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Techniques for performing the Fontan completion procedure after Kawashima procedure have developed in recent years. This paper presents a case in which we performed an off-pump hepatic-to-azygos connection by autologous pericardial roll via thoracotomy as a modified Fontan completion. The operation wound was limited, and the short-term follow-up was satisfactory. Notably, it was found that the autologous pericardium might require a shorter period of anticoagulation treatment than what is needed for artificial prosthetic materials.
Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is an abundant and important presynaptic vesicle protein that binds Ca2+ for the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Our previous study reported its localization and function on spindle assembly in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. The present study was designed to investigate the function of Syt1 during mouse oocyte activation and subsequent cortical granule exocytosis (CGE) using confocal microscopy, morpholinol-based knockdown and time-lapse live cell imaging. By employing live cell imaging, we first studied the dynamic process of CGE and calculated the time interval between [Ca2+]i rise and CGE after oocyte activation. We further showed that Syt1 was co-localized to cortical granules (CGs) at the oocyte cortex. After oocyte activation with SrCl2, the Syt1 distribution pattern was altered significantly, similar to the changes seen for the CGs. Knockdown of Syt1 inhibited [Ca2+]i oscillations, disrupted the F-actin distribution pattern and delayed the time of cortical reaction. In summary, as a synaptic vesicle protein and calcium sensor for exocytosis, Syt1 acts as an essential regulator in mouse oocyte activation events including the generation of Ca2+ signals and CGE.
Cinnamomum chago is a woody species of the family Lauraceae endemic to Yunnan province, China, previously known from only one location, and categorized as a Plant Species with Extremely Small Population. We surveyed to determine the distribution and population size of C. chago, characterize its habitat, identify any threats, assess its conservation status, and provide guidelines for its management and conservation. During 2014–2017 we found only 64 mature C. chago, in five locations. These small, fragmented populations occur along Lancang River in Dali Prefecture at altitudes of 2,200–2,400 m. The species' extent of occurrence is c. 923 km2, with an area of occupancy of c. 60 km2. The habitat of the species has been degraded by expansion of pastoral activities and deforestation. We recommend categorization of C. chago as Endangered on the IUCN Red List, prevention of the collection of seeds and wood of the species, protection and monitoring, and ex situ propagation for future reintroductions.
Wire-shaped supercapacitors (WSSCs) hold great promise in portable and wearable electronics. Herein, a novel kind of high-performance coaxial WSSCs has been demonstrated and realized by scrolling porous carbon dodecahedrons/Al foil film electrode on vertical FeOOH nanosheets wrapping carbon fiber tows (FeOOH NSs/CFTs) yarn electrode. Remarkably, ionogel is utilized as solid-state electrolyte and exhibits a high thermal/electrochemical stability, which effectively ensures the great reliability and high operating voltage of coaxial WSSCs. Benefiting from the intriguing configuration, the coaxial WSSCs with superior flexibility act as efficient energy storage devices and exhibit low resistance, high volumetric energy density (3.2 mW h/cm3), and strong durability (82% after 10,000 cycles). Importantly, the coaxial WSSCs can be effectively recharged by harvesting sustainable wind source and repeatedly supply power to the lamp without a decline of electrochemical performance. Considering the facile fabrication technology with an outstanding performance, this work has paved the way for the integration of sustainable energy harvesting and wearable energy storage units.
Combinational creativity is a significant element of design in supporting designers to generate creative ideas during the early phases of design. There exists three driven approaches to combinational creativity: problem-, similarity- and inspiration-driven. This study provides further insights into the three combinational creativity driven approaches, exploring which approach could lead to ideas that are more creative in the context of practical product design. The results from a case study reveal that the problem- driven approach could lead to more creative and novel ideas or products compared with the similarity- and inspiration-driven approach. Products originating from the similarity- and inspiration-driven approach are at comparable levels. This study provides better understanding of combinational creativity in practical design. It also delivers benefits to designers in improving creative idea generation, and supports design researchers in exploring future ideation methods and design support tools employing the concept of 'combination'.
Novel NiMoO4-integrated electrode materials were successfully prepared by solvothermal method using Na2MoO4·2H2O and NiSO4·6H2O as main raw materials, water, and ethanol as solvents. The morphology, phase, and structure of the as-prepared materials were characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman, and FT-IR. The electrochemical properties of the materials in supercapacitors were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, constant current charge–discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The effects of volume ratio of water to ethanol (W/E) in solvent on the properties of the product were studied. The results show that the pure phase monoclinic crystal NiMoO4 product can be obtained when the W/E is 2:1. The diameter and length are 0.1–0.3 µm and approximately 3 µm, respectively. As an active material for supercapacitor, the NiMoO4 nanorods material delivered a discharge specific capacitance of 672, 498, and 396 F/g at a current density of 4, 7, and 10 A/g, respectively. The discharge specific capacitance slightly decreased from 815 to 588 F/g with a retention of 72% after 1000 cycles at a current density of 1 A/g. With these superior capacitance properties, the novel NiMoO4 integrated electrode materials could be considered as promising material for supercapacitors.
