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There is an absence of research into online friendships and video gaming activities of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this article we describe how friendships of students with ASD were developed in an online multiplayer context using the popular sandbox game, Minecraft. Multimodal analysis of the data demonstrated that online multiplayer gaming supported students’ use of speech to engage in conversations about their friendships, and to share gaming experiences with their offline and online friends. Online gaming enabled students to visually gather information about their friends’ online status and activities, and to engage in the creative and adventurous use of virtual images and material representations with friends. Despite the benefits for friendships, students with ASD experienced difficulties in friendships in multimodal ways. Notably, students engaged in verbal disagreements about video gaming discourses, sought out activities associated with the themes of death and damage using written text, and tended to dominate shared creations of virtual images and their representation. The findings have implications to better support the friendships of students through inclusive literacy practices online.
Let N be a finite set of n elements. A collection ﹛S1, S2, … , Sm﹜ of subsets of N is called a determining collection if an arbitrary subset T of N is uniquely determined by the cardinalities of the intersections Si ⋂ T, 1 ≤ i ≤ m. The purpose of this paper is to study the minimum value D(n) of m for which a determining collection of m subsets exists.
This problem can be expressed as a coin-weighing problem (1; 7).
In a recent paper Cantor (1) showed that D(n) = O(n/log log n), thus proving a conjecture of N. J. Fine (3) that D(n) = o(n). More recently Erdös and Rényi (2), Söderberg and Shapiro (7), Berlekamp, Mills, and Leo Moser have independently found proofs that D(n) = O(n/log n).
The effect of transportation and lairage on the faecal shedding and post-slaughter contamination of carcasses with Escherichia coli O157 and O26 in young calves (4–7-day-old) was assessed in a cohort study at a regional calf-processing plant in the North Island of New Zealand, following 60 calves as cohorts from six dairy farms to slaughter. Multiple samples from each animal at pre-slaughter (recto-anal mucosal swab) and carcass at post-slaughter (sponge swab) were collected and screened using real-time PCR and culture isolation methods for the presence of E. coli O157 and O26 (Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and non-STEC). Genotype analysis of E. coli O157 and O26 isolates provided little evidence of faecal–oral transmission of infection between calves during transportation and lairage. Increased cross-contamination of hides and carcasses with E. coli O157 and O26 between co-transported calves was confirmed at pre-hide removal and post-evisceration stages but not at pre-boning (at the end of dressing prior to chilling), indicating that good hygiene practices and application of an approved intervention effectively controlled carcass contamination. This study was the first of its kind to assess the impact of transportation and lairage on the faecal carriage and post-harvest contamination of carcasses with E. coli O157 and O26 in very young calves.
While our fascination with understanding the past is sufficient to warrant an increased focus on synthesis, solutions to important problems facing modern society require understandings based on data that only archaeology can provide. Yet, even as we use public monies to collect ever-greater amounts of data, modes of research that can stimulate emergent understandings of human behavior have lagged behind. Consequently, a substantial amount of archaeological inference remains at the level of the individual project. We can more effectively leverage these data and advance our understandings of the past in ways that contribute to solutions to contemporary problems if we adapt the model pioneered by the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis to foster synthetic collaborative research in archaeology. We propose the creation of the Coalition for Archaeological Synthesis coordinated through a U.S.-based National Center for Archaeological Synthesis. The coalition will be composed of established public and private organizations that provide essential scholarly, cultural heritage, computational, educational, and public engagement infrastructure. The center would seek and administer funding to support collaborative analysis and synthesis projects executed through coalition partners. This innovative structure will enable the discipline to address key challenges facing society through evidentially based, collaborative synthetic research.
The crystal structure of ceruleite, CuAl4[AsO4]2(OH)8(H2O)4, has been solved to an R1 of 0.0307, using the world's largest crystals from the Cap Garonne mine, France. Ceruleite crystallizes in space group P21/n, with the unit cell a = 7.2000(14), b = 11.345(2), c = 9.856(2) Å, β = 105.57(3)°, V = 775.6(3) Å3 and Z = 1. Ceruleite has a unique structure that consists of Al(O,OH)6 octahedra that are sharing edges to form rhombus-shaped tetramers. AsO4 tetrahedra share two corners with one such rhombus and the other two corners with each of two other rhombi, linking them into a very open mesoporous framework. Cu(OH)2(H2O)2 squares lie in the channels and link Al4 rhombi along || b. H2O molecules are also located in the channels.
Risk for neurodevelopmental delay in infants and children with CHD is well established, but longer-term outcomes are equivocal. A meta-analysis was conducted to establish whether cognitive deficits remain beyond childhood – into teenage and young adult years.
Methods and results
A total of 18 unique samples, involving adolescents, teenagers, and adults with CHD significant enough to require invasive intervention, and sourced through searches of Web of Science, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, and PsychInfo, met the inclusion criteria. These included the use of standardised neuropsychology tests across 10 domains of cognitive functioning and the reporting of effect size differences with controls. Reports of patients with chromosomal or genetic abnormalities were excluded. Pooled effect sizes suggested no significant differences between CHD samples and controls in terms of general intellectual ability and verbal reasoning. However, small–medium effects sizes were noted (0.33–0.44) and were statistically significant within the domains of non-verbal reasoning, processing speed, attention, auditory–verbal memory, psychomotor abilities, numeracy, and literacy with executive functioning also emerging as significant when one study outlier was excluded. We also included quality assurance statistics including Cochran’s Q, T, and I2 statistics, leave-one-out analyses, and assessment of publication bias. These often suggested study variability, possibly related to the heterogeneity of diagnostic groups included, and different tests used to measure the same construct.
Heterogeneity indicated that moderators affect cognitive outcomes in CHD. Nevertheless, deficits across cognitive domains were discerned, which are likely to have functional impact and which should inform practice with this clinical population.
Urban Climates is the first full synthesis of modern scientific and applied research on urban climates. The book begins with an outline of what constitutes an urban ecosystem. It develops a comprehensive terminology for the subject using scale and surface classification as key constructs. It explains the physical principles governing the creation of distinct urban climates, such as airflow around buildings, the heat island, precipitation modification and air pollution, and it then illustrates how this knowledge can be applied to moderate the undesirable consequences of urban development and help create more sustainable and resilient cities. With urban climate science now a fully-fledged field, this timely book fulfills the need to bring together the disparate parts of climate research on cities into a coherent framework. It is an ideal resource for students and researchers in fields such as climatology, urban hydrology, air quality, environmental engineering and urban design.