in that an objective lens magnifies diffracting features of the sample; however, the use of high-energy synchrotron x-rays means that these features can be large, deeply embedded, and fully mapped in seconds to minutes. Simple reconfiguration of the x-ray objective lens allows intuitive zooming between different scales down to a spatial and angular resolution of 100 nm and 0.001°, respectively. Three applications of the technique are presented—mapping the evolution of subgrains during the processing of plastically deformed aluminum, mapping domains and strain fields in ferroelectric crystals, and the three-dimensional mapping of strain fields around individual dislocations. This ability to directly characterize complex, multiscale phenomena in situ is a key step toward formulating and validating multiscale models that account for the entire heterogeneity of materials.
This paper describes a model of training in leadership and project management skills for advanced trainees, using educational projects within the Severn School of Psychiatry. Fellowships lasting 1 year have been developed to enable trainees, working with a senior consultant trainer associated with the School of Psychiatry, to support important new educational initiatives. Linkage with the local university training and learning for health professionals research module has provided academic support for the trainees and the projects. Four examples for the first year of the programme are described and feedback from structured interviews with participants is presented. The development of the fellowships appears to have had wider benefits, in developing educational faculty in the School of Psychiatry and the trainees involved have had opportunities to extend their project management and leadership skills. The fellowship programme is continuing to develop, based on feedback from its first successful year.
This report summarises the aims and methods of the Fezzan Project, a new interdisciplinary investigation of human settlement in the Saharan environment of southern Libya. The work follows up earlier British work by Charles Daniels on the Garamantes and focuses on the Wadi el-Agial in the vicinity of Germa (ancient Garama). The time frame of the project is the last 12,000 years. A variety of methodologies has been employed, including topographic survey, standing building recording, excavation, field walking, palaeobotanical and faunal sampling, geophysics and human bone analysis.
Two broad aims drive weed science research: improved management and improved
understanding of weed biology and ecology. In recent years, agricultural
weed research addressing these two aims has effectively split into separate
subdisciplines despite repeated calls for greater integration. Although some
excellent work is being done, agricultural weed research has developed a
very high level of repetitiveness, a preponderance of purely descriptive
studies, and has failed to clearly articulate novel hypotheses linked to
established bodies of ecological and evolutionary theory. In contrast,
invasive plant research attracts a diverse cadre of nonweed scientists using
invasions to explore broader and more integrated biological questions
grounded in theory. We propose that although studies focused on weed
management remain vitally important, agricultural weed research would
benefit from deeper theoretical justification, a broader vision, and
increased collaboration across diverse disciplines. To initiate change in
this direction, we call for more emphasis on interdisciplinary training for
weed scientists, and for focused workshops and working groups to develop
specific areas of research and promote interactions among weed scientists
and with the wider scientific community.
We are finally entering an era where radial velocity and direct imaging parameter spaces are starting to overlap. Radial velocity measurements provide us with a minimum mass for an orbiting companion (the mass as a function of the inclination of the system). By following up these long period radial velocity detections with direct imaging we can determine whether a trend seen is due to an orbiting planet at low inclination or an orbiting brown dwarf at high inclination. In the event of a non-detection we are still able to put a limit on the maximum mass of the orbiting body. The Anglo-Australian Planet Search is one of the longest baseline radial velocity planet searches in existence, amongst its targets are many that show long period trends in the data. Here we present our direct imaging survey of these objects with our results to date. ADI Observations have been made using NICI (Near Infrared Coronagraphic Imager) on Gemini South and analysed using an in house, LOCI-like, post processing.
A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry's identity as essentially ‘applied neuroscience’. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.
Systems linking people and nature, known as social-ecological systems, are increasingly understood as complex adaptive systems. Essential features of these complex adaptive systems – such as nonlinear feedbacks, strategic interactions, individual and spatial heterogeneity, and varying time scales – pose substantial challenges for modeling. However, ignoring these characteristics can distort our picture of how these systems work, causing policies to be less effective or even counterproductive. In this paper we present recent developments in modeling social-ecological systems, illustrate some of these challenges with examples related to coral reefs and grasslands, and identify the implications for economic and policy analysis.
The distributions of parasitic diseases are determined by complex factors, including many that are distributed in space. A variety of statistical methods are now readily accessible to researchers providing opportunities for describing and ultimately understanding and predicting spatial distributions. This review provides an overview of the spatial statistical methods available to parasitologists, ecologists and epidemiologists and discusses how such methods have yielded new insights into the ecology and epidemiology of infection and disease. The review is structured according to the three major branches of spatial statistics: continuous spatial variation; discrete spatial variation; and spatial point processes.