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In 2014/2015, International Medical Corps (IMC) operated two Ebola Treatment Units (ETUs) in Liberia and three in Sierra Leone when the Ebola virus disease epidemic killed over 11,000 people across Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea. As Ebola cases declined in Liberia, IMC Psychosocial teams transitioned to working in communities highly affected by the epidemic. This article describes IMC's experience with developing and implementing a community-based mental health and psychosocial group intervention in a rural, severely affected Liberian town – Mawah – where 46 out of approximately 800 community members were infected, 39 of whom died. In this paper, we present how the group intervention, named ‘Social Reconnection Groups’, was developed and implemented. We then discuss intervention strengths, challenges, key lessons learnt and recommendations for how Social Reconnection Groups can be adapted for use in similar settings.
One generation's experience of childhood maltreatment is associated with that of the next. However, whether this intergenerational transmission is specific to distinct forms of maltreatment and what factors may contribute to its continuity remains unclear. Borderline personality pathology is predicted by childhood maltreatment and characterized by features (e.g., dysregulated emotion, relationship instability, impulsivity, and inconsistent appraisals of others) that may contribute to its propagation. Among 364 older adults and 573 of their adult children (total n = 937), self-reported exposure to distinct forms of childhood maltreatment (i.e., emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, and emotional and physical neglect as assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) showed homotypic and heterotypic associations across generations with little evidence that latent factors unique to specific forms of maltreatment show generational continuity. General nonspecific indices of childhood maltreatment showed evidence of intergenerational transmission after accounting for demographic factors and parent socioeconomic status (b = 0.126, p = 9.21 × 10−4). This continuity was partially mediated by parental borderline personality pathology (assessed longitudinally through a variety of measures and sources, indirect effect: b = 0.031, 95% confidence interval [0.003, 0.060]). The intergenerational continuity of childhood maltreatment may largely represent general risk for nonspecific maltreatment that may, in part, be propagated by borderline personality pathology and/or shared risk factors.
The provision of artificial nests can improve the conservation status of threatened bird species that are limited by nest-site availability. The shortage of natural cavity nesting sites is one factor limiting the population growth of the Southern Ground Hornbill Bucorvus leadbeateri. In an 1,800 km2 study area in north-eastern South Africa, 31 wooden nest-boxes were installed during 2002–2015. We investigated the relationships between nests, as well as environmental and social factors, with breeding. Generalised linear mixed models were fitted to the observational data and identified positive relationships between breeding attempts and each of home range size and the previous year’s rainfall; as well as positive relationships between breeding success (amongst the groups that attempt breeding) and each of earlier breeding, nest height and thickness of the nest cavity wall. The provision of nest-boxes increased the number of breeding groups and although breeding success also increased initially, it later declined as the density of breeding groups increased above 20 groups. Although nest-boxes alone did not increase overall breeding success, they are an effective conservation tool to enhance the population of Southern Ground Hornbills if spaced optimally, to enhance reproductive output in areas where suitable nest-sites are scarce or lacking.
Water exposures in healthcare settings and during healthcare delivery can place patients at risk for infection with water-related organisms and can potentially lead to outbreaks. We aimed to describe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) consultations involving water-related organisms leading to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs).
Retrospective observational study.
We reviewed internal CDC records from January 1, 2014, through December 31, 2017, using water-related terms and organisms, excluding Legionella, to identify consultations that involved potential or confirmed transmission of water-related organisms in healthcare. We determined plausible exposure pathways and routes of transmission when possible.
Of 620 consultations during the study period, we identified 134 consultations (21.6%), with 1,380 patients, that involved the investigation of potential water-related HAIs or infection control lapses with the potential for water-related HAIs. Nontuberculous mycobacteria were involved in the greatest number of investigations (n = 40, 29.9%). Most frequently, investigations involved medical products (n = 48, 35.8%), and most of these products were medical devices (n = 40, 83.3%). We identified a variety of plausible water-exposure pathways, including medication preparation near water splash zones and water contamination at the manufacturing sites of medications and medical devices.
Water-related investigations represent a substantial proportion of CDC HAI consultations and likely represent only a fraction of all water-related HAI investigations and outbreaks occurring in US healthcare facilities. Water-related HAI investigations should consider all potential pathways of water exposure. Finally, healthcare facilities should develop and implement water management programs to limit the growth and spread of water-related organisms.
The rocky intertidal zone has a long history of ecological study with barnacles frequently serving as a model system to explore foundational theories. Parasites are often ignored in community ecology studies, and this particularly holds for true for the rocky intertidal zone. We explore the role of the isopod parasite, Hemioniscus balani, on its host, the acorn barnacle, Chthamalus fissus. We use the currencies of biomass and reproduction measured at the individual level, then applied to the population level, to evaluate the importance of this parasite to barnacle populations. We found H. balani can comprise substantial biomass in ‘apparent’ barnacle populations, sometimes even equaling barnacle biomass. Additionally, parasite reproduction sometimes matched barnacle reproduction. Thus, parasites divert substantial energy flow from the barnacle population and to near-shore communities in the form of parasite larvae. Parasites appeared to decrease barnacle reproduction per area. Potentially, this parasite may control barnacle populations, depending on the extent to which heavily infected barnacle populations contribute to barnacle populations at larger scales. These findings regarding the importance of a particular parasite for host population dynamics in this well studied ecosystem call for the integration of disease dynamics into community ecological studies of the rocky intertidal zone.
