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Thomas Hardy in Context
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    Shires, Linda M. 2015. The Encyclopedia of Victorian Literature. p. 1.

    Panter, Marie 2016. Éléments d’une anthropologie hardyenne. FATHOM,

    Salmons, Kim 2017. Food in the Novels of Thomas Hardy. p. 1.

    Newton, K. M. 2018. George Eliot for the Twenty-First Century. p. 137.

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Book description

This collection covers the range of Thomas Hardy's works and their social and intellectual contexts, providing a comprehensive introduction to Hardy's life and times. Featuring short, lively contributions from forty-four international scholars, the volume explores the processes by which Hardy the man became Hardy the published writer; the changing critical responses to his work; his response to the social and political challenges of his time; his engagement with contemporary intellectual debate; and his legacy in the twentieth century and after. Emphasising the subtle and ongoing interaction between Hardy's life, his creative achievement and the unique historical moment, the collection also examines Hardy's relationship to such issues as class, education, folklore, archaeology and anthropology, evolution, marriage and masculinity, empire and the arts. A valuable contextual reference for scholars of Victorian and modernist literature, the collection will also prove accessible for the general reader of Hardy.


'The anthology's absorbing 'Historical and Cultural Context' section sheds light on Hardy's interests in anthropology, law, geology, sociology, and 'Englishness'. Contributors provide abundant endnotes and broad-ranging sources, and the 'Further Reading' section and index are excellent … Hardy, the 'Wessex' creator, is fortunate to have such impressive material available for modern readers and serious students of Victorian literature … Highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through faculty.'

S. A. Parker Source: Choice

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Further Reading


Brantlinger and Thesing: Patrick Brantlinger and William B. Thesing, eds. A Companion to the Victorian Novel. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002.
Kramer: Dale Kramer, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Thomas Hardy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Mallett: Phillip Mallett, ed. Advances in Thomas Hardy Studies. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
Morgan: Rosemarie Morgan, ed. Ashgate Research Companion to Thomas Hardy. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2010.
Wilson: Keith Wilson, ed. A Companion to Thomas Hardy. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.


Davis, W. Eugene, and Helmut E. Gerber. Thomas Hardy: An Annotated Bibliography of Writings about Him. De Kalb, III.: Northern Illinois University Press, 1973.
Davis, W. Eugene, and Helmut E. Gerber. Thomas Hardy: An Annotated Bibliography of Writings about Him, Vol. II: 1970–1978 and Supplement for 1871–1969. De Kalb, III.: Northern Illinois University Press, 1983.
Davis, W. Eugene. ‘The First Hundred Years of Hardy Criticism: 1871–1971’. Morgan: 39–56.
Draper, Ronald P., and Martin Ray, eds. An Annotated Critical Bibliography of Thomas Hardy. London and New York: Macmillan, 1989.
Pettit, Charles P. C. ‘Hardy Bibliographies’. Morgan: 23–38.
Purdy, Richard Little. Thomas Hardy: A Bibliographical Study. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1954.
Purdy, Richard Little. Thomas Hardy: A Bibliographical Study. Introduction and Supplement by Charles P. C. Pettit. London: The British Library, and New Castle, Del.: Oak Knoll Press, 2002.

Life, Letters, and Notebooks

Beatty, C. J. P., ed. The Architectural Notebook of Thomas Hardy. Dorchester: Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 1966.
Björk, Lennart A., ed. The Literary Notebooks of Thomas Hardy. 2 vols. London: Macmillan, 1985.
Dalziel, Pamela, and Michael Millgate, eds. Thomas Hardy’s ‘Studies, Specimens &c.’ Notebook. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.
Dalziel, Pamela, and Michael Millgate, eds. Thomas Hardy’s ‘Poetical Matter’ Notebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Greenslade, William, ed. Thomas Hardy’s ‘Facts’ Notebook: A Critical Edition. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004.
Hardy, Evelyn, and Frank B. Pinion, eds. One Rare Fair Woman: Thomas Hardy’s Letters to Florence Henniker, 1893–1922. London: Macmillan, 1972.
Millgate, Michael, ed. The Life and Work of Thomas Hardy, by Thomas Hardy. London: Macmillan, 1984.
Millgate, Michael, ed. Thomas Hardy’s Public Voice: The Essays, Speeches, and Miscellaneous Prose. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2001.
Orel, Harold, ed. Thomas Hardy’s Personal Writings. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1990.
Pettit, Charles P. C. ‘Hardy Archives’. Morgan: 57–68.
Purdy, Richard Little, and Michael Millgate, eds. The Collected Letters of Thomas Hardy. 7 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978–88.
Taylor, Richard H., ed. The Personal Notebooks of Thomas Hardy. London: Macmillan, 1979.


