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Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is not only associated with one's adverse health outcomes in adulthood but also increases the risk of child developmental problems in offspring. However, the mechanisms involved in the transmission of the effects of maternal ACEs to the offspring largely remain unexplored. This study sought to identify possible psychosocial pathways of intergenerational effects of maternal ACEs on child development at 6 months. Data from a longitudinal study on maternal childhood adversity and maternal psychosocial risk during pregnancy as well as maternal mental health problems and child development at 6 months postnatal were used. Structural equation modeling with bootstrapping was used to estimate the indirect effects of maternal ACEs on child development at 6 months. The model showed that maternal ACEs indirectly influenced offspring's development via maternal stressful events during pregnancy and pre- and postnatal mental health problems. This finding highlights the possible interventions at the prenatal and postnatal periods. Early identification of women who have ACEs or who are at psychosocial risk during pre- and postnatal periods is critical to provide interventions to buffer those negative effects on offspring's development. Future studies are needed to longitudinally assess the effects of maternal ACEs on child development over time.
Altered heart rate variability (HRV), an index of autonomic nervous system function, has been reported in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but the results have been mixed. Thus, the present study, using a large sample size and better methodology, aims to examine whether GAD is associated with impaired HRV, both at rest and in response to posture challenges.
In total, 1832 participants were recruited in this study, consisting of 682 patients with GAD (including 326 drug- and comorbidity-free GAD patients) and 1150 healthy controls. Short-term HRV was measured during the supine-standing-supine test (5-min per position). Propensity score matching (PSM), a relatively novel method, was used to control for potential confounders.
After PSM algorithm, drug- and comorbidity-free GAD patients had reductions in resting (baseline) high-frequency power (HF), an index for parasympathetic modulation, and increases in the low-frequency/HF ratio (LF/HF), an index for sympathovagal balance as compared to matched controls. Furthermore, the responses of HF and LF/HF to posture changes were all attenuated when compared with matched controls. Effect sizes, given by Cohen's d, for resting HF and HF reactivity were 0.42 and 0.36–0.42, respectively.
GAD is associated with altered sympathovagal balance, characterized by attenuation in both resting vagal modulation and vagal reactivity, with an almost medium effect size (Cohen's d ≈ 0.4), regardless of medication use or comorbidity status.
Shock–turbulence interactions are investigated using well-resolved direct numerical simulations (DNS) and analysis at a range of Reynolds, mean and turbulent Mach numbers (
, respectively). The simulations are shock and turbulence resolving with
up to 65,
up to 0.54 and
up to 1.4. The focus is on the effect of strong turbulence on the jumps of mean thermodynamic variables across the shock, the shock structure and the amplification of turbulence as it moves through the shock. Theoretical results under the so-called quasi-equilibrium (QE) assumption provide explicit laws for a number of statistics of interests which are in agreement with the new DNS data presented here as well as all the data available in the literature. While in previous studies turbulence was found to weaken jumps, it is shown here that stronger jumps are also observed depending on the regime of the interaction. Statistics of the dilatation at the shock are also investigated and found to be well represented by QE for weak turbulence but saturate at high turbulence intensities with a Reynolds number dependence also captured by the analysis. Finally, amplification factors are found to present a universal behaviour with two limiting asymptotic regimes governed by
, for weak and strong turbulence, respectively. Effect of anisotropy in the incoming flow is also assessed by utilizing two different forcing mechanisms to generate turbulence.
Genetic variants and medication adherence have been identified to be the main factors contributing to lithium treatment response in bipolar disorders.
To simultaneously examine effects of variant glutamate decarboxylase-like protein 1 (GADL1) and medication adherence on response to lithium maintenance treatment in Han Chinese patients with bipolar I (BPI) disorder.
Frequencies of manic and depressive episodes between carriers and non-carriers of the effective GADL1 rs17026688 T allele during the cumulative periods of off-lithium, poor adherence to lithium treatment and good adherence to lithium treatment were compared in Han Chinese patients with BPI disorder (n = 215).
GADL1 rs17026688 T carriers had significantly lower frequencies of recurrent affective episodes than non-T carriers during the cumulative period of good adherence, but not during those of poor adherence.