To date, Ireland has been a leading light in the provision of youth mental health services. However, cognisant of the efforts of governmental and non-governmental agencies working in youth mental health, there is much to be done. Barriers into care as well as discontinuity of care across the spectrum of services remain key challenges. This editorial provides guidance for the next stage of development in youth mental care and support that will require significant national engagement and resource investment.
Invasive plants may dramatically impact forest ecosystems by establishing dense populations and suppressing the recruitment of native tree species. One invasive shrub currently spreading throughout eastern deciduous forests of North America, Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii DC), may be limiting tree recruitment in stands where it invades. Once established, B. thunbergii becomes densely populated within forest understories and suppresses native plants by competing for limited resources, altering soil conditions, and changing the understory microclimate. To quantify native seedling inhibition caused by B. thunbergii invasion, we conducted an observational study on seedling abundance within forest plots that were either invaded or not invaded by B. thunbergii and used survey data to generate Bayesian models of native seedling densities along gradients of increasing B. thunbergii stem counts and aboveground plant dry mass. Model outputs predicted that B. thunbergii–invaded plots had 82% lower seedling densities compared with uninvaded plots. Native tree seedling densities were very low even in areas with moderate B. thunbergii density, suggesting that reduced tree seedling densities are observed even at low densities of invasion. Our findings indicate that forests invaded with B. thunbergii harbor substantially lower densities of native tree seedlings, with potentially significant long-term consequences for forest ecological integrity, biodiversity, and ecosystem services.
Drift reduction technologies aim to eliminate the smaller droplets that occur with some sprays because these small droplets can move off-target in the wind. Commonly used drift reduction technologies such as air-induction nozzles and spray additives impact on reducing off-target movement is well documented, however, the impact on herbicide penetration into an established crop canopy is not well known. This experiment evaluated the canopy penetration and efficacy of glyphosate treatments applied using four nozzle types (XR11005, AIXR11005, AITTJ11005, and TTI11005), two carrier volume rates (94 and 187 L ha-1), and glyphosate applications with and without a commercial drift reducing adjuvant. Applications were made to corn and soybean fields using glyphosate applied at 1.26 kg ae ha-1 with liquid ammonium sulfate at 5% v/v. A rhodamine dye was added (0.025% v/v) to the spray tank of each mixture as a tracer. MylarTM cards were placed in the field above the canopy, in the middle canopy, and on the ground for corn and above and below canopy for soybean. Five cards were at each position in the canopy arranged across the crop row. The addition of a drift reducing adjuvant did not impact canopy penetration. Doubling the carrier volume increased the amount of penetration proportionally and as such the percent reduction was not different. The TTI11005 nozzle had the greatest amount of spray penetration (28%) in the soybean canopies and the XR nozzle had the greatest amount (50%) in the corn canopies. Deposition across the row, beginning in-between the row crop and ending in the row of the crop was 44, 18, and 8% for soybean and 59, 50, and 36% for corn. For both crops, more than half of the herbicide application was captured in the crop canopy. Proper nozzle selection for canopy type can increase herbicide penetration and increasing the carrier volume will increase penetration proportionally.
This essay examines three schools in New York City—the City and Country School founded in 1914—and two founded in 1974 and 1984—Central Park East Elementary School 1 and Central Park East Secondary School—with respect to how they reflected Deweyan pedagogic practices and Dewey's belief in democratic education.1 It analyzes whether such pedagogic practices can be maintained over time. City and Country, founded by Caroline Pratt, reflected many of Dewey's ideas and remains true to its founder's vision today. CPE 1 founded by Deborah Meier with five teachers reflected the progressive ideas of its founder, many of which were consistent with Deweyan philosophy. It remains progressive although there have been recent attempts to make it more traditional. CPESS, founded by Deborah Meier, reflected both Deweyan philosophy and the ideas of Theodore Sizer. After Meier left in the 1990s, the school became less progressive and eventually was closed and then reopened as a traditional high school. These histories indicate that Dewey's work on education was at the core of all of these schools’ philosophies and practices. Although there have been uneven successes in keeping Dewey's progressive practices alive, they demonstrate that Dewey's work is relevant and is being practiced today.
Ten ice-sheet models are used to study sensitivity of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to prescribed changes of surface mass balance, sub-ice-shelf melting and basal sliding. Results exhibit a large range in projected contributions to sea-level change. In most cases, the ice volume above flotation lost is linearly dependent on the strength of the forcing. Combinations of forcings can be closely approximated by linearly summing the contributions from single forcing experiments, suggesting that nonlinear feedbacks are modest. Our models indicate that Greenland is more sensitive than Antarctica to likely atmospheric changes in temperature and precipitation, while Antarctica is more sensitive to increased ice-shelf basal melting. An experiment approximating the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s RCP8.5 scenario produces additional first-century contributions to sea level of 22.3 and 8.1 cm from Greenland and Antarctica, respectively, with a range among models of 62 and 14 cm, respectively. By 200 years, projections increase to 53.2 and 26.7 cm, respectively, with ranges of 79 and 43 cm. Linear interpolation of the sensitivity results closely approximates these projections, revealing the relative contributions of the individual forcings on the combined volume change and suggesting that total ice-sheet response to complicated forcings over 200 years can be linearized.