Amigoni, David. Victorian Biography: Intellectuals and the Ordering of Discourse. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1993.
Brennecke, Ernest. The Life of Thomas Hardy. New York: Greenberg, 1925.
Broughton, Trev Lynn. Men of Letters, Writing Lives: Masculinity and Literary Auto/biography in the Late Victorian Period. London: Routledge, 1999.
Bullen, J. B.The Buried Life: A New Edition of F. E. Hardy’s “Biography”’. Thomas Hardy Annual 5 (1987): 187–96.
Cox, J. Stevens, ed. Thomas Hardy: Materials for a Study of His Life, Times and Works. 2 vols. Guernsey: Toucan Press, 1968–71.
Deacon, Lois, and Terry Coleman. Providence and Mr. Hardy. London: Hutchinson, 1966.
Dolin, Tim. ‘The Early Life and Later Years of Thomas Hardy: An Argument for a New Edition’. Review of English Studies 58 (2007): 698–714.
Gibson, James. Thomas Hardy: A Literary Life. London: Macmillan, 1996.
Gibson, James, ed. Thomas Hardy: Interviews and Recollections. London: Macmillan, 1999.
Gittings, Robert. Young Thomas Hardy. London: Heinemann, 1975.
Gittings, Robert. The Older Hardy. London: Heinemann, 1978.
Gittings, Robert, and Jo Manton. The Second Mrs Hardy. London: Heinemann, 1979.
Hands, Timothy. Thomas Hardy: Distracted Preacher? Hardy’s Religious Biography and Its Influence on His Novels. London: Macmillan, 1989.
Hardy, Emma. Some Recollections, ed. Evelyn Hardy and Robert Gittings. London: Oxford University Press, 1961.
Hardy, Evelyn. Thomas Hardy: A Critical Biography. London: The Hogarth Press, 1954.
Hardy, Florence Emily. The Early Life of Thomas Hardy, 1840–1891. London: Macmillan, 1928.
Hardy, Florence Emily. The Later Years of Thomas Hardy, 1892–1928. London: Macmillan, 1930.
Hedgcock, Frank A. Thomas Hardy: penseur et artiste. Paris: Librairie Hachette, 1911.
Johnson, S. R.Thomas Hardy the Obscure: Hardy’s Final Fiction’. English Literature in Transition 35:3 (1992): 300–8.
Kay-Robinson, Denys. The First Mrs Thomas Hardy. London: Macmillan, 1979.
Mallett, Phillip. ‘Hardy and the Biographers’. Morgan: 465–83.
Millgate, Michael. Testamentary Acts: Browning, Tennyson, James, Hardy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992.
Millgate, Michael. ‘Thomas Hardy: The Biographical Sources’. Kramer: 1–18.
Millgate, Michael. Thomas Hardy: A Biography Revisited. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Millgate, Michael. ‘Hardy as Biographical Subject’. Wilson: 7–18.
Orel, Harold. The Final Years of Thomas Hardy, 1912–1928. London: Macmillan, 1976.
Orel, Harold. The Unknown Thomas Hardy: Lesser-Known Aspects of Hardy’s Life and Career. London: Macmillan, 1987.
Neill, Edward. The Secret Life of Thomas Hardy: ‘Retaliatory Fiction’. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004.
Newey, Vincent, and Philip Shaw, eds. Mortal Pages, Literary Lives: Studies in Nineteenth Century Autobiography. Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1996.
Peterson, Linda. Victorian Autobiography: The Tradition of Self-Interpretation. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1986.
Pite, Ralph. Thomas Hardy: The Guarded Life. London: Picador, 2006.
Ray, Martin, ed. Thomas Hardy Remembered. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007.
Seymour-Smith, Martin. Hardy. London: Bloomsbury, 1994.
Taylor, Richard H., ed. Emma Hardy Diaries. Manchester: Carcanet New Press, 1985.
Tomalin, Claire. Thomas Hardy: The Time-Torn Man. London: Penguin Viking, 2006.
Turner, Paul. The Life of Thomas Hardy. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998.
Weber, Carl. Hardy of Wessex: His Life and Literary Career. New York: Columbia University Press, 1940.
Weber, Carl. Hardy and the Lady from Madison Square. Waterville, Me.: Colby College Press, 1952.

Composition, Publication, and Reception

Altick, Richard. The English Common Reader: A Social History of the Mass Reading Public, 1800–1900. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957.
Blake, Andrew. Reading Victorian Fiction: The Cultural Context and Ideological Content of the Nineteenth-Century Novel. London: Macmillan, 1989.
Chase, Mary Ellen. Thomas Hardy: From Serial to Novel. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1927.
Dalziel, Pamela. Thomas Hardy: The Excluded and Collaborative Stories. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992.
Dalziel, Pamela. ‘Exploiting the Poor Man: The Genesis of Hardy’s Desperate Remedies’. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 94:2 (1995): 220–32.
Feltes, N. N. Modes of Production of Victorian Novels. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1986.
Gatrell, Simon. Hardy the Creator: A Textual Biography. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988.
Griest, Guinevere L. Mudie’s Circulating Library and the Victorian Novel. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1970.
Ingham, Patricia. ‘The Evolution of Jude the Obscure’. Review of English Studies 27 (1976): 27–37, 159–69.
Jordan, John O., and Robert L. Patten, eds. Literature in the Marketplace: Nineteenth-Century British Publishing and Reading Practices. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Keating, Peter J. The Haunted Study: A Social History of the English Novel, 1875–1914. London: Secker & Warburg, 1989.
Kramer, Dale. ‘Revisions and Vision: Thomas Hardy’s The Woodlanders’. Bulletin of the New York Public Library 75 (1971): 195–230, 248–82.
Laird, John Tudor. The Shaping of ‘Tess of the d’Urbervilles’. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975.
Law, Graham. Serializing Fiction in the Victorian Press. London: Palgrave, 2000.
Morgan, Rosemarie. Cancelled Words: Rediscovering Thomas Hardy. London and New York: Routledge, 1992.
Paterson, John. The Making of ‘The Return of the Native’. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1963.
Ray, Martin. Thomas Hardy: A Textual Study of the Short Stories. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1997.
Sutherland, John. Victorian Fiction: Writers, Publishers, Readers. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
Waller, Philip. Writers, Readers and Reputations: Literary Life in Britain 1870–1918. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Widdowson, Peter. Hardy in History: A Study in Literary Sociology. London: Routledge, 1989.
Winfield, Christine. ‘The Manuscript of Hardy’s The Mayor of Casterbridge. Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 67 (1973): 37–58.
Wright, T. R. Hardy and His Readers. London: Macmillan, 2003.

