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Smoking prevalence is higher amongst individuals with schizophrenia and depression compared with the general population. Mendelian randomisation (MR) can examine whether this association is causal using genetic variants identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS).
We conducted two-sample MR to explore the bi-directional effects of smoking on schizophrenia and depression. For smoking behaviour, we used (1) smoking initiation GWAS from the GSCAN consortium and (2) we conducted our own GWAS of lifetime smoking behaviour (which captures smoking duration, heaviness and cessation) in a sample of 462690 individuals from the UK Biobank. We validated this instrument using positive control outcomes (e.g. lung cancer). For schizophrenia and depression we used GWAS from the PGC consortium.
There was strong evidence to suggest smoking is a risk factor for both schizophrenia (odds ratio (OR) 2.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.67–3.08, p < 0.001) and depression (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.71–2.32, p < 0.001). Results were consistent across both lifetime smoking and smoking initiation. We found some evidence that genetic liability to depression increases smoking (β = 0.091, 95% CI 0.027–0.155, p = 0.005) but evidence was mixed for schizophrenia (β = 0.022, 95% CI 0.005–0.038, p = 0.009) with very weak evidence for an effect on smoking initiation.
These findings suggest that the association between smoking, schizophrenia and depression is due, at least in part, to a causal effect of smoking, providing further evidence for the detrimental consequences of smoking on mental health.
A national need is to prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional disasters categorized as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE). These incidents require specific subject-matter expertise, yet have commonalities. We identify 7 core elements comprising CBRNE science that require integration for effective preparedness planning and public health and medical response and recovery. These core elements are (1) basic and clinical sciences, (2) modeling and systems management, (3) planning, (4) response and incident management, (5) recovery and resilience, (6) lessons learned, and (7) continuous improvement. A key feature is the ability of relevant subject matter experts to integrate information into response operations. We propose the CBRNE medical operations science support expert as a professional who (1) understands that CBRNE incidents require an integrated systems approach, (2) understands the key functions and contributions of CBRNE science practitioners, (3) helps direct strategic and tactical CBRNE planning and responses through first-hand experience, and (4) provides advice to senior decision-makers managing response activities. Recognition of both CBRNE science as a distinct competency and the establishment of the CBRNE medical operations science support expert informs the public of the enormous progress made, broadcasts opportunities for new talent, and enhances the sophistication and analytic expertise of senior managers planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents.
Routine advanced airway usage by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) has had conflicting reports of being the secure airway of choice in pediatric patients.
The primary objective was to describe a pediatric cohort requiring airway management upon their arrival directly from the scene to two pediatric emergency departments (PEDs). A secondary objective included assessing for associations in EMS airway management and patient outcomes.
Retrospective data from the health record were reviewed, including EMS reports, for all arrivals less than 18 years old to two PEDs who required airway support between May 2015 and July 2016. The EMS management was classified as basic (oxygen, continuous positive airway pressure [CPAP], or bag-valve-mask [BVM]) or advanced (supraglottic or endotracheal intubation [ETI]) based on EMS documentation. Outcomes included oxygenation as documented by receiving PED and hospital mortality.
In total, 104 patients with an average age 5.9 (SD=5.1) years and median EMS Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of nine (IQR 3-14) were enrolled. Basic management was utilized in 70% of patients (passive: n=49; CPAP: n=2; BVM: n=22). Advanced management was utilized in 30% of patients (supraglottic: n=4; ETI: n=27). Proper ETI placement was achieved in 48% of attempted patients, with 41% of patients undergoing multiple attempts. Inadequate oxygenation occurred in 18% of patients, including four percent of ETI attempts, nine percent of BVM patients, and 32% of passively managed patients. Adjusted for EMS GCS, medical patients undergoing advanced airway management experienced higher risk of mortality (risk-ratio [RR] 2.98; 95% CI, 1.18-7.56; P=.021).
With exception to instances where ETI is clearly indicated, BVM management is effective in pediatric patients who required airway support, with ETI providing no definitive protective factors. Most of the patients who exhibited inadequate oxygenation upon arrival to the PED received only passive oxygenation by EMS.
TweedJ, GeorgeT, GreenwellC, VinsonL.Prehospital Airway Management Examined at Two Pediatric Emergency Centers. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(5):532–538.
