To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This work is based on a recent theoretical study of how the hydrostatic pressure and core/shell sizes affect the optical properties associated with the transition from the ground state to first excited state (1s–1p), of an exciton confined in spherical core/shell quantum dots (SCSQDs). We have computed under an effective mass framework, linear, third-order nonlinear, and total absorption coefficients (AC) and refractive index (RI) as functions of photon energy for different sizes of SCSQDs with varying hydrostatic pressure. Our results show that the optical absorption is deeply dependent on the incident light intensity. Both AC and RI significantly influenced by the confinement and pressure effects.
We previously demonstrated that electrode architectures comprising nanoscale birnessite-like MnOx affixed to three-dimensional carbon nanofoam (CNF) scaffolds offer performance advantages when used as cathodes in rechargeable zinc-ion cells. To discern chemical and physical changes at the MnOx@CNF electrode upon deep charge/discharge in aqueous Zn2+-containing electrolytes, we deploy electroanalytical methods and ex situ characterization by microscopy, elemental analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray pair distribution function analyses. Our findings verify that redox processes at the MnOx are accompanied by reversible precipitation/dissolution of crystalline zinc hydroxide sulfate (Zn4(OH)6(SO4)·xH2O), mediated by the more uniformly reactive electrode structure inherent to the CNF scaffold.
Using time-resolved laser-scanning confocal microscopy and ultrafast optical pump/THz probe spectroscopy, we measure photoluminescence (PL) and THz-conductivity in perovskite micro-crystals and films. PL quenching and lifetime variations occur from local heterogeneity. Ultrafast THz-spectra measure sharp quantum transitions from excitonic Rydberg states, providing weakly bound excitons with a binding energy of ~13.5 meV at low temperatures. Ab-initio electronic structure calculations give a direct band gap of 1.64 eV, a dielectric constant of ~18, heavy electrons, and light holes, resulting in weakly bound excitons, consistent with the binding energies from the experiment. The complementary spectroscopy and simulations reveal fundamental insights into perovskite light-matter interactions.
We have studied the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the confined exciton in a spherical core–shell quantum dot. Using a simple variational approach under the framework of effective mass approximation, we have computed the excitonic binding energy as a function of the shell thickness under the applied hydrostatic pressure. Our results show that the ground state binding energy of exciton depends greatly on the shell thickness, which tends to the two-dimensional limit of 4RX, when the ratio a/b tends to unity. The numerical calculations also suggest that the applied hydrostatic pressure favors the attraction between electrons and holes so the excitonic binding energy increases when pressure increases.
We deposited TaWSi amorphous metal thin films to determine how composition affects film crystallization and oxidation at high temperatures. Films were deposited by magnetron sputtering from targets of nominal compositions Ta : W : Si = 40 : 40 : 20, 30 : 50 : 20, and 30 : 30 : 40, and studied by electron probe microanalysis, electron microscopy, electrical methods, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic-force microscopy. All films remained amorphous to 800 °C or higher temperatures. Films prepared from the target composition 30 : 30 : 40 yielded the film composition Ta41.7W38.4Si19.9, which retained its film integrity and amorphous structure to 1100 °C, even after annealing in air.
We report an epidemiological investigation of a cluster of Brevundimonas diminuta isolates cultured from sterile sites. Inoculation of supplement medium yielded growth of B. diminuta. Molecular typing indicated likely contamination of the lot. No B. diminuta was further isolated after replacement of the supplement with a new lot number.
High-precision measurements were completed concurrently at the University of Arizona and the Queen's University of Belfast on blind samples of Irish oak originally measured for the 1986 radiocarbon calibration curve. Subsequent single-year Sequoiadendron results were decadally averaged and compared with published results on decadal Douglas-fir samples. The results of these intercomparisons show that the Arizona high-precision results compare favorably with published values from the University of Washington, but show a systematic offset with published Belfast data.
The Tehuacán region in Central Mexico is thought to be the locale of origin of Zea mays, or maize, a cultivated plant pivotal in the development of agriculture in the Americas (MacNeish, 1981, 1985). The age of the earliest maize, and its rate of dispersal are thus important components of cultural development in the New World. We have secured permission from the Federal Government of Mexico to date critical specimens from Tehuacán, which represent what are probably some of the earliest known stages of maize evolution. Twelve Zea mays samples have been dated, six from Cueva San Marcos and six from Cueva Coxcatlán. These were selected as having the best stratigraphic control and correlation with previously dated charcoal samples, and to represent the most ancient maize. Corn from Cueva San Marcos is oldest: four of the six specimens from this cave were within statistics of 4700 BP (uncalibrated). The oldest known domesticated corn is thus no older than 3600 cal BC (dendro-calibrated in calendric years).
Irregularities plague elections in developing democracies. The international community spends hundreds of millions of dollars on election observation, with little robust evidence that it consistently improves electoral integrity. We conducted a randomized control trial to measure the effect of an intervention to detect and deter electoral irregularities employing a nation-wide sample of polling stations in Uganda using scalable information and communications technology (ICT). In treatment stations, researchers delivered letters to polling officials stating that tallies would be photographed using smartphones and compared against official results. Compared to stations with no letters, the letters increased the frequency of posted tallies by polling center managers in compliance with the law; decreased the number of sequential digits found on tallies – a fraud indicator; and decreased the vote share for the incumbent president in some specifications. Our results demonstrate that a cost-effective citizen and ICT intervention can improve electoral integrity in emerging democracies.
