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Although accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that immune/inflammatory mechanisms are associated with the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD), data about the profile of chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) and chemokine receptors are still scarce. The current study was designed to evaluate the expression of chemokine receptors on lymphocytes of patients with BD in comparison with controls.
Thirty-three patients with type I BD (N = 21 in euthymia; N = 6 in mania/hypomania; N = 6 in depression) and 22 age- and sex-matched controls were subjected to clinical evaluation and peripheral blood draw. The expression of chemokine receptors CCR3, CCR5, CXCR4, and CXCR3 on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes was assessed by flow cytometry.
Patients with BD had decreased percentage of CD4+CXCR3+ (p = 0.024), CD4+CCR3+ (p = 0.042), and CD4+CCR5+ (0.013) lymphocytes in comparison with controls. The percentage of both CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes expressing the chemokine receptor CXCR4 was similar in patients with BD and controls. Likewise, the percentages of CD8+CXCR3+, CD8+CCR3+, and CD8+CCR5+ lymphocytes were similar in patients with BD and controls.
Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that immune pathways, especially involving CD4+ lymphocytes, are involved in the physiopathology of BD.
Multilayers composed of many thin films of PbTe and Pb1-xSnxTe on BaF2 substrates were grown epitaxially by hot-wall-vapor deposition. In order to investigate the fraction of the total misfit (2.5x10-3 at x=O, 12) accommodated by misfit strain we have performed strain measurements on these superlattices by two different X-ray diffractometer techniques. We also report on substrate induced strain due to different thermal expansion coefficients of films and substrate. For film thicknesses smaller than 300 nm there is clear evidence for almost complete accommodation of lattice mismatch by misfit strain. Below room temperature the substrate induces a tensile strain which is comparable to that of the misfit strain.
Wearable devices are fast evolving to address mobility and autonomy needs of elderly people who would benefit from physical assistance. Recent developments in soft robotics provide important opportunities to develop soft exoskeletons (also called exosuits) to enable both physical assistance and improved usability and acceptance for users. The XoSoft EU project has developed a modular soft lower limb exoskeleton to assist people with low mobility impairments. In this paper, we present the design of a soft modular lower limb exoskeleton to improve person’s mobility, contributing to independence and enhancing quality of life. The novelty of this work is the integration of quasi-passive elements in a soft exoskeleton. The exoskeleton provides mechanical assistance for subjects with low mobility impairments reducing energy requirements between 10% and 20%. Investigation of different control strategies based on gait segmentation and actuation elements is presented. A first hip–knee unilateral prototype is described, developed, and its performance assessed on a post-stroke patient for straight walking. The study presents an analysis of the human–exoskeleton energy patterns by way of the task-based biological power generation. The resultant assistance, in terms of power, was 10.9% ± 2.2% for hip actuation and 9.3% ± 3.5% for knee actuation. The control strategy improved the gait and postural patterns by increasing joint angles and foot clearance at specific phases of the walking cycle.
Douglas Nakashima, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), France,Igor Krupnik, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC,Jennifer T. Rubis, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), France
The principles that underlie the analysis of aerial photographs using the coherent light from a laser are summarized, and then a study of such a filtering technique applied to an aerial photograph of Jakobshavn Isbræ is given as an example.
Two systems of crevasses, respectively parallel and perpendicular to the direction of flow of the southern lobe of the glacier can be detected after filtering. These two crevasse systems were not apparent at first sight on the original photograph as they were obliterated by a network of curved crevasses. It appears that this latter network are not true crevasses, but surface undulations formed by differential ablation of bands of black (or blue) and white ice.
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
First 405 GHz and 212 GHz solar flare observations were obtained during short campaigns while the new solar submillimeter-wave telescope (SST) was still undergoing adjustments at the CASLEO El Leoncito observatory in the Argentina Andes. We show here preliminary results for a large X1.1 class X-ray event occurred on 2000 March 22, which exhibited a small submm-w continuum response to the slow (minutes) bulk flare emission, and numerous subsecond spikes (100-300 ms), the brightest spikes reaching about 180 and 50 s.f.u. at 405 and 212 GHz, respectively.
