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The sources and fate of radiocarbon (14C) in the Dead Sea hypersaline solution are evaluated with 14C measurements in organic debris and primary aragonite collected from exposures of the Holocene Ze’elim Formation. The reservoir age (RA) is defined as the difference between the radiocarbon age of the aragonite at time of its precipitation (representing lakeʼs dissolved inorganic carbon [DIC]) and the age of contemporaneous organic debris (representing atmospheric radiocarbon). Evaluation of the data for the past 6000 yr from Dead Sea sediments reveal that the lakeʼs RA decreased from 2890 yr at 6 cal kyr BP to 2300 yr at present. The RA lies at ~2400 yr during the past 3000 yr, when the lake was characterized by continuous deposition of primary aragonite, which implies a continuous supply of freshwater-bicarbonate into the lake. This process reflects the overall stability of the hydrological-climate conditions in the lakeʼs watershed during the late Holocene where bicarbonate originated from dissolution of the surface cover in the watershed that was transported to the Dead Sea by the freshwater runoff. An excellent correlation (R2=0.98) exists between aragonite ages and contemporaneous organic debris, allowing the estimation of ages of various primary deposits where organic debris are not available.
The aim of the current study was to explore the changing interrelationships among clinical variables through the stages of schizophrenia in order to assemble a comprehensive and meaningful disease model.
Twenty-nine centers from 25 countries participated and included 2358 patients aged 37.21 ± 11.87 years with schizophrenia. Multiple linear regression analysis and visual inspection of plots were performed.
The results suggest that with progression stages, there are changing correlations among Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale factors at each stage and each factor correlates with all the others in that particular stage, in which this factor is dominant. This internal structure further supports the validity of an already proposed four stages model, with positive symptoms dominating the first stage, excitement/hostility the second, depression the third, and neurocognitive decline the last stage.
The current study investigated the mental organization and functioning in patients with schizophrenia in relation to different stages of illness progression. It revealed two distinct “cores” of schizophrenia, the “Positive” and the “Negative,” while neurocognitive decline escalates during the later stages. Future research should focus on the therapeutic implications of such a model. Stopping the progress of the illness could demand to stop the succession of stages. This could be achieved not only by both halting the triggering effect of positive and negative symptoms, but also by stopping the sensitization effect on the neural pathways responsible for the development of hostility, excitement, anxiety, and depression as well as the deleterious effect on neural networks responsible for neurocognition.
Brain structure differences and adolescent alcohol dependence both show substantial heritability. However, exactly which genes are responsible for brain volume variation in adolescents with substance abuse disorders are currently unknown. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether genetic variants previously implicated in psychiatric disorders are associated with variation in brain volume in adolescents with alcohol use disorder (AUD).
The cohort consisted of 58 adolescents with DSM-IV AUD and 58 age and gender-matched controls of mixed ancestry ethnicity. An Illumina Infinium iSelect custom 6000 bead chip was used to genotype 5348 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 378 candidate genes. Magnetic resonance images were acquired and volumes of global and regional structures were estimated using voxel-based morphometry. To determine whether any of the genetic variants were associated with brain volume, association analysis was conducted using linear regression in Plink.
From the exploratory analysis, the GRIN2B SNP rs219927 was associated with brain volume in the left posterior cingulate cortex (p<0.05), whereby having a G-allele was associated with a bigger volume.
The GRIN2B gene is involved in glutamatergic signalling and may be associated with developmental differences in AUD in brain regions such as the posterior cingulate cortex. Such differences may play a role in risk for AUD, and deserve more detailed investigation.
In 2008, the Carlsbad Field Office of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) made a fundamental change in how they work with the energy industry in the Permian Basin of southeastern New Mexico, one of the nation's busiest “oil patches.” Through a collaborative effort that involved the Bureau of Land Management, the New Mexico State Historic Preservation Officer, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, the Mescalero Apache Tribe, and industry representatives, they developed and implemented the Permian Basin Memorandum of Agreement (MOA). This agreement allows energy development proponents to contribute funds to archaeological research in lieu of spending an equivalent amount of money on traditional archaeological field survey. The mitigation program governs how BLM addresses long-term damage and cumulative impacts to archaeological resources as new development proceeds in the Permian Basin MOA area. Now in its fifth year, the program has succeeded in key ways: industry has gained control over schedules and time, while archaeologists have gained control over where and how they do archaeology. Key lessons have been learned along the way: The funding mechanisms of the program work well, but doing archaeology through a collaborative working group takes a lot of time and energy.
