To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Migratory insects display diverse behavioral strategies in response to external environmental shifts, via energy allocation of migration-reproduction trade-offs. However, how migratory insects distribute energy between migration and reproduction as an adaptive strategy to confront temporary low temperatures remains unclear. Here, we used Mythimna separata, a migratory cereal crop pest, to explore the effects of low temperature on reproductive performance, behavior, and energy allocation. We found that the influence of low temperatures on reproduction was not absolutely negative, but instead depended on the intensity, duration, and age of exposure to low temperature. Exposure to 6°C for 24 h significantly accelerated the onset of oviposition and ovarian development, and increased the synchrony of egg-laying and lifetime fecundity in 1-day-old adults compared to the control, while female's flight capacity decreased significantly on the first and second day after moths were exposed to 6°C. Furthermore, the abdominal and total triglycerides levels of females decreased significantly from exposure to low temperature, but their thoracic triglyceride content was significantly higher than the control on the third and fourth day. These results indicated that low temperatures induced M. separata to reduce energy investment for the development of flight system. This resulted in the shifting of moths from being migrants to residents during the environmental sensitive period (first day post-emergence). This expands our understanding of the adaptive strategy employed by migratory insects to deal with low temperatures and aids in the management of this pest species in China.
Viruses completely rely on the energy and metabolic systems of host cells for life activities. Viral infections usually lead to cytopathic effects and host diseases. To date, there are still no specific clinical vaccines or drugs against most viral infections. Therefore, understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of viral infections is of great significance to prevent and treat viral diseases. A variety of viral infections are related to the p38 MAPK signalling pathway, and p38 is an important host factor in virus-infected cells. Here, we introduce the different signalling pathways of p38 activation and then summarise how different viruses induce p38 phosphorylation. Finally, we provide a general summary of the effect of p38 activation on virus replication. Our review provides integrated data on p38 activation and viral infections and describes the potential application of targeting p38 as an antiviral strategy.
Health economic evaluations are comparative analyses of alternative courses of action in terms of their costs and consequences. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement, published in 2013, was created to ensure health economic evaluations are identifiable, interpretable, and useful for decision making. It was intended as guidance to help authors report accurately which health interventions were being compared and in what context, how the evaluation was undertaken, what the findings were, and other details that may aid readers and reviewers in interpretation and use of the study. The new CHEERS 2022 statement replaces previous CHEERS reporting guidance. It reflects the need for guidance that can be more easily applied to all types of health economic evaluation, new methods and developments in the field, as well as the increased role of stakeholder involvement including patients and the public. It is also broadly applicable to any form of intervention intended to improve the health of individuals or the population, whether simple or complex, and without regard to context (such as health care, public health, education, social care, etc.). This summary article presents the new CHEERS 2022 28-item checklist and recommendations for each item. The CHEERS 2022 statement is primarily intended for researchers reporting economic evaluations for peer-reviewed journals, as well as the peer reviewers and editors assessing them for publication. However, we anticipate familiarity with reporting requirements will be useful for analysts when planning studies. It may also be useful for health technology assessment bodies seeking guidance on reporting, as there is an increasing emphasis on transparency in decision making.
The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between students’ perceptions of their school policies and environments (i.e. sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) free policy, plain water drinking, vegetables and fruit eating campaign, outdoor physical activity initiative, and the SH150 programme (exercise 150 min/week at school)) and their dietary behaviours and physical activity.
Primary, middle and high schools in Taiwan.
A nationally representative sample of 2433 primary school (5th–6th grade) students, 3212 middle school students and 2829 high school students completed the online survey in 2018.
Multivariate analysis results showed that after controlling for school level, gender and age, the students’ perceptions of school sugar-free policies were negatively associated with the consumption of SSB and positively associated with consumption of plain water. Schools’ campaigns promoting the eating of vegetables and fruit were positively associated with students’ consumption of vegetables. In addition, schools’ initiatives promoting outdoor physical activity and the SH150 programme were positively associated with students’ engagement in outdoor physical activities and daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.
