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In this work, hierarchical mesoporous Zn–Ni–Co–S–rGO/NF microspheres have been prepared by hydrothermal, sulfurization, and subsequent calcination process. The effect of different sulfurization time on the morphology and capacitance of composites was tested. The high electrochemical performance of (Zn–Ni–Co–S–rGO/NF) composite was obtained when the sulfurization time was 3 h (Zn–Ni–Co–S–rGO/NF-3h), where a specific capacitance of 627.7 F/g at 0.25 A/g and excellent rate capability of about 97.8% capacitance retention at 2 A/g after 4000 cycles were achieved. Moreover, an asymmetric supercapacitor fabricated by (Zn–Ni–Co–S–rGO/NF-3h) composite and activated carbon (AC) as the positive and the negative electrodes, respectively, showed a high energy density of 75.96 W h/kg at a power density of 362.49 W/kg with a remarkable cycle stability performance of 91.2% capacitance retention over 5000 cycles. This incredible electrochemical behavior illustrates that the hierarchical mesoporous Zn–Ni–Co–S–rGO/N-3h microsphere electrodes are promising electrode materials for application in high-performance supercapacitors.
Long-term measurements were performed at the Qingtu Lake Observation Array site to obtain high-Reynolds-number atmospheric surface layer flow data (
). Based on the selected high-quality data in the near-neutral surface layer, the amplitude modulation between multi-scale turbulent motions is investigated under various Reynolds number conditions. The results show that the amplitude modulation effect may exist in specific motions rather than at all length scales of motion. The most energetic motions with scales larger than the wavelength of the lower wavenumber peak in the energy spectra play a vital role in the amplitude modulation effect; the small scales shorter than the wavelength of the higher wavenumber peak are strongly modulated, whereas the motions with scales ranging between these two peaks neither contribute significantly to the amplitude modulation effect nor are strongly modulated. Based on these results, a method of decomposing the fluctuating velocity is proposed to accurately estimate the degree of amplitude modulation. The corresponding amplitude modulation coefficient is much larger than that estimated by establishing a nominal cutoff wavelength; moreover, it increases log-linearly with the Reynolds number. An empirical model is proposed to parametrize the variation of the amplitude modulation coefficient with the Reynolds number and the wall-normal distance. This study contributes to a better understanding of the interaction between multi-scale turbulent motions and the results may be used to validate and improve existing numerical models of high-Reynolds-number wall turbulence.
Soil moisture is a key factor affecting vegetation growth and survival in arid and semi-arid regions. Knowledge of deep soil moisture dynamics is very important for guiding vegetation restoration and for improving land management practices on the water-limited Loess Plateau. Temporal changes and vertical variations in deep soil moisture (at soil depths of 0–600cm) combined with soil moisture availability were monitored in situ under Caragana korshinskii shrubs of different ages (named CK-10a, CK-20a and CK-35a) in the Loess hilly region during the growing season of 2013. The soil moisture content (SMC) under C. korshinskii shrubs of different ages was highly consistent with the seasonal precipitation variations and generally decreased as follows: CK-10a>CK-20a>abandoned land>CK-35a. The SMC varied greatly over time during the growing season (P<0.01), decreasing from April to May and then slowly increasing with some fluctuation from June to October. The SMC drastically decreased with depth from 0–300cm and then gradually increased with some fluctuation from 300–600cm. A critical turning point and transition zone connecting the shallow and deep soil moisture occurred at 200–300cm. Therefore, the soil profile was divided into active, secondary active and relatively steady soil layers in terms of soil moisture. The SMC fluctuated at depths of 0–100cm and 300–400cm and was relatively stable in the deeper soil layers. The amount of available soil moisture gradually decreased as the forest stand age increased, especially at CK-35a, where most of the soil moisture was unavailable for plant use. In addition, our study indicates that a large-scale restoration strategy with pure shrubland or woodland may not be suitable for soil moisture recovery in arid environments.