GADL1 rs17026688 and medication adherence jointly predict response to lithium maintenance treatment in Han Chinese BPI patients.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Psoriasis is one of the most common inflammatory diseases of the skin, affecting about 2%–3% of the US population. Despite its high prevalence, its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. The ability of the microbiome to modify host immunity and metabolism suggests that it may contribute to the development of psoriasis and its cardiometabolic comorbidities. This study aims to characterize the psoriatic skin microbiome and understand the functional role that these bacteria may play. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: 16s rRNA sequencing of site-matched skin swabs from 8 psoriasis patients and 8 healthy controls was used to identify bacteria and determine their relative abundance and microbial community diversity in the sample. PICRUSt was used to infer the functional roles of the bacteria from 16s rRNA amplicon data. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Lesional psoriasis skin had lower α diversity (p=0.04), less Actinobacteria (p=0.0001), but higher Firmicutes (p=0.009) compared with controls. At the genus level, lesional skin had more Alloiococcus (p=0.01) and Aerococcus (p=0.01) and demonstrated a trend towards lower Propionibacterium (p=0.08) and higher Gallicola (p=0.09) compared to controls. Interestingly, Alloiococcus (p=0.003) and Gallicola (p=0.04) were also higher in nonlesional skin compared with controls. Furthermore, lesional and nonlesional skin shared an increased abundance of Acinetobacter sp., Staphylococcus pettenkoferi, and Streptococcus sp., relative to controls. Lesional and nonlesional psoriasis skin did not differ significantly in microbiome composition. Predictive functional analysis revealed that both the healthy and psoriatic skin microbiome were enriched with bacteria capable of amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism suggest these functions might have a general role in host-microbe interaction. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These data reveal intriguing differences in the cutaneous microbiome of psoriatic individuals and healthy controls and suggest that bacterial metabolism may play an important role in host-microbe interaction.
In the foreland area of western Taiwan, some of the pre-orogenic basement-involved normal faults were reactivated during the subsequent compressional tectonics. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the role played by the pre-existing normal faults in the recent tectonics of western Taiwan. In NW Taiwan, reactivated normal faults with a strike-slip component have developed by linkage of reactivated single pre-existing normal faults in the foreland basin and acted as transverse structures for low-angle thrusts in the outer fold-and-thrust belt. In the later stage of their development, the transverse structures were thrusted and appear underneath the low-angle thrusts or became tear faults in the inner fold-and-thrust belt. In SW Taiwan, where the foreland basin is lacking normal fault reactivation, the pre-existing normal faults passively acted as ramp for the low-angle thrusts in the inner fold-and-thrust belt. Some of the active faults in western Taiwan may also be related to reactivated normal faults with right-lateral slip component. Some main earthquake shocks related to either strike-slip or thrust fault plane solution occurred on reactivated normal faults, implying a relationship between the pre-existing normal fault and the triggering of the recent major earthquakes. Along-strike contrast in structural style of normal fault reactivation gives rise to different characteristics of the deformation front for different parts of the foreland area in western Taiwan. Variations in the degree of normal fault reactivation also provide some insights into the way the crust embedding the pre-existing normal faults deformed in response to orogenic contraction.
Previous studies have found that social cohesion and trust (SCT) were associated with psychological well-being and physical health. In this study, we investigated the associations between SCT and mental and physical health among community-dwelling elderly in a town in southern Taiwan.
The study population consisted of 149 community-dwelling elderly aged 65 years and older (68 men, 81 women; mean age, 75.4 ± 6.1 years) residing in the town of Dashe in southern Taiwan. Activities of daily living (ADL), SCT, depression, subjective quality of life (QOL), current medical status, past medical history, and health behaviors were assessed in face-to-face interviews. Objective neurobehavioral functions were assessed using the timed up & go (TUG) test, functional reach test, and handgrip test.
Scores for ADL and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were significantly correlated with SCT, and SCT was significantly correlated with all subjective QOL items. In addition, a strong correlation was observed between SCT and relationship with friends. Values for SCT (median ≥ 20) were significantly associated with both subjective sense of health (median ≥ 68) and subjective happiness (median ≥ 73) after adjusting for age, sex, and ADL.
SCT is an important variable that influences self-rated health and happiness, independently of ADL, age, and sex. When assessing geriatric psychological function, SCT should be examined more carefully, given its association with subjective sense of health and happiness, depression, and physical function.
Asians and Pacific Islanders have higher circulating serum ferritin (SF) compared with Caucasians but the clinical significance of this is unclear. There is a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Taiwanese Indigenous than Han Chinese. Genetically, Indigenous are related to Austronesians and account for 2 % of Taiwan's population. We tested the hypothesis that accumulation of Fe in the body contributes to the ethnic/racial disparities in MetS in Taiwan.
A population-based, cross-sectional study.
National Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan and Penghu Island.
A total of 2638 healthy adults aged ≥19 years. Three ethnic groups were included.