Students’ perceptions of healthy school policies and environments promote healthy eating and an increase in physical activity for students.
This paper investigates the feasibility of improving the aircraft landing performance by design the damping orifice parameters of the landing gear using lattice Boltzmann method coupled with the response surface method. The LBM is utilised to simulate characteristics of the damping orifice after model validation. The numerical model of the landing gear using simulated damping force is validated by single landing gear drop test. Based on the numerical model and the response surface functions, the sensitivity analysis and the optimisation design are performed. The maximum error of mean velocity simulated using LBM with experimental data is 7.07% for sharp-edged orifices. Moreover, the numerical model predicts the landing responses adequately, the maximum error with drop test data is 2.51%. The max overloading of the aircraft decreases by 5.44% after optimisation, which proves that this method is feasible to design the damping orifice for good landing performance.
In traditional satellite navigation receivers, the parameters of tracking loop such as loop bandwidth and integration time are usually set in the design of the receivers according to different scenarios. The signal tracking performance is limited in traditional receivers. In addition, when the tracking ability of weak signals is improved by extending the integration time, negative effect of residual frequency error becomes more and more serious with extension of the integration time. To solve these problems, this paper presents out research on receiver tracking algorithms and proposes an optimised tracking algorithm with inertial information. The receiver loop filter is designed based on Kalman filter, reducing the phase jitter caused by thermal noise in the weak signal environment and improving the signal tracking sensitivity. To confirm the feasibility of the proposed algorithm, simulation tests are conducted.
In this paper, we present a new nonparametric method for estimating a conditional quantile function and develop its weak convergence theory. The proposed estimator is computationally easy to implement and automatically ensures quantile monotonicity by construction. For inference, we propose to use a residual bootstrap method. Our Monte Carlo simulations show that this new estimator compares well with the check-function-based estimator in terms of estimation mean squared error. The bootstrap confidence bands yield adequate coverage probabilities. An empirical example uses a dataset of Canadian high school graduate earnings, illustrating the usefulness of the proposed method in applications.
Two new genera and six new species of trilobites are systematically documented herein: Sinagnostus mirabilis new genus new species, Yanpingia punctata n. gen. n. sp., Illaenus taoyuanensis n. sp., Panderia striolatus n. sp., Nileus yichongqiaoensis n. sp., and Paratiresias peculiaris n. sp. The materials were collected from the Darriwilian (late Middle Ordovician) strata in the Upper Yangtze Region, South China. Also provided is an emended diagnosis of the genus Paratiresias based on the new species Paratiresias peculiaris, which is the oldest known species of this genus with an extremely narrow (sag. and exsag.) preglabellar field. Those Chinese species previously referred to Nanillaenus are reassigned to Illaenus sensu lato. These trilobites add new data for the Darriwilian trilobite macroevolution and show highly endemic to South China and the faunal exchanges between South China and Tarim, Kazakhstan, Alborz, as well as Sibumasu and North China.
To investigate the effects of culture media with different lactate concentrations on early embryonic development, data collected from our patients undergoing preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) were assessed using the EmbryoScope™ time-lapse culturing system. After intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), sibling oocytes were cultured in the same EmbryoScope (Vitrolife) slides including two different commercially available media. The patients with fewer than five mature oocytes were not included in the analyses. All embryos were hatched on day 3, and trophectoderm biopsies (n = 212) were performed accordingly. PGT for aneuploidy (PGT-A) on biopsied materials was carried out using next generation sequencing. Morphokinetic parameters, fertilization, irregular division, degeneration, blastulation, euploidy, and pregnancy rates of embryos cultured in LifeGlobal Global Total medium (LGGT) and Continuous Single Culture-NX Complete medium (CSCM-NXC) were compared. There were no differences observed in time to pronuclear fade, or in time spent as 2-cell (cc2) and 3-cell (s2), to 4-cell, 5-cell, morula and blastocyst stages (P > 0.05). Embryos reached the 2-cell (t2) and 3-cell (t3) stages significantly faster in LGGT (P < 0.05), whereas embryos grown in CSCM-NXC with lower lactate reached starting blastulation significantly sooner (P = 0.026). However, there were no statistical differences observed in fertilization, blastulation, degeneration, irregular division euploidy, and pregnancy rates between the two groups (P > 0.05). Even though pregnancy and fertilization rates did not indicate statistical differences, results are significant to provide better insight on potential roles of lactate in embryo development. These finding will advance the fundamental knowledge of human embryo development and assisted reproductive technologies.