In 1954, B K Thapar excavated the multicomponent site of Maski (Raichur District, Karnataka) to establish an archaeological sequence for the southern Deccan region of India. Thapar identified four major periods of occupation, now known as the Neolithic (3000–1200 BC), Iron Age (1200–300 BC), Early Historic (300 BC to AD 500), and the Medieval periods (AD 500–1600). Renewed research at the site by the Maski Archaeological Research Project (F.1/8/2009-EE) has investigated the development of social differences and inequalities in south Indian prehistory. This article reports the first ever radiocarbon assays from habitation and megalithic burial contexts in the vicinity of Maski. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates of charcoal sampled from exposed occupational strata on Maski's Durgada Gudda hill and subsequent Bayesian analyses indicate that the site was extensively occupied during the 14th century AD, corroborating interpretations of numismatic and inscriptional materials. Associated artifacts with these 14C samples have significant implications for recognizing late Medieval period ceramics and occupation in the region. AMS assays of four charcoal samples from exposed megalithic burials just south of the Durgada Gudda hill, similar to those recognized by Thapar, indicate that burial practices commonly attributed to the Iron Age predate the period, and thus are not precise chronological markers. However, the results also suggest that megalithic burial practices became more labor intensive during the Iron Age, creating a cultural context for the generation of new forms of social affiliations and distinctions through differential participation in the production of commemorative places.
We derive zphot for sources in the entire (~0.4 deg2) H-HDF-N field with the EAzY code, based on PSF-matched broad-band (U band to IRAC 4.5 μm) photometry. Our catalog consists of a total of 131,678 sources. We find σNMAD = 0.029 for non-X-ray sources. We also classify each object as a star or galaxy through SED fitting. Furthermore, we match our catalog with the 2 Ms CDF-N main X-ray catalog. For the 462 matched non-stellar X-ray sources, we improve their zphot quality (σNMAD = 0.035) by adding three additional AGN templates. We make our photometry and zphot catalog publicly available.
Concerning a materials ability to convert heat to electrical energy, the electrical power factor S2/ρ as well as the thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures are of special interest. Since Flash experiments measure the thermal diffusivity and standard steady-state heat-flow experiments are inaccurate at elevated temperatures due to radiation errors inherent to this technique, direct and accurate thermal conductivity data on type-I clathrate single crystals at elevated temperatures are scarce in literature. Here we report 3ω thermal conductivity data on single crystalline Ba8Cu5.09Ge40.91 (BCG), La1.23Ba6.99Au5.91Si39.87, and Ce1.06Ba6.91Au5.56Si40.47 in the temperature range between 80 and 330 K, and specific heat data on BCG between 2 and 300 K. The comparison of our room temperature phonon thermal conductivity data (κph) to results on transition metal (TM) free type-I clathrates in terms of the guest free space (Rfree) suggests a stronger dependence of κph on Rfree for the clathrates containing TM elements.
The study of variable stars in open clusters via asteroseismology is a powerful tool for the study of stellar evolution and stars in general. That is because stars in clusters can be assumed to originate from the same interstellar cloud, so they share similar properties such as age and overall metallicity. We performed a search for variable stars in the field of the young open star cluster Roslund 2, with photoelectric and CCD photometry acquired at two different telescopes. Within the resulting light curves we have found 12 variable stars. Our measurements confirm three previously known variables.
Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated an association between lithium (Li) treatment and brain structure in human subjects. A crucial unresolved question is whether this association reflects direct neurochemical effects of Li or indirect effects secondary to treatment or prevention of episodes of bipolar disorder (BD).