Critical Responses I: 1870–1970

Abercrombie, Lascelles. Thomas Hardy: A Critical Study. London: Secker, 1912.
Beach, Joseph Warren. The Technique of Thomas Hardy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1922.
Brown, Douglas. Thomas Hardy. London: Longmans, Green, 1954.
Cecil, David. Hardy the Novelist: An Essay in Criticism. London: Constable, 1943.
Chew, Samuel C. Thomas Hardy, Poet and Novelist. New York: Knopf, 1921.
Cox, R. G., ed. Thomas Hardy: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1970.
Clarke, Graham, ed. Thomas Hardy: Critical Assessments. 4 vols. Volume I: The Contemporary Response. Mountfield: Helm Information, 1993.
Elliott, A. P. Fatalism in the Works of Thomas Hardy. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1935.
Guérard, Albert. Thomas Hardy: The Novels and Stories. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1949.
Holloway, John. The Victorian Sage: Studies in Argument. London: Macmillan, 1953.
Hopkins, R. Thurston. Thomas Hardy’s Dorset. London: Cecil Palmer, 1922.
Howe, Irving. Thomas Hardy. New York: Macmillan, 1967.
Johnson, Lionel. The Art of Thomas Hardy. New York: Russell & Russell, 1894.
Kettle, Arnold. Hardy the Novelist. Swansea: University of Swansea, 1967.
Lerner, Laurence, and John Holmstrom, eds. Thomas Hardy and His Readers: A Selection of Contemporary Reviews. London: Barnes and Noble, 1968.
McDowall, Arthur. Thomas Hardy: A Critical Study. London: Faber and Faber, 1931.
Morrell, Roy. Thomas Hardy: The Will and the Way. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaysia Press, 1965.
Rutland, William R. Thomas Hardy: A Study of His Writings and Their Background. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1938.
Southern Review 6: Hardy Centennial Issue. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1940.
Symons, Arthur. A Study of Thomas Hardy. London: Chas. J. Sawyer, 1927.
Webster, Harvey Curtis. On a Darkling Plain: The Art and Thought of Thomas Hardy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1947.
Wing, George. Thomas Hardy. New York: Grove Press, 1963.

Critical Responses II: 1970 to the Present

Bayley, John. An Essay on Hardy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.
Boumelha, Penny. Thomas Hardy and Women: Sexual Ideology and Narrative Form. Brighton: Harvester Press, 1982.
Brooks, Jean R. Thomas Hardy: The Poetic Structure. London: Elek Books, 1971.
Butler, Lance St J., ed. Thomas Hardy After Fifty Years. Macmillan: London, 1977.
Butler, Lance St J., ed. Alternative Hardy. Macmillan: London, 1989.
Casagrande, Peter. Unity in Hardy’s Novels: ‘Repetitive Symmetries’. London: Macmillan, 1982.
Casagrande, Peter. Hardy’s Influence on the Modern Novel. London: Macmillan, 1987.
Clarke, Graham, ed. Thomas Hardy: Critical Assessments of Writers in English. 4 vols. Mountfield, East Sussex: Helm Information, 1993.
Daleski, H. M. Thomas Hardy and Paradoxes of Love. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1997.
Dolin, Tim, and Peter Widdowson, eds. Thomas Hardy and Contemporary Literary Studies. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
Draper, Ronald P., ed. Hardy: The Tragic Novels. London: Macmillan, 1975; rev. ed. 1991.
Dutta, Shanta. Ambivalence in Hardy: A Study of His Attitude to Women. London: Macmillan Press, 2000.
Ebbatson, Roger. The Evolutionary Self: Hardy, Forster, Lawrence. Brighton: Harvester Press, 1982.
Elvy, Margaret. Sexing Hardy: Thomas Hardy and Feminism. London: Crescent Moon, 1998.
Enstice, Andrew. Thomas Hardy: Landscapes of the Mind. London: Macmillan, 1979.
Fincham, Tony. Hardy the Physician: Medical Aspects of the Wessex Tradition. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
Fisher, Joe. The Hidden Hardy. London: Macmillan, 1992.
Garson, Marjorie. Hardy’s Fables of Integrity: Woman, Body, Text. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.
Gatrell, Simon. Thomas Hardy and the Proper Study of Mankind. London: Macmillan, 1993.
Gilmartin, Sophie. Ancestry and Narrative in Nineteenth-Century British Literature: Blood Relations from Edgeworth to Hardy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Giordano Jr. Frank R.I’d Have My Life Unbe’: Thomas Hardy’s Self-Destructive Characters. Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 1984.
Goode, John. Thomas Hardy: The Offensive Truth. Oxford: Blackwell, 1988.
Greenslade, William. Degeneration, Culture and the Novel 1880–1940. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Gregor, Ian. The Great Web: The Form of Hardy’s Major Fiction. London: Faber and Faber, 1974.
Hardy, Barbara. Thomas Hardy: Imagining Imagination: Hardy’s Poetry and Fiction. London: Athlone Press, 2000.
Higonnet, Margaret R., ed. The Sense of Sex: Feminist Perspectives on Thomas Hardy. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993.
Hornback, Bert. The Metaphor of Chance: Vision and Technique in the Works of Thomas Hardy. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1971.
Hyman, Virginia. Ethical Perspectives in the Novels of Thomas Hardy. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1985.
Ingham, Patricia. Thomas Hardy: A Feminist Reading. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester, 1989.
Ingham, Patricia. Thomas Hardy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Irwin, Michael. Reading Hardy’s Landscapes. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2000.
Jedzerewski, Jan. Thomas Hardy and the Church. London: Macmillan, 1996.
Johnson, Bruce. True Correspondence: A Phenomenology of Hardy’s Novels. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1983.
Kramer, Dale, ed. Critical Approaches to the Fiction of Thomas Hardy. London: Macmillan, 1979.
Langbaum, Robert. Thomas Hardy in Our Time. London: Macmillan, 1995.
Larson, Jill. Ethics and Narrative in the English Novel, 1880–1914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Lock, Charles. Thomas Hardy: Criticism in Focus. London: Bristol Classical, 1992.
Mallett, Phillip V., and Ronald P. Draper, eds. A Spacious Vision: Essays on Thomas Hardy. Penzance: Patten Press, 1994
Mallett, Phillip, ed. The Achievement of Thomas Hardy. London: Macmillan, 2000.
Mallett, Phillip, ed. Thomas Hardy: Texts and Contexts. London: Macmillan, 2002.
Meisel, Perry. Thomas Hardy: The Return of the Repressed. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1972.
Miller, J. Hillis. Thomas Hardy: Distance and Desire. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970.
Miller, J. Hillis. Fiction and Repetition: Seven English Novels. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982.
Miller, J. Hillis. Topographies. Stanford, Calif,: Stanford University Press, 1995.
Millgate, Michael. Thomas Hardy: His Career as a Novelist. London: Bodley Head, 1971.
Moore, Kevin Z. The Descent of the Imagination: Postromantic Culture in the Later Novels of Thomas Hardy. New York: New York University Press, 1990.
Morgan, Rosemarie. Women and Sexuality in the Novels of Thomas Hardy. London: Routledge, 1988.
O’Toole, Tess. Genealogy and Fiction in Thomas Hardy: Family Lineage and Narrative Line. London: Macmillan, 1997.
Page, Norman, ed. Thomas Hardy: The Writer and His Background. London: Bell & Hyman, 1980.
Pettit, Charles P. C., ed. New Perspectives on Thomas Hardy. London: Macmillan, 1994.
Pettit, Charles P. C., ed. Reading Thomas Hardy. London: Macmillan, 1998.
Salter, C. H. Good Little Thomas Hardy. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1981.
Sherman, G. W. The Pessimism of Thomas Hardy: A Social Study. Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1976.
Smith, Anne, ed. The Novels of Thomas Hardy. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1979.
Sumner, Rosemary. Thomas Hardy: Psychological Novelist. London: Macmillan, 1981.
Sumner, Rosemary. A Route to Modernism: Hardy, Lawrence, Woolf. London: Macmillan, 2000.
Swigg, Richard. Lawrence, Hardy and American Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972.
Taylor, Richard H. The Neglected Hardy: Thomas Hardy’s Lesser Novels. London: Macmillan, 1982.
Thomas, Jane. Thomas Hardy, Femininity and Dissent: Reassessing the ‘Minor’ Novels. London: Macmillan, 1999.
White, R. J. Thomas Hardy and History. New York: Harper and Row, 1974.
Widdowson, Peter. On Thomas Hardy: Late Essays and Earlier. London: Macmillan, 1998.
Wolfreys, Julian. Thomas Hardy. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.
Wotton, George. Thomas Hardy: Towards a Materialist Criticism. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 1985.
Wright, T. R. Hardy and the Erotic. London: Macmillan, 1989.