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) elicits a range of different responses in patients and can manifest into mild to very severe cases in different individuals, depending on many factors. We aimed to establish a prediction model of severe risk in COVID-19 patients, to help clinicians achieve early prevention, intervention and aid them in choosing effective therapeutic strategy. We selected confirmed COVID-19 patients who were admitted to First Hospital of Changsha city between 29 January and 15 February 2020 and collected their clinical data. Multivariate logical regression was used to identify the factors associated with severe risk. These factors were incorporated into the nomogram to establish the model. The ROC curve, calibration plot and decision curve were used to assess the performance of the model. A total of 228 patients were enrolled and 33 (14.47%) patients developed severe pneumonia. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that shortness of breath, fatigue, creatine kinase, lymphocytes and h CRP were independent factors for severe risk in COVID-19 patients. Incorporating age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and these factors, the nomogram achieved good concordance indexes of 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.832–0.949] and well-fitted calibration plot curves (Hosmer–Lemeshow test: P = 0.97). The model provided superior net benefit when clinical decision thresholds were between 15% and 85% predicted risk. Using the model, clinicians can intervene early, improve therapeutic effects and reduce the severity of COVID-19, thus ensuring more targeted and efficient use of medical resources.
I propose a dynamic causal approach to characterizing the notion of a mechanism. Levy and Bechtel, among others, have pointed out several critical limitations of the new mechanical philosophy and pointed in a new direction to extend this philosophy. Nevertheless, they have not fully fleshed out what that extended philosophy would look like. Given a closer look at neuroscientific practice, I propose that a mechanism is a dynamic causal system that involves various components interacting, typically nonlinearly, with one another to produce a phenomenon of interest.
A study of small-amplitude shape oscillations of a viscous compound droplet suspended in a viscous host fluid is performed. A generalized eigenvalue problem is formulated and is solved by using the spectral method. The effects of the relevant non-dimensional parameters are examined for three cases, i.e. a liquid shell in a vacuum and a compound droplet in a vacuum or in a host fluid. The fundamental mode $l=2$ is found to be dominant. There exist two oscillatory modes: the in phase and the out of phase. In most situations, the interfaces oscillate in phase rather than out of phase. For the in-phase mode, in the absence of the host, as the viscosity of the core or the shell increases, the damping rate increases whereas the oscillation frequency decreases; when the viscosity exceeds a critical value, the mode becomes aperiodic with the damping rate bifurcating into two branches. In addition, when the tension of the inner interface becomes smaller than some value, the in-phase mode turns aperiodic. In the presence of the unbounded host fluid, there exists a continuous spectrum. The viscosity of the host may decrease or increase the damping rate of the in-phase mode. The mechanism behind it is discussed. The density contrasts between fluids affect oscillations of the droplet in a complicated way. Particularly, sufficiently large densities of the core or the host lead to the disappearance of the out-of-phase mode. The thin shell approximation predicts well the oscillation of the compound droplet when the shell is thin.
A classical result for the simple symmetric random walk with 2n steps is that the number of steps above the origin, the time of the last visit to the origin, and the time of the maximum height all have exactly the same distribution and converge when scaled to the arcsine law. Motivated by applications in genomics, we study the distributions of these statistics for the non-Markovian random walk generated from the ascents and descents of a uniform random permutation and a Mallows(q) permutation and show that they have the same asymptotic distributions as for the simple random walk. We also give an unexpected conjecture, along with numerical evidence and a partial proof in special cases, for the result that the number of steps above the origin by step 2n for the uniform permutation generated walk has exactly the same discrete arcsine distribution as for the simple random walk, even though the other statistics for these walks have very different laws. We also give explicit error bounds to the limit theorems using Stein’s method for the arcsine distribution, as well as functional central limit theorems and a strong embedding of the Mallows(q) permutation which is of independent interest.