Audiometric tests do not adequately reflect the hearing handicap experienced by individuals with hearing loss and account for only part of the variance in hearing handicap perceptions (Weinstein & Ventry, 1983). The present study investigates the relationship between degree of hearing impairment, psychosocial factors and hearing handicap in a New Zealand war veteran sample. Forty-seven veterans (Mean age = 77.51, SD = 5.99) with some degree of hearing impairment completed a questionnaire which included the Hearing Handicap Inventory (HHI) (Newman et al., 1990), the SF36 sub-scales for general health and mental health (Ware, Kosinski & Keller, 1994), questions relating to hearing aid use and demographic details. Audiometric test information for each veteran was accessed through the national war pensions organisation. Analyses revealed no significant relationship between percentage hearing loss and perceptions of hearing handicap. Those who reported lower satisfaction with their hearing aids, those in poorer physical health and those who had been using hearing aids for a longer time reported higher scores on the HHI. These findings suggest that aspects of the rehabilitation process are important factors in the individual's experience of hearing handicap and that non-auditory factors (such as general health) may be essential considerations in this process.
Upper flux limits at the earth for γ rays of energy greater than about 5 × 1012 eV, have been established for the quasi-stellar sources 3C 147, 3C 196, 3C 273, the Crab Nebula, and the magnetic variable 53 Cam. They are all of the order 10-10 photons cm-2. s-1. Corresponding upper energy limits at emission are of the order 5 × 1047 ergs s-1 for the quasi-stellar sources, and 5 × 1035 ergs s-1 for the Crab Nebula, if γ-ray absorption is assumed negligible. Possible absorption mechanisms are discussed.
This study examines the patterns and predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom trajectories among adolescent survivors following the Wenchuan earthquake in China.
A total of 1573 adolescent survivors were followed up at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months post-earthquake. Participants completed the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Self-Rating Scale (PTSD-SS), Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, Social Support Rate Scale, and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire. Distinct patterns of PTSD symptom trajectories were established through grouping participants based on time-varying changes of developing PTSD (i.e. reaching the clinical cut-off on the PTSD-SS). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine predictors for trajectory membership.
PTSD prevalence rates at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months were 21.0, 23.3, 13.5 and 14.7%, respectively. Five PTSD symptom trajectories were observed: resistance (65.3% of the sample), recovery (20.0%), relapsing/remitting (3.3%), delayed dysfunction (4.2%) and chronic dysfunction (7.2%). Female gender and senior grade were related to higher risk of developing PTSD symptoms in at least one time point, whereas being an only child increased the possibility of recovery relative to chronic dysfunction. Family members’ injury/loss and witness of traumatic scenes could also cause PTSD chronicity. More negative life events, less social support, more negative coping and less positive coping were also common predictors for not developing resistance or recovery.
Adolescents’ PTSD symptoms showed an anniversary reaction. Although many adolescents remain euthymic or recover over time, some adolescents, especially those with the risk factors noted above, exhibit chronic, delayed or relapsing symptoms. Thus, the need for individualized intervention with these adolescents is indicated.
In this work we study the stellar-dynamical hardening of unequal mass massive black hole (MBH) binaries in the central regions of galactic nuclei. We present a comprehensive set of direct N-body simulations of the problem, varying both the total mass and the mass ratio of the MBH binary. Our initial model starts as an axisymmetric, rotating galactic nucleus, to describe the situation right after the galaxies have merged, but the black holes are still unbound to each other. We confirm that results presented in earlier works (Berczik et al. 2006; Khan et al. 2013; Wang et al. 2014) about the solution of the “last parsec problem” (sufficiently fast black hole coalescence for black hole growth in cosmological context) are robust for both for the case of unequal black hole masses and large particle numbers. The MBH binary hardening rate depends on the reduced mass ratio through a single parameter function, which quantitatively quite well agrees with standard 3 body scattering theory (see e.g., Hills 1983). Based on our results we conclude that MBH binaries at high redshifts are expected to merge with a factor of ~ 2 more efficiently, which is important to determine the possible overall gravitational wave signals. However, we have not yet fully covered all the possible parameter space, in particular with respect to the preceding of the galaxy mergers, which may lead to a wider variety of initial models, such as initially more oblate and / or even significantly triaxial galactic nuclei. Our N-body simulations were carried out on a new special supercomputers using the hardware acceleration with graphic processing units (GPUs).
Previous research on globular clusters (GCs) dynamics is mostly based on semi-analytic, Fokker-Planck, Monte-Carlo methods and on direct N-body (NB) simulations. These works have great advantages but also limits since GCs are massive and compact and close encounters and binaries play very important roles in their dynamics. The former three methods make approximations and assumptions, while expensive computing time and number of stars limit the latter method. The current largest direct NB simulation has ~ 500k stars (Heggie 2014). Here, we accelerate the direct NB code NBODY6++ (which extends NBODY6 to supercomputers by using MPI) with new parallel computing technologies (GPU, OpenMP + SSE/AVX). Our aim is to handle large N (up to 106) direct NB simulations to obtain better understanding of the dynamical evolution of GCs.
Triple supermassive black holes (SMBH) can form during the hierarchical mergers of massive galaxies with an existing binary. Perturbations by a third black hole may accelerate the merging process of an inner binary, for example through the Kozai mechanism. We analyze the evolution of simulated hierarchical triple SMBHs in galactic centers, and find resonances in the evolution of the semi-major axis, the eccentricity and the inclination, for both the inner and the outer orbits of the triple system, which are not only Kozai like. Through resonant oscillations, SMBH can trigger a significant increase of the inner SMBH binary eccentricity shortening the merger timescale expected from gravitational wave (GW) emission. As hierarchical triple SMBHs may be frequent in massive galaxies, the influence of orbital resonances is of great importance to our understanding of black hole coalescence and gravitational wave detection. Although Kozai mechanism is believed to play an important role in this process, detailed studies on the pattern of these resonances is necessary.