Critical Responses III: Poetry and the dynasts

Armstrong, Tim. Haunted Hardy: Poetry, History, Memory. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2000.
Bailey, J. O. Thomas Hardy and the Cosmic Mind: A New Reading of ‘The Dynasts’. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1956.
Bailey, J. O. The Poetry of Thomas Hardy: A Handbook and Commentary. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1970.
Buckler, William. The Poetry of Thomas Hardy: A Study in Art and Ideas. New York: New York University Press, 1983.
Clements, Patricia, and Juliet Grindle, eds. The Poetry of Thomas Hardy. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1980.
Davie, Donald. Thomas Hardy and British Poetry. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973.
Davie, Donald, ed. Agenda: Thomas Hardy Special Issue 10 (Autumn–Winter 1972).
Dean, Susan. Hardy’s Poetic Vision in ‘The Dynasts’: The Diorama of a Dream. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1977.
Gibson, James, and Trevor Johnson, eds. Thomas Hardy: Poems. London: Macmillan, 1979.
Giordano Jr., Frank R., ed. ‘The Poetry of Thomas Hardy: A Commemorative Issue’. Victorian Poetry 17:1 and 2 (1975).
Green, Brian. Hardy’s Lyrics: Pearls of Pity. London: Macmillan, 1996.
Hynes, Samuel. The Pattern of Hardy’s Poetry. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1961.
Johnson, Trevor. A Critical Introduction to the Poems of Thomas Hardy. London: Macmillan, 1991.
Lucas, John. Modern English Poetry from Hardy to Hughes. London: Batsford, 1986.
Marsden, Kenneth. The Poems of Thomas Hardy: A Critical Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1969.
Maynard, Katherine Kearney. Thomas Hardy’s Tragic Poetry: The Lyrics and ‘The Dynasts’. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1991.
Orel, Harold. Thomas Hardy’s Epic-Drama: A Study of ‘The Dynasts’. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1963.
Orel, Harold. Critical Essays on Thomas Hardy’s Poetry. New York: G. K. Hall, 1995.
Pandey, R. K. Human Concerns in the Poetry of Thomas Hardy. New Delhi: Mahaveer and Sons, 2007.
Paulin, Tom. Thomas Hardy: The Poetry of Perception. London: Macmillan, 1975.
Ray, Martin, ed. The Poetry of Thomas Hardy: Contemporary Reviews. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
Richardson, James. Thomas Hardy: The Poetry of Necessity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977.
Taylor, Dennis. Hardy’s Poetry, 1860–1928. London: Macmillan, 1981.
Taylor, Dennis. Hardy’s Metres and Victorian Prosody. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988.
Taylor, Dennis. ‘The Chronology of Hardy’s Poetry’. Victorian Poetry 37 (1999): 1–58.
Ward, John Powell. The English Line. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 1991.
Ward, John Powell. Thomas Hardy’s Poetry. Buckingham: Open University Press, 1992.
Wickens, Glen. G. Thomas Hardy: Monism and the Critical Tradition: The One and the Many in ‘The Dynasts’. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002.
Wright, Walter. The Shaping of ‘The Dynasts’. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1967.
Zietlow, Paul. Moments of Vision: The Poetry of Thomas Hardy. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1974.