Soil erosion can pose a serious problem to environmental quality and sustainable development. On the Tibetan Plateau, soil erosion is one of the main challenges to regional ecological security. Our analysis investigates soil erosion and evaluates its economic value in alpine steppe, alpine meadow, alpine desert steppe and forest ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau. Analysis was carried out from 1984 to 2013. The results show that the annual average potential soil erosion, practical soil erosion and soil conservation calculated by the Revised University Soil Loss Equation model were 2.19×109ta–1, 2.16×109ta–1 and 2.72×107ta–1, respectively. The economic value of retaining soil nutrients, reducing the formation of wasteland and the economic benefit of reducing sediment deposition were 1.98×108RMBa–1, 2.55×1012RMBa–1 and 7.44×104RMBa–1, respectively. From comparing different ecosystems, we found that the forest ecosystem had the greatest soil retention and economic values. We also found that the potential and actual soil erosion values were extremely high on the Tibetan Plateau. The study highlights that state and local policymakers must give greater emphasis to ecological protection in the future.
This Research Communication describes the polymorphisms in the coding region of DGAT1 gene in Riverine buffalo, Swamp buffalo and crossbred buffalo, and associations between polymorphisms and milk production performance in Riverine buffalo. Two polymorphisms of DGAT1were identified, located in exon 13 and exon 17, respectively. The distribution of the genotypes of the two SNP loci in different buffalo population varied, especially the polymorphism located in exon 13 which was not found in the Swamp buffalo. Moreover, SNP located in exon 17 was a nonsynonymous switch resulting in the animo acid sequence changed from an arginine (Arg) to a histidine (His) at position 484. Both SNPs were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, and the polymorphism of g.8330T>C in the exon 13 was significantly associated with peak milk yield, total milk yield and protein percentage. The C variant was associated with an increase in milk yield and peak yield but less in protein percentage compared with the T variant. The polymorphisms of g.9046T>C in exon 17 were significantly associated with fat percentage, in that the buffaloes with TT genotype had a significantly higher fat percentage than those with CC genotype. These findings reveal the difference in the genetic evolution of the DGAT1 between Riverine buffalo and Swamp buffalo, and provide evidence that the DGAT1 gene has potential effects for Riverine buffalo milk production traits, which can be used as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in buffalo breeding.
For straw incorporation, three crucial factors affect the soil microbial community and various enzyme activities: straw length, amount and burial depth. To analyse the individual and interactive effects of these three factors on the soil microbial community and various enzyme activities, 23 treatments with five levels of the three variables (straw length, amount and burial depth) were applied in a quadratic orthogonal rotation combination design. A comprehensive indicator was constructed that could represent soil microbial functional diversity and enzyme activity by determining the weights of measured indicators and using Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). The results indicated that the soil microbiological indicators have a higher criteria weight than soil enzyme activity indicators. The final weight orders of indicators were as follows: Shannon–Weaver > invertase > Shannon evenness > urease > catalase > McIntosh index > Simpson diversity > phosphatase. The soil comprehensive values constructed by the TOPSIS method are reliable. The optimal combination for the improvement of soil microbial functional diversity and enzyme activity was a straw length of 13–24 cm, burial depth of 10–17 cm and straw amount of 370–650 g/m2.
The influences of pressure and aging treatment on microstructures and mechanical properties of rheo-squeeze casting (RSC) Mg–3Nd–0.2Zn–0.4Zr alloys were studied. It was found that the nucleation rate, solid solubility of Nd and Zn in the α-Mg matrix, and dislocation density were increased with increasing applied pressure. After aging treatment, the amount of the Zn2Zr3 phase was increased with increasing pressure; β″ phase and β′ precipitates were observed in the RSC alloy and finer β′ precipitates formed in the permanent mold casting (PMC) alloy. The mechanical properties of as-cast alloys were initially increased and then decreased with increasing pressure, while the properties of T6-treated alloys were increased continuously. Due to the larger grain boundary strengthening contribution, the T6-treated RSC sample showed higher mechanical properties than the PMC sample, and the yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation could reach 165 MPa, 309 MPa, and 5.7%, respectively.