In this article, we provide a complete description of the spectra of linear fractional composition operators acting on the growth space and Bloch space over the upper half-plane. In addition, we also prove that the norm, essential norm, spectral radius and essential spectral radius of a composition operator acting on the growth space are all equal.
The deformation of the Solonker Belt and nearby regions is helpful for understanding the tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. This study carried out structural analysis in the Mandula and Ganqi areas of western Inner Mongolia, including the Solonker Belt, the Southern Orogenic Belt and the northern Yinshan Belt (Langshan range). Our results reveal that the Solonker Belt, the Southern Orogenic Belt and the northern Yinshan Belt underwent two stages (D1 and D2) of deformation during the Mesozoic period. The D1 stage produced the NNE-directed thrusts and asymmetric folds, indicating a NNE–SSW contraction. The northern Yinshan Belt, the Southern Orogenic Belt and the Solonker Belt formed as a series of NNE-verging tectonic nappes. The D2 stage developed the NE-trending folds and the SE- or NW-directed thrusts that cross-cut the D1 structures. The two events of nearly orthogonal or oblique shortening gave rise to the superimposed structures (e.g. fold interference patterns). The quartz veins that filled the fractures of the D1 deformation contain zircons of Middle Triassic U–Pb ages. The new dating data, along with the regional sedimentary hiatus, led us to infer that the D1 stage of deformation occurred in Middle Triassic time and the D2 stage occurred in Late Jurassic time. We consider that the D1 stage of deformation resulted from a convergent event, which might be related to the closure of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean or limited, narrow ocean basins; and the D2 stage of deformation was the far-field result of subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific Ocean and the closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean.
Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated that retinal detachment (RD) subjects were associated with abnormal spontaneous brain activities; however, whether the altered interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC) occurred in RD patients remains unknown. The current study tried to explore the alternations of interhemispheric FC of the whole brain in unilateral RD patients using the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method and their connections to clinical features. Methods: We recruited 30 patients with RD (16 males and 14 females) and 30 healthy controls (HCs) (16 males and 14 females) whose age and sex were closely matched. All subjects underwent the rs-fMRI scans. The VMHC method was applied to directly assess the hemispheres’ functional interaction. The VMHC in these brain areas, which could be used as biomarkers to differentiate RD from HC, was identified by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. The relations between these patients’ clinical features and their mean VMHC signal values in multiple brain regions were calculated by Pearson correlation analysis. Results: RD patients had significantly lower VMHC values than HCs in the bilateral occipital lobe (Brodmann areas, BA 18), bilateral superior temporal gyrus (BA 39), and bilateral cuneus (BA 19). Moreover, the mean VMHC signal values of the bilateral cuneus were in positive correlation with the duration of the RD (r = 0.446, P = 0.013). Conclusion: Our results provided an evidence of disturbed interhemispheric FC in the visual area occurred in RD patients, which might provide some useful information to understand the neural mechanism of RD patients with acute vision loss. Furthermore, the VMHC values might indicate the progress of the RD.
The Solonker and Shalazhashan belts are hotly debated tectonic units of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), because they may either represent a Permian or Triassic suture zone of the CAOB, or a rifting zone overprinted on an Early Palaeozoic orogen. Provenance analysis of the Upper Palaeozoic sandstones in these belts may provide useful constraints on this issue. This study collected six sandstone samples from three study areas: the Mandula area of the Solonker Belt, the Quagan Qulu area of the Shalazhashan Belt but close to the Alxa block, and the Enger Us area of the Shalazhashan Belt, for framework petrography, zircon morphology, U–Pb and Lu–Hf isotopic analyses. Framework petrography reveals that the Mandula and Enger Us area samples contain high proportions of volcanic fragments, whereas the samples from the Quagan Qulu area include not only volcanic fragments but also significant amounts of biotite and muscovite. The detrital zircons of the Mandula area and the Enger Us area yield two main age groups: (i) 260–330 Ma, with dominant εHf(t) values of –5 to +12; and (ii) 420–550 Ma, with dominant εHf(t) values of –9 to +9, suggesting that Early Palaeozoic arc-related magmatic rocks and Late Palaeozoic syn-depositional volcanic rocks are the main source rocks. The detrital zircons of the Quagan Qulu area have one main age group of 420–500 Ma and some grains of 0.9–1.1 Ga, 1.4–1.5 Ga, 1.8–1.9 Ga and ~ 2.5 Ga, which derive from the northern margin of the Alxa block. The lithological and fossil assemblages of the Upper Palaeozoic sandstones suggest shallow-marine to deep-water depositional environments and a northward-deepening transition. Based on the zircon spectra, sedimentary environment analysis and previous studies, we argue that the Solonker Belt and the Shalazhashan Belt of the CAOB are in extensional basins of a fore-arc or rifting setting.
Disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a patient is controversial. There is significant stigma associated with a diagnosis of AD or dementia in China, but the attitude of the society toward disclosure of such a diagnosis had not been formally evaluated prior to our study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the attitude toward disclosing an AD diagnosis to patients in China with cognitive impairment from their caregivers, and the factors that may affect their attitude.
We designed a 17-item questionnaire and administered this questionnaire to caregivers, who accompanied patients with cognitive impairment or dementia in three major hospitals in Shanghai, China. The caregiver's attitude toward disclosing the diagnosis of AD as evaluated by the questionnaire was compared to that of disclosing the diagnosis of terminal cancer.
A majority (95.7%) of the 175 interviewed participants (mean 14.2 years of education received) wished to know their own diagnosis if they were diagnosed with AD, and 97.6% preferred the doctor to tell their family members if they were diagnosed with AD. If a family member of the participants suffered from AD, 82.9% preferred to have the diagnosis disclosed to the patient. “Cognitive impairment” was the most accepted term by caregivers to disclose AD diagnosis in Chinese.
This study suggests most of the well-educated individuals in a Chinese urban area favored disclosing the diagnosis when they or their family members were diagnosed with AD.
The metadynamic recrystallization (MDRX) behavior of a Nb–V microalloyed nonquenched and tempered steel was investigated by isothermal hot compression tests on Gleeble-1500 thermal-mechanical simulator. Compression tests were performed using double hit schedules at temperatures of 1273–1423 K, strain rates of 0.01–5 s−1, initial grain sizes of 92–149 μm and an inter-pass time of 0.5–10 s. The experimental results show that MDRX softening fraction increases with the increasing of deformation temperature, strain rate, and inter-pass time, while it decreases with the increasing of initial grain size. Based on the experimental results, the MDRX softening fraction kinetic model and recrystallized grain size model of the tested steel was established. Besides, using the above mathematic models, a finite element model was built to simulate the MDRX process of the tested steel. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental ones, which indicates that finite element method is an effective approach to analyze the MDRX behavior and the established that mathematic models of the tested steel are reliable and accurate.
Two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) exhibit unique electrical, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties, which enable them to be used as building blocks in compact and lightweight integrated electronic systems. The controllable and reliable synthesis of atomically thin TMDCs is essential for their practical application. Recent progress in large-area synthesis of monolayer TMDCs paves the way for practical production of various 2D TMDC layers. The intrinsic optical and electrical properties of monolayer TMDCs can be defined by stoichiometry during synthesis. By manipulating the lattice structure or layer stacking manner, it is possible to create atomically thin van der Waals materials with unique and unexplored physical properties. In this article, we review recent developments in the synthesis of TMDC monolayers, alloys, and heterostructures, which shine light on the design of novel TMDCs with desired functional properties.
Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a heterogeneous autosomal recessive genetic disorder that affects melanin synthesis. OCA results in reduced or absent pigmentation in the hair, skin and eyes. Type 1 OCA (OCA1) is the result of tyrosinase (TYR) gene mutations and is a severe disease type. This study investigated TYR mutations in a Chinese cohort with OCA1. This study included two parts: patient genetic study and prenatal genetic diagnosis. A total of 30 OCA1 patients were subjected to TYR gene mutation analysis. Ten pedigrees were included for prenatal genetic diagnosis. A total of 100 unrelated healthy Chinese individuals were genotyped for controls. The coding sequence and the intron/exon junctions of TYR were analysed by bidirectional DNA sequencing. In this study, 20 mutations were identified, four of which were novel. Of these 30 OCA1 patients, 25 patients were TYR compound heterozygous; two patients carried homozygous TYR mutations; and three were heterozygous. Among the ten prenatally genotyped fetuses, three fetuses carried compound heterozygous mutations and seven carried no mutation or only one mutant allele of TYR and appeared normal at birth. In conclusion, we identified four novel TYR mutations and showed that molecular-based prenatal screening to detect TYR mutations in a fetus at risk for OCA1 provided essential information for genetic counselling of couples at risk.