Genre: Realism, Tragedy, and the Short Story

Belsey, Catherine. Critical Practice. London: Methuen, 1980.
Benjamin, Walter. ‘The Storyteller: Reflections on the Works of Nikolai Leskov’. Illuminations: Essays and Reflections, ed. Hannah Arendt. London: Jonathan Cape: 83–110.
Brady, Kristin. The Short Stories of Thomas Hardy: Tales of Past and Present. London: Macmillan, 1982.
Byerly, Alison. Realism, Representation and the Arts in Nineteenth-Century Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Caserio, Robert L. Plot, Story, and the Novel: From Dickens and Poe to the Modern Period. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1979.
Childers, Joseph W. ‘Victorian Theories of the Novel’. Brantlinger and Thesing: 406–23.
Correa, Delia de Sousa, ed. The Nineteenth-Century Novel: Realisms. London: Routledge, 2000.
Dentith, Simon. A Rhetoric of the Real: Studies in Post-Enlightenment Writing from 1790 to the Present. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester, 1990.
Gilmartin, Sophie, and Rod Mengham. Thomas Hardy’s Shorter Fiction: A Critical Study. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007.
Hanson, Clare. Short Stories and Short Fictions, 1880–1980. London: Macmillan, 1984.
Keen, Suzanne. Victorian Renovations of the Novel: Narrative Annexes and the Boundaries of Representation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
King, Jeanette. Tragedy in the Victorian Novel: Theory and Practice in the Novels of George Eliot, Thomas Hardy and Henry James. Cambridge University Press, 1978.
Kramer, Dale. Thomas Hardy: The Forms of Tragedy. London: Macmillan, 1975.
Kramer, Dale. ‘Hardy: The Driftiness of Tragedy’. Morgan: 371–85.
Levine, George. The Realistic Imagination: English Fiction from Frankenstein to Lady Chatterley. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.
Levine, George, ed. Realism and Representation: Essays on the Problem of Realism in Relation to Science, Literature and Culture. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1993.
Liggins, Emma, Andrew Maunder, and Ruth Robbins. The British Short Story. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
Newton, K. M. Modern Literature and the Tragic. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2008.
Orel, Harold. The Victorian Short Story. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Poole, Adrian. Tragedy: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Reilly, Jim. Shadowtime: History and Representation in Hardy, Conrad and George Eliot. London: Routledge, 1993.
Shaw, Valerie. The Short Story: A Critical Introduction. London: Longman, 1983.
Steiner, George. The Death of Tragedy. London: Faber and Faber, 1961.
Trotter, David. Cooking with Mud: The Idea of Mess in Nineteenth-Century Art and Fiction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Walder, Dennis, ed. The Realist Novel. London: Routledge/Open University Press, 1996.
Widdowson, Peter. ‘“… into the hands of pure-minded English girls”: Hardy’s Short Stories and the Late Victorian Literary Marketplace’. Wilson: 364–77.

Class, Education, and Rural Society

Birch, Dinah. Our Victorian Education. Oxford: Blackwell, 2008.
Cooper, Andrew. ‘Voicing the Language of Literature: Jude’s Obscured Labor’. Victorian Literature and Culture 28:2 (2000): 391–410.
Dentith, Simon. Society and Cultural Forms in Nineteenth Century England. London: Macmillan, 1998.
DeVine, Christine. Class in Turn-of-the-Century Novels of Gissing, James, Hardy and Wells. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005.
Ebbatson, Roger. Hardy: The Margin of the Unexpressed. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993.
Ebbatson, Roger. ‘Hardy and Class’. Mallett: 111–34.
Ebbatson, Roger. ‘“A Thickness of Wall”: Hardy and Class’. Wilson: 162–77.
Gagnier, Regenia. ‘Money, the Economy, and Social Class’. Brantlinger and Thesing: 48–66.
Harrison, J. F. C. Late Victorian Britain, 1875–1901. London: Fontana, 1990.
Haggard, H. Rider. Rural England: Being an Account of Agricultural and Social Researches Carried Out in the Years 1901 [and] 1902. 2 vols. London: Longmans, 1902.
Horn, Pamela. Education in Rural England, 1800–1914. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1978.
Howkins, Alun. Reshaping Rural England: A Social History, 1850–1925. London: Harper Collins Academic, 1991.
Ingham, Patricia. The Language of Gender and Class: Transformation in the Victorian Novel. London: Routledge, 1996.
Jann, Rosemary. ‘Hardy’s Rustics and the Construction of Class’. Victorian Literature and Culture 28:2 (2000): 411–25.
Keith, W. J. Regions of the Imagination: The Development of British Rural Fiction. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988.
Kerr, Barbara. Bound to the Soil: A Social History of Dorset. Wakefield: EP Publishing, 1975.
Lawson, John, and Harold Silver. A Social History of Education in England. London: Methuen, 1973.
Lucas, John. The Literature of Change: Studies in the Nineteenth-Century Provincial Novel. Brighton: Harvester Press, 1977.
Mattisson, Jane. Knowledge and Survival in the Novels of Thomas Hardy. Lund: Lund University, 2002.
McKibbin, Ross. The Ideologies of Class: Social Relations in Britain 1880–1950. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.
Mingay, G. E., ed. The Victorian Countryside. 2 vols. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1971.
Payne, Christiana. Toil and Plenty: Images of the Agricultural Landscape in England, 1780–1890. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1993.
Phillipps, K. C. Language and Class in Victorian England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Pite, Ralph. Hardy’s Geography: Wessex and the Regional Novel. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.
Plietzsch, Birgit. The Novels of Thomas Hardy as a Product of Nineteenth-Century Social, Economic and Cultural Change. Berlin: Tenea, 2003.
Radford, Andrew. Mapping the Wessex Novel: Landscape, History and the Parochial in British Literature, 1870–1940. London: Continuum, 2010.
Reeder, David A., ed. Educating Our Masters. Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1980.
Robbins, Ruth, and Julian Wolfreys, eds. Victorian Identities: Social and Cultural Formations in Victorian Literature. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1996.
Rose, Jonathan. ‘Education, Literacy, and the Victorian Reader’. Brantlinger and Thesing: 31–47.
Scott, Patrick, and Pauline Fletcher, eds. Culture and Education in Victorian England. London: Bucknell University Press, 1990.
Smith, D. Conflict and Compromise: Class Formation in English Society, 1830–1914. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982.
Snell, K. D. M. Annals of the Labouring Poor: Social Change and Agrarian England, 1600–1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
Snell, K. D. M., ed. The Regional Novel in Britain and Ireland 1800–1990. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Stephens, W. B. Education in Britain, 1750–1914. New York: St Martins Press, 1998.
Thompson, F. M. L. The Rise of Respectable Society: A Social History of Victorian Britain, 1830–1900. London: Fontana, 1988.
Wiener, Martin J. English Culture and the Decline of the Industrial Spirit, 1850–1980. 2nd edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Williams, Raymond. The Country and the City. London: Chatto and Windus, 1973.