A comparison of microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture behavior of Mg–9Gd–3Y–xZn–0.5Zr (x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) (wt%) alloys under different thermal treatment conditions was investigated in this study. The results showed that the as-cast alloys were comprised of Mg matrix, eutectic compounds and cuboid-shaped phases. The eutectics were Mg24(Gd, Y)5 in the alloys of Zn content ≤0.2 wt%, while (Mg, Zn)3RE in the other three alloys. Fine lamellar long period stacking ordered structure formed inside of matrix of the as-cast Zn-containing alloys and its quantity increases with raising Zn content. Mg12(Gd, Y)Zn was observed at grain boundary of Mg matrix after solution treatment in the alloys of Zn content ≥0.5 wt%. Peak-aged Mg–9Gd–3Y–0.5Zn–0.5Zr alloy exhibited a desirable combination of strength and elongation with 244 MPa in yield strength, 371 MPa in ultimate tensile strength and 3.8% in EL. Meanwhile, the fracture behavior of the studied alloys was also investigated.
The effect of mold temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of a rheo-squeeze casting (RSC) Mg–3Nd–0.2Zn–0.4Zr (NZ30K) alloy were investigated. The results indicated that the rise of mold temperature contributed to the increase of particle size and alloy density and the decrease of dislocation density. The rapid coarsening and then the normal growth of the particles during solution treatment were observed, and the long-rod-like Zn2Zr3 phase occurred. After age treatment, rod-like β′ precipitate was found in the conventional squeeze casting (CSC) alloy, while two types of precipitates including β′ phase and small plate-like β″ phase were observed in the RSC alloy. The amount of Zn2Zr3 phase was increased with rising mold temperature. Compared with the T6-treated CSC sample, the T6-treated RSC sample presented higher mechanical properties due to the larger precipitation strengthening contribution, and the yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation were up to 160 MPa, 296 MPa, and 7.7%.
In this work, the hybrid carbon nanofibers (Cu2O/CNFs) containing cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles were prepared by a convenient electrospinning method and following a carbonization treatment. The morphology, composition, and microstructure of the Cu2O/CNFs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffractometer. The as-prepared Cu2O/CNFs exhibited a stronger absorption in the range of 250–700 nm. The band gap energy of the Cu2O/CNFs was estimated to be 2.0 eV. Due to the synergistic effect between photocatalytic activity of Cu2O and excellent adsorption capacity of CNFs, the obtained Cu2O/CNFs exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity for degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol. The possible mechanism for degradation of RhB and phenol degradation were also discussed. The resultant hybrid carbon composites offer the significant advantages, such as low dosage, high catalytic activity, easy recycling, and excellent stability. We hope that the resultant hybrid composite Cu2O/CNFs could be applied as catalytic materials for further application in the future.
Microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg–0.43Nd–xY–0.08Zn–0.11Zr (x = 0, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.12 at.%) alloys were investigated. The results indicated that Mg24Y5 phase was formed in the as-cast Y-containing alloys, the grains were refined and the amount of needle-like Mg12Nd phase in the α-Mg grain interior was increased with increasing Y addition. After solution treatment, the Mg24Y5 phase and needle-like Mg12Nd phase nearly completely dissolved into the α-Mg matrix and long-rod-like Zn2Zr3 phase occurred. The amount of Zn2Zr3 phase was increased with increasing Y content after age treatment. Mg–0.43Nd–0.12Y–0.08Zn–0.11Zr alloy exhibited the best combination of strength and elongation in all conditions, especially in the temperature range of 200–300 °C, and an Arrhenius model was established to study the plastic flow behavior. The improvement in mechanical properties was attributed to the grain refining, solution strengthening and enhanced precipitation hardening of Zn2Zr3 phase and β-type phase.