The association between serum carotenoids and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains uncertain, and little is known about this relationship in the Chinese population. The present study examined the association between serum carotenoid concentrations and the MetS in Chinese adults. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in which 2148 subjects (1547 women and 601 men) aged 50–75 years were recruited in urban Guangzhou, China. Dietary data and other covariates were collected during face-to-face interviews. Blood pressure, waist circumference, blood lipids, glucose and serum carotenoids (α-, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin) were examined. We found dose–response inverse relationships between individual serum carotenoid concentrations and total carotenoids and the prevalence of the MetS after adjusting for potential confounders (P for trend < 0·001). The OR of the MetS for the highest (v. lowest) quartile were 0·31 (95 % CI 0·20, 0·47) for α-carotene, 0·23 (95 % CI 0·15, 0·36) for β-carotene, 0·44 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·67) for β-cryptoxanthin, 0·39 (95 % CI 0·26, 0·58) for lycopene, 0·28 (95 % CI 0·18, 0·44) for lutein+zeaxanthin and 0·19 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·30) for total carotenoids. Higher concentrations of each individual carotenoid and total carotenoids were significantly associated with a decrease in the number of abnormal MetS components (P for trend < 0·001–0·023). Higher serum carotenoid levels were associated with a lower prevalence of the MetS and fewer abnormal MetS components in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults.
To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, as well as their association with Hb and elevated blood lead levels (BLL) in children in China.
A cross-sectional and 1-year retrospective study.
Department of Laboratory Medicine, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, China.
Children aged from 6 months to 14 years living in south-west China who were taken to physical examinations (January–December 2011).
Of 1218 children included in the study, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration (mean 33·18 (sd 16·48) ng/ml) was deficient in 21·6 % and insufficient in 27·4 %, which were higher than the prevalence of both anaemia at 8·5 % and elevated BLL (Pb ≥ 10 μg/dl) at 1·8 %, but lower than mildly elevated BLL prevalence (5 μg/dl ≤ Pb < 10 μg/dl) at 56·9 %. There was a negative correlation between 25(OH)D concentration and BLL (r = −0·216, P < 0·001) while no significant relationship was found between 25(OH)D concentration and Hb (r = −0·012, P > 0·05). After multivariable adjustment, the significant predictors of 25(OH)D deficiency and insufficiency were increasing child age especially between 8 and 14 years (OR = 18·29; 95 % CI 10·14, 32·99; P < 0·001) and BLL (OR = 1·01; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·02; P = 0·045).
The prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency and insufficiency was much higher than that of anaemia or elevated BLL in south-west China, and associated with increasing age and BLL.
Since the discovery of submarine hot vents in the late 1970s, it has been postulated that submarine hydrothermal environments would be suitable for emergence of life on Earth. To simulate warm spring conditions, we designed a series of microwave-assisted amino acid synthesis involving direct reactions between succinic acid and ammonia in the presence of the magnetite catalyst. These reactions which generated aspartic acid and glycine were carried out under mild temperatures and pressures (90–180 °C, 4–19 bar). We studied this specific reaction inasmuch as succinic acid and ammonia were traditionally identified as prebiotic compounds in primitive deep-sea hydrothermal systems on Earth. The experimental results were discussed in both biochemical and geochemical context to offer a possible route for abiotic amino acid synthesis. With extremely diluted starting materials (0.002 M carboxylic acid and 0.002 M ammonia) and catalyst loading, an obvious temperature dependency was observed in both cases [neither product was detected at 90 °C in comparison with 21.08 μmol L−1 (aspartic acid) and 70.25 umol L−1 (glycine) in 180 °C]. However, an opposite trend presented for reaction time factor, namely a positive correlation for glycine, but a negative one for aspartic acid.
Cu0.62Zn0.38 foil was subjected to surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) processing first. Growth behavior of ZnO nanostructure on the SMAT Cu0.62Zn0.38 surface during thermal oxidation was investigated in this paper. The original and SMAT Cu0.62Zn0.38 foils were thermally oxidized at 400 ~ 700 °C under various gaseous environments, including nitrogen and mixture of N2-O2 at a pressure of 1 atm. for 3 h. The oxidized specimens were characterized with a scanning electron microscope, an X-ray diffractometer and a transmission electron microscope. It is found that nanosheets are easily formed on the SMAT specimen surface. The favorable formation of nanosheets relates to twin lamellae structure of Cu0.62Zn0.38 formed during SMAT processing.