Nation and City, War and Empire

Ackroyd, Peter. London: The Biography. London: Chatto and Windus, 2000.
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso, 1983.
Attridge, Steve. Nationalism, Imperialism and Identity in Late Victorian Culture. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
Bivona, Daniel. British Imperial Literature, 1870–1940: Writing and the Administration of Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Brantlinger, Patrick. Rule of Darkness: British Literature and Imperialism, 1830–1914. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1988.
Coleman, B. I., ed. The Idea of the City in Nineteenth-Century Britain. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973.
Colls, Robert, and Philip Dodd, eds. Englishness: Politics and Culture, 1880–1920. London: Croom Helm, 1986.
David, Deirdre. ‘Empire, Race, and the Victorian Novel’. Brantlinger and Thesing: 84–100.
David, Saul. Victoria’s Wars: The Rise of Empire. London: Penguin, 2007.
Dentith, Simon. Epic and Empire in Nineteenth-Century Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Dyos, H. J., and Michael Wolff, eds. The Victorian City: Images and Realities. 2 vols. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973.
Ebbatson, Roger. An Imaginary England: Nation, Landscape and Literature, 1840–1920. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005.
Eldridge, C. C. Victorian Imperialism. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1978.
Eldridge, C. C. The Imperial Experience: From Carlyle to Forster. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 1996.
Gervais, David. Literary Englands: Versions of Englishness in Modern Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Hobson, J. A. Imperialism: A Study. London: Nisbet, 1902.
Nead, Lynda. Victorian Babylon: People, Streets and Images in Nineteenth-Century London. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2000.
Pakenham, Thomas. The Boer War. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1979.
Parrinder, Patrick. Nation and Novel: The English Novel from Its Origins to the Present Day. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Porter, Bernard. The Lion’s Share: A Short History of British Imperialism 1850–2004. 4th edition; Harlow: Pearson Education, 2004.
Porter, Roy, ed. Myths of the English. London: Polity Press, 1993.
Said, Edward. Culture and Imperialism. London: Chatto and Windus, 1993.
Sheppard, Francis. London 1808–1870: The Infernal Wen. London: Secker and Warburg, 1971.
Tidrick, Kathryn. Empire & the English Character. London and New York: Tauris, 1990.
Whitehead, James S. ‘Hardy and Englishness’. Mallett: 203–28.

Marriage, the New Woman, and Masculinity

Adams, James Eli. Dandies and Desert Saints: Styles of Victorian Manhood. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1995.
Ardis, Ann L. New Women, New Novels: Feminism and Early Modernism. New Brunswick, N.Y.: Rutgers University Press, 1990.
Bland, Lucy. Banishing the Beast: Sexuality and the Early Feminists. London: Penguin, 1995.
Danahay, Martin. Gender at Work in Victorian Culture: Literature, Art and Masculinity. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005.
Dellamora, Richard. Masculine Desire: The Sexual Politics of Victorian Aestheticism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990.
Devereux, Joanna. Patriarchy and Its Discontents: Sexual Politics in Selected Novels and Stories of Thomas Hardy. London: Routledge, 2003.
Dowling, Linda. Hellenism and Homosexuality in Victorian Oxford. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1994.
Federico, Annette. Masculine Identity in Hardy and Gissing. Rutherford, N.Y.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1991.
Fernando, Lloyd. ‘New Women’ in the Late Victorian Novel. State College, Penn.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1977.
Heilmann, Ann, ed. The Late Victorian Marriage Question. 5 vols. London: Routledge Thoemmes, 1998.
Heilmann, Ann. New Woman Strategies: Sarah Grand, Olive Schreiner, Mona Caird. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004.
Hollis, Patricia. Women in Public: The Women’s Movement, 1850–1900. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1979.
Horstman, Allen. Victorian Divorce. London: Croom Helm, 1985.
Jeffreys, Sheila. The Spinster and Her Enemies: Feminism and Sexuality, 1880–1930. London: Pandora Press, 1985.
Langland, Elizabeth. Nobody’s Angels: Middle Class Women and Domestic Ideology in Victorian Culture. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1995.
Ledger, Sally. The New Woman: Fiction and Feminism at the Fin de Siècle. Manchester University Press, 1997.
McLaren, Angus. The Trials of Masculinity: Policing Sexual Boundaries, 1870–1930. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
Mallett, Phillip. ‘Women and Marriage in Victorian Society’. Marriage and Property, ed. Elizabeth M. Craik. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1984: 159–89.
Mallett, Phillip. ‘Hardy and Masculinity: A Pair of Blue Eyes and Jude the Obscure’. Morgan: 387–402.
Mason, Michael. The Making of Victorian Sexuality. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Mason, Michael. The Making of Victorian Sexual Attitudes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Poovey, Mary. Uneven Developments: The Ideological Work of Gender in Mid-Victorian England. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.
Richardson, Angelique, and Chris Willis, eds. The New Woman in Fiction and Fact: Fin-de-Siècle Feminisms. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001.
Roper, Michael, and John Tosh, eds. Manful Assertions: Masculinities in Britain Since 1800. London: Routledge, 1991.
Russet, Cynthia Eagle. Sexual Science: The Victorian Construction of Womanhood. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989.
Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985
Shanley, Mary Lyndon. Feminism, Marriage, and the Law in Victorian England. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989.
Showalter, Elaine. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siècle. London: Bloomsbury, 1991.
Tosh, John. Manliness and Masculinities in Nineteenth-Century Britain: Essays on Gender, Family and Empire. London: Pearson Education, 2005.
Tosh, John. A Man’s Place: Masculinity and the Middle-Class Home in Victorian England. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2007.
Vance, Norman. The Sinews of the Spirit: The Ideal of Christian Manliness in Victorian Literature and Religious Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Weeks, Jeffrey. Sex, Politics and Society: The Regulation of Sexuality Since 1800. London: Longman, 1981.

