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Deciphering charge-storage mechanisms in 3D MnOx@carbon electrode nanoarchitectures for rechargeable zinc-ion cells

  • Jesse S. Ko (a1), Martin D. Donakowski (a2), Megan B. Sassin (a3), Joseph F. Parker (a3), Debra R. Rolison (a3) and Jeffrey W. Long (a3)...


We previously demonstrated that electrode architectures comprising nanoscale birnessite-like MnOx affixed to three-dimensional carbon nanofoam (CNF) scaffolds offer performance advantages when used as cathodes in rechargeable zinc-ion cells. To discern chemical and physical changes at the MnOx@CNF electrode upon deep charge/discharge in aqueous Zn2+-containing electrolytes, we deploy electroanalytical methods and ex situ characterization by microscopy, elemental analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray pair distribution function analyses. Our findings verify that redox processes at the MnOx are accompanied by reversible precipitation/dissolution of crystalline zinc hydroxide sulfate (Zn4(OH)6(SO4xH2O), mediated by the more uniformly reactive electrode structure inherent to the CNF scaffold.


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Address all correspondence to Jeffrey W. Long at


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Supplementary materials

Ko et al. supplementary material
Figures S1-S9 and Table S1

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