Cyclic deformation and low-cycle fatigue behavior of Mg–10Gd–3Y–0.5Zr alloy in sand-cast and aging treatment conditions (sand-cast-T6) were investigated by carrying out full reversed strain-controlled tension-compression tests at the strain amplitude ranging from 0.25 to 0.7%. The results show that stress–strain hysteresis loops of the studied alloys display near tension-compression symmetry, which is dominated by microstructure and strain amplitude. Both sand-cast and sand-cast-T6 alloys exhibit cyclic hardening and softening phenomenon with increasing loading cycles. Meanwhile, the fatigue life of the aged alloy is higher than that of the sand-cast alloy at all applied strain amplitudes. The theoretical strain fatigue limits (ε0) of sand-cast and sand-cast-T6 alloys are 2.1% and 2.3%, respectively. In addition, the low-cycle fatigue behavior of the studied alloy at different strain amplitudes was also investigated.
The novel Three-dimensional rambutan-like NiCo2O4 microspheres have been successfully coated onto surface of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) to form NiCo2O4–CNFs hybrids. The composition and microstructure of NiCo2O4–CNFs were characterized by the field-emission scanning electronmicroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffractometer. The obtained NiCo2O4–CNFs exhibited a specific capacity of 160 mAh/g at 1 mA/cm2 in 2 M potassium hydroxide aqueous solution. The specific capacity gradually increases with the increasing of cycles; and after 3000 cycles, the specific capacity still can be remained over 90%.
In present study, the semi-solid slurry of the AZ91–2Ca–1.5Ce alloy was firstly prepared by gas-bubbling processing and then was formed by die casting and squeeze casting, respectively. The influence of processing parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy was investigated. The results show that increase of gas-flow rate and appropriate pouring temperature can improve the quality of the semi-solid slurry and change the morphology of primary α-Mg particles to rosette-like shape or roundness. Meanwhile, the addition of calcium and cerium refines the as-cast microstructure and dramatically improves the tensile properties, also the strengthening phase Al4Ce exists around the grain boundary. The peak ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength, and elongation of rheo-die casting AZ91–2Ca–1.5Ce alloy are 202 MPa, 154 MPa, and 2.3%, respectively. Especially, compared with conventional liquid die-casting, the UTS and elongation of rheo-die casting AZ91–2Ca–1.5Ce alloy were improved by 8% and 64%, respectively. Meanwhile, the rheo-die casting alloy also showed higher mechanical properties than rheo-squeeze casting alloy, since the higher speed that die casting provided could induce more compact microstructure and remain the semi-solid characteristic better.
The effects of Cu content on the microstructure, mechanical property, and hot tearing susceptibility of die casting Al–22Si–0.4Mg alloy have been investigated. Different Cu contents (1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 wt%) were added in Al–22Si–0.4Mg alloy. In the as-cast microstructure, the amount, volume fraction, and average size of Al2Cu phase increase with more Cu addition. The morphology of grain boundary white Al2Cu phase turns from particle to lump. The UTS (ultimate tensile strength) of Al–22Si–xCu–0.4Mg alloy improves with Cu added, which is mainly caused by the strengthening effect of intergranular Al2Cu. The hot tearing susceptibility apparently rises with Cu content increased, which is due to longer quaternary eutectic reaction time, larger amount of residual intergranular Cu-rich liquid film spreading out over α-Al grain boundary, and higher quaternary eutectic reaction temperature. Considering both the mechanical property and hot tearing susceptibility, optimal Cu content for die casting Al–22Si–0.4Mg alloy found in this paper is 2.5 wt%.