Science and Culture

Amigoni, David. Colonies, Cults and Evolution: Literature, Science and Culture in Nineteenth-Century Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Beer, Gillian. Darwin’s Plots: Evolutionary Narrative in Darwin, George Eliot and Nineteenth-Century Fiction. 3rd edition; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Beer, Gillian. Open Fields: Science in Cultural Encounter. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.
Bowler, Peter J. Evolution: The History of an Idea. 4th edition; Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009.
Carroll, Joseph. Literary Darwinism: Evolution, Human Nature, and Literature. London: Routledge, 2004.
Christie, John, and Sally Shuttleworth, eds. Nature Transfigured: Science and Literature 1700–1900. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1989.
Clarke, G. W., ed. Rediscovering Hellenism: The Hellenic Inheritance and the English Imagination. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Collini, Stefan. Public Moralists: Political Thought and Intellectual Life in Britain 1850–1930. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.
Cosslett, Tess. The ‘Scientific Movement’ and Victorian Literature. Brighton: Harvester Press, 1982.
Dale, Peter Allan. In Pursuit of a Scientific Culture: Science, Art and Society in the Victorian Age. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.
Dowson, Gowan. Darwin, Literature and Victorian Respectability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Gilmour, Robin. The Victorian Period: The Intellectual and Cultural Context of English Literature, 1830–1890. London: Longman, 1993.
Glendening, John. The Evolutionary Imagination in Late Victoirian Novels. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007.
Gossin, Pamela. Thomas Hardy’s Novel Universe: Astronomy, Cosmology and Gender in the Post-Darwinian World. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007.
Heyck, T. W. The Transformation of Intellectual Life in Victorian England. London: Croom Helm, 1982.
Janet Oppenheim, ‘Shattered Nerves’: Doctors, Patients and Depression in the Nineteenth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1991.
Jenkyns, Richard. The Victorians and Ancient Greece. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980.
Levine, George, ed. One Culture: Essays in Science and Literature. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987.
Levine, George. Darwin and the Novelists: Patterns of Science in Victorian Fiction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.
Luckhurst, Roger, and Justine McDonagh, eds. Transactions and Encounters: Science and Culture in the Nineteenth Century. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2002.
Morton, Peter. The Vital Science: Biology and the Literary Imagination, 1860–1900. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1984.
Paradis, James, and Thomas Postlewait, eds. Victorian Science and Victorian Values: Literary Perspectives. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1985.
Richardson, Angelique. Love and Eugenics in the Late Nineteenth Century: Rational Reproduction and the New Woman. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Richardson, Angelique, ‘Hardy and Science: A Chapter of Accidents’. Mallett: 156–80.
Rimmer, Mary. ‘Hardy, Victorian Culture and Provinciality’. Mallett: 135–55.
Small, Helen, and Trudi Tate, eds. Literature, Science, Psychoanalysis, 1830–1970. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Turner, Frank. The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1981.
Young, Robert M. Darwin’s Metaphor: Nature’s Place in Victorian Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Archaeology, Anthropology, and Language

Ashton, Michael. Interpreting the Landscape: Landscape Archaeology and Local History. London: Routledge, 1997.
Blake, N. F. Non-Standard Language in English Literature. London: Deutsch, 1981.
Bowler, Peter. The Invention of Progress: The Victorians and the Past. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1990.
Burrow, J. W. A Liberal Descent: Victorian Historians and the English Past. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
Chapman, Raymond. The Language of Thomas Hardy. London: Macmillan, 1990.
Clodd, Edward. The Childhood of the World. A Simple Account of Man in Early Times. London: Macmillan, 1873.
Daniel, Glynn. A Short History of Archaeology. London: Thames and Hudson, 1981.
Daniel, Glynn, and Colin Renfrew. The Idea of Prehistory. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1988.
Desmond, Adrian. Archetypes and Ancestors: Palaeontology in Victorian London, 1850–75. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
Dorson, Richard. The British Folklorists. A History. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1968.
Dowling, Linda. ‘Victorian Oxford and the Science of Language’. Publications of the Modern Language Association 97 (1982): 160–78.
Dowling, Linda. Language and Decadence in the Victorian Fin de Siècle. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1986.
Elliott, Ralph W. V. Thomas Hardy’s English. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1984.
Firor, Ruth. Folkways in Thomas Hardy. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Hirooka, Hideo. Thomas Hardy’s Use of Dialect. Tokyo: Shinozaki Shorin, 1983.
Hudson, Kenneth. A Social History of Archaeology: The British Experience. London: Macmillan, 1981.
Ingham, Patricia. ‘Thomas Hardy and the Dorset Dialect’. Five Hundred Years of Words and Sounds, ed. E. G. Stanley and D. Gray. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1983: 84–91.
Kuklich, Henrika. The Savage Within: The Social History of British Anthropology, 1885–1945. Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Levine, Philippa A. The Amateur and the Professional: Antiquarians, Archaeologists and Historians. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Page, Norman. ‘Hardy and the English Language’. Thomas Hardy: The Writer and His Background, ed. Norman Page. London: Bell & Hyman: 151–72.
Radford, Andrew. Thomas Hardy and the Survivals of Time. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003.
Stocking Jr., George W. Victorian Anthropology. New York: Free Press, 1987.
Taylor, Dennis. Hardy’s Literary Language and Victorian Philology. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.
Udal, John Symonds. Dorsetshire Folklore (with a Fore-Say by William Barnes). 2nd edition; Guernsey: Toucan Press, 1970.
Van Riper, A. Bowdoin. Men Among the Mammoths: Victorian Science and the Discovery of Human Prehistory. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1993.
Wright, Joseph, ed. The English Dialect Dictionary. 6 vols. Oxford University Press, 18981905.
Zeitler, Michael. Representations of Culture: Thomas Hardy’s Wessex and Victorian Anthropology. New York: Peter Lang, 2007.