Han Chinese and Indigenous people had comparable levels of SF. Austronesia origin was independently associated with MetS (OR = 2·61, 95 % CI 2·02, 3·36). After multiple adjustments, the odds for MetS (OR = 2·49, 95 % CI 1·15, 5·28) was significantly higher among Indigenous people in the highest SF tertile compared with those in the lowest tertile. Hakka and Penghu Islanders yielded the lowest risks (OR = 1·08, 95 % CI 0·44, 2·65 and OR = 1·21, 95 % CI 0·52, 2·78, respectively). Indigenous people in the highest SF tertile had increased risk for abnormal levels of fasting glucose (OR = 2·34, 95 % CI 1·27, 4·29), TAG (OR = 1·94, 95 % CI 1·11, 3·39) and HDL-cholesterol (OR = 2·10, 95 % CI 1·18, 3·73) than those in the lowest SF tertile.
Our results raise the possibility that ethnic/racial differences in body Fe store susceptibility may contribute to racial and geographic disparities in MetS.
Altered cardiac autonomic function has been proposed in schizophrenia, but the results are mixed. Therefore, analyses with larger sample sizes and better methodology are needed.
To examine whether acute schizophrenia is associated with cardiac autonomic dysfunction, 314 unmedicated patients with acute schizophrenia and 409 healthy volunteers, aged 18–65 years, were recruited for a case–control analysis. The severity of schizophrenia symptoms was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Cardiac autonomic function was evaluated by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) parameters during the supine–standing–supine test. Frequency-domain indices of HRV were obtained.
Unmedicated patients with acute schizophrenia consistently exhibited reduced mean RR interval and HRV levels in a supine rest and standing position compared with healthy volunteers. The severity of psychopathology, in particular positive symptoms, was negatively correlated with cardiac vagal control.
These data suggest that acute schizophrenia is accompanied by cardiac autonomic dysregulation. In view of the higher risk for cardiac complications in these patients, one might also consider the antipsychotic treatment in favour of improving cardiac autonomic modulation. Further studies using larger patient groups and controlled therapeutics may better understand the influence of antipsychotic treatment on cardiac autonomic regulation in schizophrenia.
Cardiac autonomic dysregulation has been reported in major depressive disorder (MDD), but scarce studies investigated that in fully remitted MDD.
To examine cardiac autonomic function in remitted MDD, 470 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of MDD earlier in life and 462 healthy volunteers, aged 18–65 years, were recruited for a case–control analysis. Cardiac autonomic function was evaluated by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) parameters. Frequency-domain indices of HRV were obtained. The obtained results were evaluated in association with personality traits assessed by the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire.
In patients with remitted MDD, no differences in RR intervals and all frequency-domain indices of HRV could be detected as compared with controls. Stratified analyses by the presence of a history of suicide ideation (the SI+ vs. the SI-subgroup) revealed decreased cardiac vagal control in the SI+ subgroup. The correlation analysis revealed an inverse relation between HRV levels and the harm avoidance score (which has been suggested to be associated with serotonergic activity), mainly attributable to the robust association in the SI+ subgroup.
Our study shows that cardiac autonomic dysregulation is not shown in remitted MDD patients as a whole but is limited to the subgroup of remitted MDD patients with a history of suicidal ideation. In view of the higher risk for cardiac complications in these vulnerable individuals, one might consider the treatment to restore their autonomic function.
Chang H-A, Chang C-C, Chen C-L, Kuo TBJ, Lu R-B, Huang S-Y. Major depression is associated with cardiac autonomic dysregulation.
Objective: Altered cardiac autonomic function has been proposed in patients with major depression (MD), but the results are mixed. Therefore, analyses with larger sample sizes and better methodology are needed.
Methods: To examine whether cardiac autonomic dysfunction is associated with MD, 498 unmedicated patients with MD and 462 healthy volunteers, aged 18–65 years, were recruited for a case-control analysis. We used the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to assess depression severity. Cardiac autonomic function was evaluated by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) parameters. Frequency-domain indices of HRV were obtained.
Results: Patients with MD exhibited reduced cardiac vagal control compared to healthy volunteers, and depression severity was negatively correlated with cardiac vagal control. Stratified analyses by suicide ideation revealed more pronounced cardiac vagal withdrawal among MD patients with suicide ideation.
Conclusion: This study shows that MD is associated with cardiac autonomic dysregulation, highlighting the importance of assessing HRV in currently depressed patients, given the higher risk for cardiac complications in these individuals. Taking into account that suicidal depressed patients had more adverse patterns of HRV, one might consider the treatment to restore the autonomic function for the patient population having increased susceptibility to autonomic dysregulation.