Dopaminergic imaging has high diagnostic accuracy for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) at the dementia stage. We report the first investigation of dopaminergic imaging at the prodromal stage.
We recruited 75 patients over 60 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 33 with probable MCI with Lewy body disease (MCI-LB), 15 with possible MCI-LB and 27 with MCI with Alzheimer's disease. All underwent detailed clinical, neurological and neuropsychological assessments and FP-CIT [123I-N-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)] dopaminergic imaging. FP-CIT scans were blindly rated by a consensus panel and classified as normal or abnormal.
The sensitivity of visually rated FP-CIT imaging to detect combined possible or probable MCI-LB was 54.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 39.2–68.6], with a specificity of 89.0% (95% CI 70.8–97.6) and a likelihood ratio for MCI-LB of 4.9, indicating that FP-CIT may be a clinically important test in MCI where any characteristic symptoms of Lewy body (LB) disease are present. The sensitivity in probable MCI-LB was 61.0% (95% CI 42.5–77.4) and in possible MCI-LB was 40.0% (95% CI 16.4–67.7).
Dopaminergic imaging had high specificity at the pre-dementia stage and gave a clinically important increase in diagnostic confidence and so should be considered in all patients with MCI who have any of the diagnostic symptoms of DLB. As expected, the sensitivity was lower in MCI-LB than in established DLB, although over 50% still had an abnormal scan. Accurate diagnosis of LB disease is important to enable early optimal treatment for LB symptoms.
Dyspnea is a common presenting problem that creates a diagnostic challenge for physicians in the emergency department (ED). While the differential diagnosis is broad, acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is a frequent cause that can be challenging to differentiate from other etiologies. Recent studies have suggested a potential diagnostic role for emergency lung ultrasound (US). The objective of this systematic review was to assess the accuracy of early bedside lung US in patients presenting to the ED with dyspnea.
A systematic search of EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library was performed in addition to a grey literature search. We selected prospective studies that reported on the sensitivity and specificity of B-lines from early lung ultrasound in dyspneic patients presenting to the ED. Selected studies underwent quality assessment using the Critical Appraisal and Skills Program (CASP) questionnaire.
Data Extraction and Synthesis
The search yielded 3674 articles; seven studies met inclusion criteria and fulfilled CASP requirements for a total of 1861 patients. Summary statistics from the meta-analysis showed that as a diagnostic test for ADHF, bedside lung US had a pooled sensitivity of 82.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]=66.4% to 91.8%) and a pooled specificity of 83.6% (95% CI=72.4% to 90.8%).
Our results suggest that in patients presenting to the ED with undifferentiated dyspnea, B-lines from early bedside lung US may be reliably used as an adjunct to current diagnostic methods. The incorporation of lung US may lead to more appropriate and timely diagnosis of patients with undifferentiated ADHF.
The accurate clinical characterisation of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study was to compare the neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive profile of MCI with Lewy bodies (MCI-LB) with Alzheimer's disease MCI (MCI-AD).
Participants were ⩾60 years old with MCI. Each had a thorough clinical and neuropsychological assessment and 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane single photon emission computed tomography FP-CIT SPECT). MCI-LB was diagnosed if two or more diagnostic features of dementia with Lewy bodies were present (visual hallucinations, cognitive fluctuations, motor parkinsonism, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder or positive FP-CIT SPECT). A Lewy body Neuropsychiatric Supportive Symptom Count (LBNSSC) was calculated based on the presence or absence of the supportive neuropsychiatric symptoms defined by the 2017 DLB diagnostic criteria: non-visual hallucinations, delusions, anxiety, depression and apathy.
MCI-LB (n = 41) had a higher LBNSSC than MCI-AD (n = 24; 1.8 ± 1.1 v. 0.7 ± 0.9, p = 0.001). 67% of MCI-LB had two or more of those symptoms, compared with 16% of MCI-AD (Likelihood ratio = 4.2, p < 0.001). MCI-LB subjects scored lower on tests of attention, visuospatial function and verbal fluency. However, cognitive test scores alone did not accurately differentiate MCI-LB from MCI-AD.
MCI-LB is associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms and a cognitive profile similar to established DLB. This supports the concept of identifying MCI-LB based on the presence of core diagnostic features of DLB and abnormal FP-CIT SPECT imaging. The presence of supportive neuropsychiatric clinical features identified in the 2017 DLB diagnostic criteria was helpful in differentiating between MCI-LB and MCI-AD.