Philosophy and Religion

Annan, Noel, Leslie Stephen: The Godless Victorian. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1984.
Bebbington, D. W. Evangelicalism in Modern Britain: A History from the 1730s to the 1980s. London: Unwin Hyman, 1989.
Chadwick, Owen. The Victorian Church. 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966 and 1970.
Collins, Deborah. Thomas Hardy and His God: A Liturgy of Unbelief. London: Macmillan, 1990.
Cosslett, Tess, ed. Science and Religion in the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
Fraser, Hilary. ‘The Victorian Novel and Religion’. Brantlinger and Thesing: 101–18.
Hilton, Boyd. The Age of Atonement: The Influence of Evangelicalism on Social and Economic Thought, 1785–1865. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Himmelfarb, Gertrude. Victorian Minds. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1968.
Jasper, David, and T. R. Wright, eds. The Critical Spirit and the Will to Believe: Essays in Nineteenth-Century Literature and Religion. London: Macmillan, 1989.
Jay, Elisabeth, ed. The Evangelical and Oxford Movements. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Lightman, Bernard. The Origins of Agnosticism: Victorian Unbelief and the Limits of Knowledge. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987.
Mallett, Phillip. ‘Hardy and Philosophy’. Wilson: 21–35.
Parsons, Gerald, ed. Religion in Victorian Britain. 4 vols. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988.
Reardon, B. M. G. Religious Thought in the Victorian Age: A Survey from Coleridge to Gore. London: Longman, 1980
Royle, Edward. Radicals, Secularists, and Republicans: Popular Freethought in Britain, 1866–1915. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1980.
Ryan, Alan. J. S. Mill. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1975.
Symondson, Anthony, ed. The Victorian Crisis of Faith. London: SPCK, 1970.
Ten, C. L., ed. Mill’s ‘On Liberty’: A Critical Guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Turner, Frank M. Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian England. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1974.
Wheeler, Michael. Death and the Future Life in Victorian Literature and Theology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
Wright, T. R. The Religion of Humanity: The Impact of Comtean Positivism on Victorian Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Law and Censorship

Conley, Carolyn. ‘Rape and Justice in Victorian England’. Victorian Studies 29:4 (1986): 519–36.
Craig, Alec. The Banned Books of England and Other Countries: A Study of the Conception of Literary Obscenity. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1937.
Davis, William A. Thomas Hardy and the Law: Legal Presences in Hardy’s Life and Fiction. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2003.
Lacey, Nicola. Women, Crime, and Literature: From Moll Flanders to Tess of the d’Urbervilles. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Marsh, Joss. Word Crimes: Blasphemy, Culture, and Literature in Nineteenth-Century England. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.
Posner, Richard A. Law and Literature: A Misunderstood Relation. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988.
Schramm, Jan-Melissa. Testimony and Advocacy in Victorian Law, Literature and Theology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Thomas, Donald. A Long Time Burning: The History of Literary Censorship in England. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1965.
Walkowitz, Judith R. Prostitution and Victorian Society: Women, Class, and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.
Ward, Ian, ed. Law and Literature: Possibilities and Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Wiener, Martin J. Reconstructing the Criminal: Culture, Law, and Policy in England, 1830–1914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Williams, Melanie. Empty Justice: One Hundred Years of Law, Literature and Philosophy. London: Cavendish Publishing, 2002.

Music, Art, Film

Andres, Sophie. The Pre-Raphaelite Art of the Victorian Novel: Narrative Challenges to Visual Gendered Boundaries. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2005.
Asquith, Mark. Thomas Hardy: Metaphysics and Music. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
Beegan, Gerry. The Mass Image: A Social History of Photomechanical Reproduction in Victorian London. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
Berger, Sheila. Thomas Hardy and Visual Structures: Framing, Disruption, Process. New York: New York University Press, 1990.
Bullen, J. B. The Expressive Eye: Fiction and Perception in the Works of Thomas Hardy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986.
Bullen, J. B. ‘Hardy and the Visual Arts’. Wilson: 210–22.
Dalziel, Pamela. ‘Drawings and Withdrawings: The Vicissitudes of Thomas Hardy’s Wessex Poems’. Studies in Bibliography 50 (1997): 390–400.
Giddings, Robert, Peter Selby, and Chris Wensley. Screening the Novel: The Theory and Politics of Literary Adaptation. London: Macmillan, 1990.
Grundy, Joan. Hardy and the Sister Arts. London: Macmillan, 1979.
Hughes, John. ‘Ecstatic Sound’: Music and Individuality in the Work of Thomas Hardy. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001.
Jackson, Arlene M. Illustration and the Novels of Thomas Hardy. Totowa, N.J.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1981.
Klein, Michael, and Parker, Gillian, eds. The English Novel and the Movies. New York: Ungar, 1981.
Lambourne, Lionel. The Aesthetic Movement. London: Phaidon, 1996.
Maas, Jeremy. Victorian Painters. London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1978.
Marsh, Joss, and Kamilla Elliott. ‘The Victorian Novel in Film and on Television’. Brantlinger and Thesing: 458–77.
Maxwell, Richard, ed. The Victorian Illustrated Book. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2002.
Merrill, Linda. A Pot of Paint: Aesthetics on Trial in ‘Whistler v Ruskin’. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992.
Niemeyer, Paul J. Seeing Hardy: Film and Television Adaptations of the Fiction of Thomas Hardy. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2003.
Seymour, Claire. ‘Hardy and Music: Uncanny Sounds’. Wilson: 223–38.
Spear, Jeffrey. ‘The Other Arts: Victorian Visual Culture’. Brantlinger and Thesing: 189–206.
Warner, Eric, and Graham Hough, eds. Strangeness and Beauty: An Anthology of Aesthetic Criticism 1840–1910. 2 vols. Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Wright, Terry, ed. Thomas Hardy on Screen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Yeazell, Ruth Bernard. Art of the Everyday: Dutch Painting and the Realist Novel. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2008.