Polyaniline nanofiber (PANF) was synthesized using interfacial polymerization and was mixed with aqueous solution of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to form PANF–PVA binaries. The PANF suspension in water could be stabilized by PVA for more than 3 months due to the hydrogen bonding interaction between PANF and PVA. The specific characteristics of PANF–PVA films was checked by scanning electron microscopy, conductivity measurement, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The composite film contained 25 wt% PVA (PANF–PVA25) casting at 105 °C was found to have a porous structure and good conductivity. The presence of hydrogen bonding interaction between PANF and PVA improves the electroactivity and electroactive stability of PANF–PVA25 for electrochemical applications. However, an ether linkage between PANF and PVA polymer chain was also found as casting the PANF–PVA film at 200 °C, which is unfavorable for electrochemical applications.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) is the most common cause of parasitic eosinophilic meningitis worldwide. By using an animal model of BALB/c mice infected with A. cantonensis, previous studies indicated that the anthelmintic drug, albendazole, could kill A. cantonensis larvae and prevent further infection. However, the dead larvae will induce severe immune responses targeting at brain tissues. To alleviate the detrimental effects caused by the dead larvae, we administered curcumin, a traditional anti-inflammatory agent, as a complementary treatment in addition to albendazole therapy, to determine whether curcumin could be beneficial for treatment. The results showed that although curcumin treatment alone did not reduce worm number, combined treatment by albendazole and curcumin helped to reduce eosinophil count in the cerebrospinal fluid, better than using albendazole alone. This alleviating effect did not affect albendazole treatment alone, since histological analysis showed similar worm eradication with or without addition of curcumin. Nevertheless, curcumin treatment alone and combined albendazole-curcumin treatment did not inhibit MMP-9 expression in the brain tissue. In conclusion, curcumin, when used as a complementary treatment to albendazole, could help to alleviate eosinophilic meningitis through suppression of eosinophil count in the cerebrospinal fluid.
Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) is common in patients with schizophrenia; however, the pathogenesis is unclear. Different classes of antipsychotic agents may affect BMD. This study systemically examined the effects of clozapine vs. other antipsychotics, and several hormonal and metabolic factors that may contribute to BMD in female patients with schizophrenia, who are more vulnerable than males. Forty-eight women with schizophrenia, treated with long-term antipsychotics of the prototype prolactin-sparing (PS) antipsychotic agent clozapine vs. prolactin-raising (PR) antipsychotics were enrolled. They were matched for demographic and clinical characteristics. Various factors, including blood levels of prolactin and sex hormones, psychopathological symptoms, global assessment of functioning, physical activity, and menopausal status, were determined to explore their contribution to low BMD (LBMD), defined as a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer (DEXA) T score <−1. Overall, women receiving clozapine have better bone density than women receiving PR antipsychotics. Compared to PR antipsychotics, PS clozapine therapy is a protective factor (odds ratio 28.2, 95% confidence interval 2.37–336.10, p=0.008) for LBMD. Predictors for higher bone density in the clozapine group included higher clozapine dose (p<0.001), younger age (p<0.001), and higher thyroid-stimulating hormone level (p<0.001); in the PR group, higher body mass index (p=0.003) and lower alkaline phosphatase level (p=0.007) were associated with LBMD. This study suggests that clozapine treatment is beneficial for BMD compared to PR antipsychotic treatment in women with chronic schizophrenia, and clozapine's bone-density protecting effect is dose-related.
Sn/Ni–8.0 at.%V (Ni–7.0 wt%V) couples are prepared and the interfacial reactions at 210 and 250 °C are examined. In the early stage of reaction at 250 °C, a T phase is formed as a result of fast diffusion of Sn into the Ni–8.0 at.%V substrate. With a longer reaction, the outer region of the T phase transforms to a Ni-depletion layer, which has not been observed previously. Both the T phase and the Ni-depletion layer are analyzed using transmission electronic microscopy. This newly found Ni-depletion layer is composed of Sn and nanosize “VSn2(V2Sn3)” particulates. The solid/solid reaction paths in the Sn/Ni–8.0 at.%V couples evolve from Sn/T/Ni–V, Sn/Ni3Sn4/T/Ni–V to Sn/Ni3Sn4/VSn2(V2Sn3). During the liquid/solid reactions, the paths are liquid/T/Ni–V, liquid/liquid + Ni3Sn4/T/Ni–V, liquid/liquid + Ni3Sn4/liquid + VSn2(V2Sn3)/T/Ni–V, and liquid/liquid + Ni3Sn4/liquid + VSn2(V2Sn3).