An experiment was conducted to determine: (1) the effect of excess maternal I supplementation on the thyroid hormone status of the ewe and her progeny; (2) potential mechanisms underpinning the failure of passive transfer associated with excess I and (3) the growing lambs’ response to natural gastrointestinal infection. Twin-bearing ewes received one of two treatments (n 32/treatment group): basal diet (C) or C plus 26·6 mg of iodine/ewe per d (I), supplied as calcium iodate. Ewes were individually fed from day 119 of gestation to parturition. Progeny of I ewes had lower (P<0·01) serum IgG concentrations from 24 h to 28 d postpartum but higher serum IgG concentrations at day 70 postpartum (P<0·05). I supplementation increased the relative expression of Fc receptor, IgA, IgM high affinity and polymeric Ig receptor in the ileum of the lamb at 24 h postpartum; however, thyroid hormone receptor-β (THRB) and β-2-microglobulin (B2M) expression declined (P<0·05). Progeny of I ewes had higher growth rates to weaning (P<0·05) and lower faecal egg count (FEC) for Nematodirus battus (P<0·05) between weeks 6 and 10 postpartum. In conclusion, excess maternal I supplementation negatively affected the thyroid hormone status, serum IgG concentration, ileal morphology and the gene expression of THRB and B2M in the ileum and ras-related protein (RAB) RAB25 and the mucin gene (MUC) MUC1 in the duodenum of the lamb postpartum. These effects were followed by an enhancement of average daily gain and lower N. battus FEC in the pre-weaning period of I-supplemented lambs.
To assess iodine status among pregnant women in rural Zinder, Niger and to compare their status with the iodine status of school-aged children from the same households.
Seventy-three villages in the catchment area of sixteen health centres were randomly selected to participate in the cross-sectional survey.
Salt iodization is mandatory in Niger, requiring 20–60 ppm iodine at the retail level.
A spot urine sample was collected from randomly selected pregnant women (n 662) and one school-aged child from the same household (n 373). Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was assessed as an indicator of iodine status in both groups. Dried blood spots (DBS) were collected from venous blood samples of pregnant women and thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid-stimulating hormone and total thyroxine were measured. Iodine content of household salt samples (n 108) was assessed by titration.
Median iodine content of salt samples was 5·5 ppm (range 0–41 ppm), 98 % had an iodine content <20 ppm. Median (interquartile range) UIC of pregnant women and school-aged children was 69·0 (38·1–114·3) and 100·9 (61·2–163·2) µg/l, respectively. Although nearly all pregnant women were euthyroid, their median (interquartile range) DBS-Tg was 34·6 (23·9–49·7) µg/l and 38·4 % had DBS-Tg>40 µg/l.
In this region of Niger, most salt is inadequately iodized. UIC in pregnant women indicated iodine deficiency, whereas UIC of school-aged children indicated marginally adequate iodine status. Thus, estimating population iodine status based solely on monitoring of UIC among school-aged children may underestimate the risk of iodine deficiency in pregnant women.
A new lab-based aerosol jet fog (ajFOG) deposition system with an atomizer consisting of two opposing jets located within the deposition chamber is introduced and its capabilities are examined. The unique opposing configuration of the atomizer enables the formation of a highly uniform fog even from low volatility precursors. Aluminum oxide phosphate (AlPO) thin films were deposited onto Si wafers at room temperature and sub-atmospheric pressure by using an aqueous precursor. Films were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry, x-ray diffraction and reflectivity, scanning electron microscopy, and metal/oxide/semiconductor (MOS) capacitor electrical measurements. Film thickness uniformity, density, surface roughness, and charge transport mechanisms were found to be comparable to spin-coated thin films deposited using the same precursor, demonstrating the effectiveness of this aerosol technique. A process model was developed to predict film thickness as a function of precursor concentration, exposure time, fog settling time, and number of exposures.
The rarefied gas flow phenomenon of thermophoresis is studied experimentally on a macroscopic spherical particle with a diameter of 5.1 cm for pressures ranging from 0.01 to 10 Pa (Knudsen numbers
from 10 to 0.01, respectively). Size scaling with matching Knudsen numbers makes the results applicable to microscale particles such as aerosol droplets at atmospheric pressure. Two sets of measurements are presented. The first set, complemented by numerical modelling based on the solution of the ellipsoidal statistical Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook kinetic equation, is focused on a spherical particle of high thermal conductivity in close proximity to a heated wall. The second set is conducted for the same particle placed in a linear thermal gradient established between two parallel walls. Results show the first reproducible measurements of negative thermophoretic force acting on a spherical particle in the direction from cold to hot, with values of the order of 5 % of the maximum hot to cold force production.