In this present study, the influence of different casting processes on high cycle fatigue behavior of Mg–10Gd–3Y–0.5Zr magnesium alloy was investigated by using porosity-free low-pressure sand-casting (LPS) bars and gravity permanent mold casting (GPM) ingots. The results show that the fatigue properties of both LPS and GPM Mg–10Gd–3Y–0.5Zr alloy in as-cast condition are determined by Mg matrix and eutectic phase. However, the fatigue property improvement for LPS alloy by T6 heat treatment is significantly superior to that of GPM alloy. The different degree of enhancement of fatigue properties for two conditions of the alloy is related to different crack initiation mechanism. The fatigue crack of the LPS alloy initiates from the free surface of the sample, while the crack of the GPM alloy initiates from porosities or inclusions near the surface of the sample. Meanwhile, the crack of slip band has a crucial effect on the fatigue crack initiation of both as-cast and T6 conditions for LPS alloy.
We compare in this paper the properties of Osher flux with O-variant and P-variant (Osher-O flux and Osher-P flux) in finite volume methods for the two-dimensional Euler equations and propose an entropy fix technique to improve their robustness. We consider both first-order and second-order reconstructions. For inviscid hypersonic flow past a circular cylinder, we observe different problems for different schemes: A first-order Osher-O scheme on quadrangular grids yields a carbuncle shock, while a first-order Osher-P scheme results in a dislocation shock for high Mach number cases. In addition, a second-order Osher scheme can also yield a carbuncle shock or be unstable. To improve the robustness of these schemes we propose an entropy fix technique, and then present numerical results to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. In addition, the influence of grid aspects ratio, relative shock position to the grid and Mach number on shock stability are tested. Viscous heating problem and double Mach reflection problem are simulated to test the influence of the entropy fix on contact resolution and boundary layer resolution.
The effects of different Gd additions on wear behavior of the T6 heat treated Mg–xGd–3Y–0.5Zr alloys were investigated. The wear tests were carried out using a Ball-on-flat type wear apparatus against an AISI 52100 type bearing steel ball counterface in the load range of 3–15 N, sliding speed range of 0.03–0.18 m/s, temperature range of 25–200 °C and at a constant sliding distance of 400 m. The results showed that the wear rate of the tested alloys increased with increasing sliding load. By increasing the wear temperature to 200 °C, the wear rate of the Mg–6Gd–3Y–0.5Zr alloy decreased by about 24%. At higher wear speeds, wear resistance of the alloys increased due to the formation of stable oxide layers on the worn surfaces. The alloy containing 12 wt% Gd exhibited higher wear resistance compared with the alloys containing lower Gd contents under the same conditions.
The effect of solution treatment (ST) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cast Al–3Li–1.5Cu–0.2Zr alloy was investigated. Results showed that the volume fraction of secondary phases (Al2Cu, Al3Li) decreased obviously after ST. It was found that the strengthening of Al–3Li–1.5Cu–0.2Zr alloy was a balance of the precipitation strengthening, residual phase strengthening and fine grain strengthening. The residual phase strengthening and fine grain strengthening decreased with increasing the solution temperature and time, while precipitation strengthening increased. After ST at 560 °C for 40 h, the elongation of Al–3Li–1.5Cu–0.2Zr alloy reaches the highest value of 22.1%. In addition, the tensile properties are up to the highest values, ultimate tensile strength of 359 MPa and elongation of 3.5% after optimal ST at 560 °C for 40 h followed by aging treatment.
In this study, the temperature gradient on lunar surface was simulated by deep cryogenic treatment and cryogenic thermocycling. The influence of these treatments on room and low temperature tensile properties and fracture behavior of the as-cast Mg–10Gd–3Y–0.5Zr alloy was then investigated. The results have shown that the cryogenic treatments caused the precipitation of Mg24(Gd, Y)5 phase and improved the ductility of the alloy. The deep cryogenic treatment almost has no influence on the tensile properties of the alloy, while the cryogenic thermocycling slightly improve its tensile properties at room temperature and slightly deteriorate the ultimate tensile strength of the alloy at low temperature. The cleavage fracture is the main fracture mechanism at both room and low temperatures. To conclude, this alloy can withstand the huge temperature gradient on the lunar surface and shows application perspective.