The product and direct role of the rssC gene of Serratia marcescens is unknown. For unraveling the role of the rssC gene, atomic force microscopy has been used to identify the surfaces of intact S. marcescens wild-type CH-1 cells and rssC mutant CH-1ΔC cells. The detailed surface topographies were directly visualized, and quantitative measurements of the physical properties of the membrane structures were provided. CH-1 and CH-1ΔC cells were observed before and after treatment with lysozyme, and their topography-related parameters, e.g., a valley-to-peak distance, mean height, surface roughness, and surface root-mean-square values, were defined and compared. The data obtained suggest that the cellular surface topography of mutant CH-1ΔC becomes rougher and more precipitous than that of wild-type CH-1 cells. Moreover, it was found that, compared with native wild-type CH-1, the cellular surface topography of lysozyme-treated CH-1 was not changed profoundly. The product of the rssC gene is thus predicted to be mainly responsible for fatty-acid biosynthesis of the S. marcescens outer membrane. This study represents the first direct observation of the structural changes in membranes of bacterial mutant cells and offers a new prospect for predicting gene expression in bacterial cells.
In the current research, we successfully prepared TiO2/Ni–Cu–Zn ferrite composite powder for magnetic photocatalyst. The core Ni–Cu–Zn ferrite powder was synthesized using the steel pickling liquor and the waste solution of electroplating as the starting materials. The shell TiO2 nanocrystal was prepared by sol-gel hydrolysis precipitation of titanium isopropoxide [Ti(OC3H7)4] on the Ni–Cu–Zn ferrite powder followed by heat treatment. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image, the thickness of the titania shell was found to be approximately 5 nm. The core of Ni–Cu–Zn ferrite is spherical or elliptical shape, and the particle size of the core is in the range of 70–110 nm. The magnetic Ni–Cu–Zn ferrite nanopowder is uniformly encapsulated in a titania layer forming core-shell structure of TiO2/Ni–Cu–Zn ferrite powder. The degradation efficiency for methylene blue (MB) increases with magnetic photocatalyst (TiO2/Ni–Cu–Zn ferrite powder) content. When the magnetic photocatalyst content is 0.40 g in 150 mL of MB, the photocatalytic activity reached the largest value. With a further increase in the content of magnetic photocatalyst, the degradation efficiency slightly decreased. This occurs because the ultraviolet (UV) illumination is covered by catalysts, which were suspended in the methylene blue solution and resulted in the inhibition in the photocatalytic reaction. The photocatalytic degradation result for the relationship between MB concentration and illumination revealed a pseudo first-order kinetic model of the degradation with the limiting rate constant of 1.717 mg/L·min and equilibrium adsorption constant 0.0627 L/mg. Furthermore, the Langmuir–Hinshelwood model can be used to describe the degradation reaction, which suggests that the rate-determining step is surface reaction rather than adsorption is in photocatalytic degradation.
We report on the thermoelectric properties of the filled skutterudite Ce0.9Fe3CoSb12 prepared via non-equilibrium synthesis method. Melt-spun ribbons were directly converting into single phase polycrystalline pellets under pressure. For comparison, pellets with the same composition were also prepared using the conventional solid-state reaction followed by long term annealing. It was found that the non-equilibrium synthesized samples have higher power factors and lower thermal conductivity, leading to substantially higher figure of merit.
To investigate a nosocomial outbreak of infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii in the intensive care units at China Medical University Hospital in Taiwan.
Prospective outbreak investigation.
Three intensive care units in a 2,000-bed university hospital in Taichung, Taiwan.
Thirty-eight stable patients in 3 intensive care units, all of whom had undergone an invasive procedure, were enrolled in our study. Ninety-four A. baumannii strains were isolated from the patients or the environment in the 3 intensive care units, during the period from January 1 through December 31, 2006. We characterized A. baumannii isolates by use of repetitive extragenic palindromic–polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting. The clinical characteristics of the source patients and the environment were noted.
All of the clinical isolates were determined to belong to the same epidemic strain of MDR A. baumannii by the use of antimicrobial susceptibility tests, REP-PCR, and RAPD fingerprinting. All patients involved in the infection outbreak had undergone an invasive procedure. The outbreak strain was also isolated from the environment and the equipment in the intensive care units. Moreover, an environmental survey of one of the intensive care units found that both the patients and the environment harbored the same outbreak strain.
The outbreak strain of A. baumannii might have been transmitted among medical staff and administration equipment. Routine and aggressive environmental and equipment disinfection is essential for preventing recurrent outbreaks of nosocomial infection with MDR A. baumannii.