To address this knowledge gap, we compared manually traced hippocampal volumes in 37 BD patients with at least 2 years of Li treatment (Li group), 19 BD patients with <3 months of lifetime Li exposure over 2 years ago (non-Li group) and 50 healthy controls. All BD participants were followed prospectively and had at least 10 years of illness and a minimum of five episodes. We established illness course and long-term treatment response to Li using National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) life charts.
The non-Li group had smaller hippocampal volumes than the controls or the Li group (F2,102 = 4.97, p = 0.009). However, the time spent in a mood episode on the current mood stabilizer was more than three times longer in the Li than in the non-Li group (t51 = 2.00, p = 0.05). Even Li-treated patients with BD episodes while on Li had hippocampal volumes comparable to healthy controls and significantly larger than non-Li patients (t43 = 2.62, corrected p = 0.02).
Our findings support the neuroprotective effects of Li. The association between Li treatment and hippocampal volume seems to be independent of long-term treatment response and occurred even in subjects with episodes of BD while on Li. Consequently, these effects of Li on brain structure may generalize to patients with neuropsychiatric illnesses other than BD.
Leptin is thought to act as an important mediator in stress reactions. To date, no study has examined the association between psychological stress and leptin levels in children. This study aimed to assess the association between emotional symptoms and peer problems and serum leptin levels in children aged 10 years of the two population-based GINI-plus and LISA-plus birth cohorts.
Cross-sectional data from 2827 children aged 10 years were assessed with regard to leptin concentrations in serum and behavioral problems using the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Linear regression modeling was applied to determine the likelihood of elevated leptin levels in children with emotional symptoms and peer problems, controlling for socio-economic status (SES), body mass index (BMI), fasting serum leptin levels, pubertal development and sex hormones.
We found that increases in emotional symptoms (exp βadj = 1.03, s.e. = 0.02, p < 0.04) and peer problems (exp βadj = 1.05, s.e. = 0.01, p = 0.0001) were significantly associated with higher serum leptin levels controlled for BMI and sociodemographic factors. Similar results were found when the fasting serum leptin sample was examined (exp βadj = 1.08, s.e. = 0.04, p = 0.0294). Gender-stratified analyses showed a significant relationship between serum leptin and peer problems in girls (exp βadj = 1.05, s.e. = 0.02, p = 0.03), and a borderline significant association in boys (exp βadj = 1.04, s.e. = 0.02, p = 0.05).
Children with peer problems have higher stress and eat more, acquire a higher body fat mass and thus, through increased leptin resistance, exhibit higher leptin levels.
Diffuse x-ray reflection from a SiGe/Si multilayer grown pseudomorphically on slightly miscut Si(OOl) substrates has been studied theoretically and experimentally. In the framework of the Distorted-Wave Born Approximation (DWBA), we demonstrated that the distribution of the diffusely scattered intensity gives conclusive information on both the amount and the in-plane and inter-plane correlation properties of the interface roughness. The best model for the description of the interface-morphology was found to be a combination of a two-level model and a staircase model.
Self-organized Ge-dots on (001)-oriented Si-substrates have been studied using two-dimensionally resolved high resolution x-ray diffraction and reflectivity. The degree of the vertical correlation of the dot positions ("stacking") has been derived as well as a lateral ordering of the dots in a (disordered) square array with main axes parallel to ]100] and ]010].
Multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) is applied to the extraction of chemically relevant signals acquired with a micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) mapping (full-spectral imaging) system. The separation of components into individual histograms enables separation of overlapping peaks, which is useful in qualitatively determining the presence of chemical species that have overlapping emission lines, and holds potential for quantitative analysis of constituent phases via these same histograms. The usefulness of MSA for μ-XRF analysis is demonstrated by application to a geological rock core obtained from a subsurface compressed air energy storage (CAES) site. Coupling of the μ-XRF results to those of quantitative powder X-ray diffraction analysis enables improved detection of trace phases present in the geological specimen. The MSA indicates that the spatial distribution of pyrite, a potentially reactive phase by oxidation, has low concentration and thus minimal impact on CAES operations.