The objective of this work is to examine the feasibility of electrically conductive hydrogel composites as scaffolds in tissue engineering and tissue regeneration, and to understand the properties of the composites as a growth matrix for clinically relevant cell lines. The composite is comprised of carbon nanobrushes embedded in a biocompatible poloxamer gel. This work assesses the ability of such composite gels to support the growth of fibroblasts and myocytes and eventually serve as a matrix to stimulate wound closure. In such a model, fibroblasts and myocytes are seeded on the hydrogel and bathed in culture medium. The experimental model assesses the ability of fibroblasts and myocytes to grow into and adhere to the gel. The work demonstrates that carbon nanobrushes can be dispersed within poloxamer gels, and that fibroblasts and myocytes can proliferate within homogenously dispersed carbon nanobrush-containing poloxamer gels. This work also examines the effects of carbon nanobrush content on the rheological properties of the poloxamer gel matrix and shows an improvement in several areas in the presence of carbon nanobrushes. Future work will examine the effects of design parameters such as carbon nanobrush content and matrix structure on wound healing, as well as the growth of tendons and other cell lines within the hydrogel composites. This work has relevance for tissue and cellular engineering and tissue regeneration in clinical medicine.
Different lifestyle patterns across Europe may influence plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and their relation to chronic disease. Comparison of published data on one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions is difficult due to differences in sampling procedures and analytical methods between studies. The present study aimed, to compare plasma concentrations of one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions with one laboratory performing all biochemical analyses. We performed the present study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort among 5446 presumptively healthy individuals. Quantile regression was used to compare sex-specific median concentrations between Northern (Denmark and Sweden), Central (France, Germany, The Netherlands and United Kingdom) and Southern (Greece, Spain and Italy) European regions. The lowest folate concentrations were observed in Northern Europe (men, 10·4 nmol/l; women, 10·7 nmol/l) and highest concentrations in Central Europe. Cobalamin concentrations were slightly higher in Northern Europe (men, 330 pmol/l; women, 352 pmol/l) compared with Central and Southern Europe, but did not show a clear north–south gradient. Vitamin B2 concentrations were highest in Northern Europe (men, 22·2 nmol/l; women, 26·0 nmol/l) and decreased towards Southern Europe (Ptrend< 0·001). Vitamin B6 concentrations were highest in Central Europe in men (77·3 nmol/l) and highest in the North among women (70·4 nmol/l), with decreasing concentrations towards Southern Europe in women (Ptrend< 0·001). In men, concentrations of serine, glycine and sarcosine increased from the north to south. In women, sarcosine increased from Northern to Southern Europe. These findings may provide relevant information for the study of regional differences of chronic disease incidence in association with lifestyle.
Insofar as South Africa underwent a rapid transformation from apartheid to democracy, it may provide a unique laboratory for investigating aspects of revenge and forgiveness. Here we suggest that observations and data from South Africa are partially consistent with the hypotheses generated by MCullough and colleagues. At the same time, the rich range of revenge and forgiveness phenomena in real-life settings is likely to require explanatory concepts other than specialized modules and their computational outputs.
Disturbed and disobedient children can cause much distress to their parents, sometimes precipitating maternal depression. In the Book of Proverbs the word ‘fool’ denotes a character corresponding to the modern concept of personality disorder (mainly antisocial). Parental grief or depression associated with having a fool as a child is described in three separate entries:
Like any prophet, Ezekiel hears the voice of God and it is his prophetic
task to relay God's message onto the people. He hears the voice of God more
often (93 times) than any other prophet, and the way God addresses him as
‘son of man’ or ‘mortal’ is also unique. Ezekiel experiences a variety of
other auditory phenomena, including command hallucinations which are not
described in any other prophet, 3:3 ‘He said to me; mortal eat this scroll
that I give to you and fill your stomach with it. Then I ate it; and in my
mouth it was as sweet as honey.’