We develop a political history of Wards Cove v. Atonio (1989) to show how Robert Cover's concepts of jurisgenesis and jurispathy can enrich the legal mobilization framework for understanding law and social change. We illustrate the value of the hybrid theory by recovering the Wards Cove workers’ own understanding of the role of litigation in their struggle for workplace rights. The cannery worker plaintiffs exemplified Cover's dual logic by articulating aspirational narratives of social justice and by critically rebuking the Supreme Court's ruling as the “death throe” for progressive minority workers’ rights advocacy. The cannery workers’ story also highlights the importance of integrating legal mobilization scholars’ focus on extrajudicial political engagement into Cover's judge‐centered analysis. Our aim is to forge a theoretical bridge between Cover's provocative arguments about law and the analytical tradition of social science scholarship on the politics of legal mobilization.
As one of the largest marathons worldwide, the Bank of America Chicago Marathon (BACCM; Chicago, Illinois USA) accumulates high volumes of data. Race organizers and engaged agencies need the ability to access specific data in real-time. This report details a data visualization system designed for the Chicago Marathon and establishes key principles for event management data visualization. The data visualization system allows for efficient data communication among the organizing agencies of Chicago endurance events. Agencies can observe the progress of the race throughout the day and obtain needed information, such as the number and location of runners on the course and current weather conditions. Implementation of the system can reduce time-consuming, face-to-face interactions between involved agencies by having key data streams in one location, streamlining communications with the purpose of improving race logistics, as well as medical preparedness and response.
HankenT, YoungS, SmilowitzK, ChiampasG, WaskowskiD. Developing a Data Visualization System for the Bank of America Chicago Marathon (Chicago, Illinois USA). Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):572–577.
Objectives: Blast explosions are the most frequent mechanism of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in recent wars, but little is known about their long-term effects. Methods: Functional connectivity (FC) was measured in 17 veterans an average of 5.46 years after their most serious blast related TBI, and in 15 demographically similar veterans without TBI or blast exposure. Subcortical FC was measured in bilateral caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus. The default mode and fronto-parietal networks were also investigated. Results: In subcortical regions, between-groups t tests revealed altered FC from the right putamen and right globus pallidus. However, following analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with age, depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom (PTSD Checklist – Civilian version) measures, significant findings remained only for the right globus pallidus with anticorrelation in bilateral temporal occipital fusiform cortex, occipital fusiform gyrus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum, as well as the right occipital pole. No group differences were found for the default mode network. Although reduced FC was found in the fronto-parietal network in the TBI group, between-group differences were nonsignificant after the ANCOVA. Conclusions: FC of the globus pallidus is altered years after exposure to blast related TBI. Future studies are necessary to explore the trajectory of changes in FC in subcortical regions after blast TBI, the effects of isolated versus repetitive blast-related TBI, and the relation to long-term outcomes in veterans. (JINS, 2016, 22, 631–642)
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and isotope dilution technique have been used as reference methods to validate the estimates of body composition by simple field techniques; however, very few studies have compared these two methods. We compared the estimates of body composition by DXA and isotope dilution (18O) technique in apparently healthy Indian men and women (aged 19–70 years, n 152, 48 % men) with a wide range of BMI (14–40 kg/m2). Isotopic enrichment was assessed by isotope ratio mass spectroscopy. The agreement between the estimates of body composition measured by the two techniques was assessed by the Bland–Altman method. The mean age and BMI were 37 (sd 15) years and 23·3 (sd 5·1) kg/m2, respectively, for men and 37 (sd 14) years and 24·1 (sd 5·8) kg/m2, respectively, for women. The estimates of fat-free mass were higher by about 7 (95 % CI 6, 9) %, those of fat mass were lower by about 21 (95 % CI − 18, − 23) %, and those of body fat percentage (BF%) were lower by about 7·4 (95 % CI − 8·2, − 6·6) % as obtained by DXA compared with the isotope dilution technique. The Bland–Altman analysis showed wide limits of agreement that indicated poor agreement between the methods. The bias in the estimates of BF% was higher at the lower values of BF%. Thus, the two commonly used reference methods showed substantial differences in the estimates of body composition with wide limits of agreement. As the estimates of body composition are method-dependent, the two methods cannot be used interchangeably.