During the late Palaeozoic Era, a series of related marine strata dominated by multi-layer limestones were deposited in the southern North China Craton. In order to gain new insights into the systematic geochemistry of the carbonate succession of the representative formation (Taiyuan Formation), we examined 59 limestone samples collected from the Huaibei Coal Basin (HCB), with a view towards quantitatively determining the major and trace elements and stable isotope compositions. The data obtained can provide essential evidence for reconstruction of the depositional palaeo-environment and tectonic setting of the Taiyuan Formation. Both X-ray diffraction analyses and palaeoredox proxies (e.g. V/Cr, V/(V + Ni) and authigenic U) indicated that the limestone layers were deposited in an oxic–dysoxic zone, with calcite as the main component. Moreover, palaeomagnetic evidence provided support for the conclusion that these limestones were laid down within an epicontinental sea depositional environment under a warm or hot palaeoclimate during the transition between late Carboniferous and early Permian time. Additionally, evidence obtained from our analyses of trace and rare earth elements revealed that the tectonic setting of the Taiyuan Formation (L1–L5) in the HCB transited from an open ocean to a passive continental margin, thereby indicating that this transformation stemmed from the subduction closure of the northeastern Palaeotethys Ocean. The findings of this study would be of interest to those working on the upper Palaeozoic marine strata in the southern North China Craton.
In this paper, we present a method for generating a copula by composing two arbitrary n-dimensional copulas via a vector of bivariate functions, where the resulting copula is named as the multivariate composite copula. A necessary and sufficient condition on the vector guaranteeing the composite function to be a copula is given, and a general approach to construct the vector satisfying this necessary and sufficient condition via bivariate copulas is provided. The multivariate composite copula proposes a new framework for the construction of flexible multivariate copula from existing ones, and it also includes some known classes of copulas. It is shown that the multivariate composite copula has a clear probability structure, and it satisfies the characteristic of uniform convergence as well as the reproduction property for its component copulas. Some properties of multivariate composite copulas are discussed. Finally, numerical illustrations and an empirical example on financial data are provided to show the advantages of the multivariate composite copula, especially in capturing the tail dependence.
Thanks to the ability to perform imaging and manipulation at the nanoscale, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been widely used in biology, materials, chemistry, and other fields. However, as common error sources, vertical drift and illusory slope severely impair AFM imaging quality. To address this issue, this paper proposes a robust algorithm to synchronously correct the image distortion caused by vertical drift and slope, thus achieving accurate morphology characterization. Specifically, to eliminate the damage of abnormal points and feature areas on the correction accuracy, the laser spot voltage error acquired in the AFM scanning process is first utilized to preprocess the morphology height data of the sample, so as to obtain the refined alternative data suitable for line fitting. Subsequently, this paper proposes a novel line fitting algorithm based on sparse sample consensus, which accurately simulates vertical drift and slope in the cross-sectional profile of the topographic image, thereby achieving effective correction of the image distortion. In the experiments and applications, a nanoscale optical grating sample and a biological cell sample are adopted to perform topography imaging and distortion correction, so as to verify the ability of the proposed algorithm to promote AFM imaging quality.
This article examines how violence against citizens affects their political attitudes and behavior in the long run, and how those effects vary over time. We construct and analyze a novel dataset on the victims of Taiwan's February 28 Incident, in 1947, with survey data spanning 1990 to 2017. Our empirical analysis shows that cohorts having directly or indirectly experienced the Incident are less likely to support the Kuomintang Party (KMT), the former authoritarian ruling party responsible for the Incident. They tend to disagree with the key conventional policy stand of the KMT (unification with mainland China), are more likely to self-identify as Taiwanese, and are less likely to vote for KMT presidential candidates. Taiwan's residents who were born in towns with larger number of casualties during the Incident are more likely to reject unification. Finally, the effects are found to vary over the period following democratization.