Rotation is a key parameter in the evolution of massive stars, affecting their evolution, chemical yields, ionizing photon budget, and final fate. We determined the projected rotational velocity, υe sin i, of ~330 O-type objects, i.e. ~210 spectroscopic single stars and ~110 primaries in binary systems, in the Tarantula nebula or 30 Doradus (30 Dor) region. The observations were taken using VLT/FLAMES and constitute the largest homogeneous dataset of multi-epoch spectroscopy of O-type stars currently available. The most distinctive feature of the υe sin i distributions of the presumed-single stars and primaries in 30 Dor is a low-velocity peak at around 100 km s−1. Stellar winds are not expected to have spun-down the bulk of the stars significantly since their arrival on the main sequence and therefore the peak in the single star sample is likely to represent the outcome of the formation process. Whereas the spin distribution of presumed-single stars shows a well developed tail of stars rotating more rapidly than 300 km s−1, the sample of primaries does not feature such a high-velocity tail. The tail of the presumed-single star distribution is attributed for the most part – and could potentially be completely due – to spun-up binary products that appear as single stars or that have merged. This would be consistent with the lack of such post-interaction products in the binary sample, that is expected to be dominated by pre-interaction systems. The peak in this distribution is broader and is shifted toward somewhat higher spin rates compared to the distribution of presumed-single stars. Systems displaying large radial velocity variations, typical for short period systems, appear mostly responsible for these differences.
Cost-effective extension strategies are needed to promote widespread adoption of agricultural technologies in developing countries. Integrated pest management (IPM) practices, for example, can offer economic, health, and environmental benefits but remain largely underused. This study evaluates the current IPM dissemination program implemented by the Bangladesh Department of Agricultural Extension and uses a linear programming model to examine alternative strategies to improve IPM adoption. Results suggest that technology transfer programs may increase their impact by reallocating funding from intensive but costly interpersonal communication methods (i.e., farmer field schools) to less intensive methods (i.e., mass media and field days) that reach broader audiences.
Farm households in the Andean region of South America face serious livelihood challenges, including a poor natural resource base and declining agricultural yields. Conservation agriculture has been identified as a potential solution to environmental degradation and the associated poverty and food insecurity in the region. This study analyses the potential economic impact of conservation agriculture in two sub-watersheds in central Ecuador utilizing a linear programming model and data from experiments in farmer fields. The model found that specific cover crops, crop rotations and reduced tillage designed to reduce soil erosion and increase soil organic matter can lead to increased incomes for farm households in a time period of as short as two years. It appears that conservation agriculture practices have the potential to improve the livelihoods of the rural poor in Ecuador because conservation agriculture activities entered the revenue-maximizing model solution for both sub-watersheds.
To investigate the longitudinal relationship between the intake of dietary antioxidants and periodontal disease in community-dwelling older Japanese.
A retrospective cohort study, with a follow-up of 2 years (2003–2005). Intakes of dietary antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, α-carotene and β-carotene) were assessed with a validated FFQ. Participants were classified by tertile of antioxidant intake. Full-mouth periodontal status, measured as the clinical attachment level, was recorded at baseline and follow-up examinations. Periodontal disease progression was considered as loss of attachment of 3 mm or greater over the study period at the interproximal site for each tooth. Finally, the number of teeth with periodontal disease progression per person was calculated and was used as the outcome. Poisson regression analysis was conducted, with dietary antioxidants as the main exposure, to estimate their influence on the number of teeth with periodontal disease progression.
Niigata City (Japan).
Dentate individuals aged 75 years in 2003, for whom data were available, were included in the analyses (n 264).
A higher intake of dietary antioxidants was inversely associated with the number of teeth with periodontal disease progression, controlling for other variables. The multivariate-adjusted incidence rate ratios in the first, second and third tertiles were 1·00, 0·76 (95 % CI 0·60, 0·97) and 0·72 (95 % CI 0·56, 0·93) for vitamin C; 1·00, 0·79 (95 % CI 0·62, 0·99) and 0·55 (95 % CI 0·42, 0·72), for vitamin E; and 1·00, 1·02 (95 % CI 0·81, 1·29) and 0·73 (95 % CI 0·56, 0·95) for β-carotene.
The study results suggest that higher intake of antioxidants may mitigate periodontal disease in community-dwelling older Japanese.