To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The adaptation of high-frequency heating techniques to a vertical diffractometer will be discussed. The heating system functions as a. portion of an integrated system that provides a wide range of atmospheric and temperature control. Some of the design problems and their solutions and operating characteristics of the system will be described. The useful temperature range is from less than 200°C to greater than 1600°C, depending upon the fur-nace atmosphere and susceptors used. Gaseous pressures may be from vacuo of about 10−6 mm to about 30 psia; and, the sample may be heated in oxidizing, neutral, or reducing atmospheres.
Due to differences in the circulation of influenza viruses, distribution and antigenic drift of A subtypes and B lineages, and susceptibility to infection in the population, the incidence of symptomatic influenza infection can vary widely between seasons and age-groups. Our goal was to estimate the symptomatic infection incidence in the Netherlands for the six seasons 2011/2012 through 2016/2017, using Bayesian evidence synthesis methodology to combine season-specific sentinel surveillance data on influenza-like illness (ILI), virus detections in sampled ILI cases and data on healthcare-seeking behaviour. Estimated age-aggregated incidence was 6.5 per 1000 persons (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 4.7–9.0) for season 2011/2012, 36.7 (95% UI: 31.2–42.8) for 2012/2013, 9.1 (95% UI: 6.3–12.9) for 2013/2014, 41.1 (95% UI: 35.0–47.7) for 2014/2015, 39.4 (95% UI: 33.4–46.1) for 2015/2016 and 27.8 (95% UI: 22.7–33.7) for season 2016/2017. Incidence varied substantially between age-groups (highest for the age-group <5 years: 23 to 47/1000, but relatively low for 65+ years: 2 to 34/1000 over the six seasons). Integration of all relevant data sources within an evidence synthesis framework has allowed the estimation – with appropriately quantified uncertainty – of the incidence of symptomatic influenza virus infection. These estimates provide valuable insight into the variation in influenza epidemics across seasons, by virus subtype and lineage, and between age-groups.
Objectives: Maintaining two active languages may increase cognitive and brain reserve among bilingual individuals. We explored whether such a neuroprotective effect was manifested in the performance of memory tests for participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods: We compared 42 bilinguals to 25 monolinguals on verbal and nonverbal memory tests. We used: (a) the Loewenstein-Acevedo Scales for Semantic Interference and Learning (LASSI-L), a sensitive test that taps into proactive, retroactive, and recovery from proactive semantic interference (verbal memory), and (b) the Benson Figure delayed recall (nonverbal memory). A subsample had volumetric MRI scans. Results: The bilingual group significantly outperformed the monolingual group on two LASSI-L cued recall measures (Cued A2 and Cued B2). A measure of maximum learning (Cued A2) showed a correlation with the volume of the left hippocampus in the bilingual group only. Cued B2 recall (sensitive to recovery from proactive semantic interference) was correlated with the volume of the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex of both cerebral hemispheres in the bilingual group, as well as with the left and right hippocampus in the monolingual group. The memory advantage in bilinguals on these measures was associated with higher inhibitory control as measured by the Stroop Color-Word test. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated a superior performance of aMCI bilinguals over aMCI monolinguals on selected verbal memory tasks. This advantage was not observed in nonverbal memory. Superior memory performance of bilinguals over monolinguals suggests that bilinguals develop a different and perhaps more efficient semantic association system that influences verbal recall. (JINS, 2019, 25, 15–28)
Introduction: EMS time factors such as total prehospital, activation, response, scene and transport intervals have been used as a measure of EMS system quality with the assumption that shorter EMS time factors save lives. The objective was to assess in adults and children accessing ground EMS (population), whether operational time factors (intervention and control) were associated with survival at hospital discharge (outcome). Methods: Medline, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched up to January 2015 for articles reporting original data that associated EMS operational time factors and survival. Conference abstracts and non-English language articles were excluded. Two investigators independently assessed the candidate titles, abstracts, and full text with discrepant reviews resolved by consensus. Risk of bias was assessed using GRADE. Results: A total of 10,151 abstracts were screened for potential inclusion, 199 articles were reviewed in full-text, and 73 met inclusion criteria. Amongst included studies, 49 investigated response time, while 24 investigated other time factors. All articles were observational studies. Amongst the 14 (28.6%) studies where response time was the primary analysis, statistically significant associations between shorter response time and increased survival were found in 5 of 7 cardiac arrest, 1 of 5 general EMS population, and 0 of 2 trauma studies. Other time factors were reported in the primary analysis in 10 (41.7%) studies. One study reported shorter combined scene and transport intervals associated with increased survival in acute heart failure patients. Two studies in trauma patients had somewhat conflicting results with one study reporting shorter prehospital interval associated with increased survival whereas the other reported increased survival associated with longer scene and transport intervals. Study design, analysis, and methodological quality were of considerable variability, and thus, meta-analyses were not possible. Conclusion: There is a substantial body of literature describing the association between EMS time factors and survival, but evidence informing these relationships are heterogeneous and complex. Important details such as patient population, EMS system characteristics, and analytical approach must be taken into consideration to appropriately translate these findings to practice. These results will be important for EMS leaders wishing to create evidence-based time policies.
Acoustic emissions in the audio spectrum are reported from observations of laboratory experiments conducted on snow samples in uniaxial compression. A number of tests show the pattern of acoustic emissions to be a function of the rate of deformation. Over the frequency range 20 to 7 000 Hz acoustic emissions are associated with rates of deformation corresponding to brittle fracture of the snow sample. Though probably present, no acoustic emissions were detected from samples deforming plastically.
Because individuals develop dementia as a manifestation of neurodegenerative or neurovascular disorder, there is a need to develop reliable approaches to their identification. We are undertaking an observational study (Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative [ONDRI]) that includes genomics, neuroimaging, and assessments of cognition as well as language, speech, gait, retinal imaging, and eye tracking. Disorders studied include Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, and vascular cognitive impairment. Data from ONDRI will be collected into the Brain-CODE database to facilitate correlative analysis. ONDRI will provide a repertoire of endophenotyped individuals that will be a unique, publicly available resource.
In the 1998-99 flight, BOOMERanG has produced maps of ∼4% of the sky at high Galactic latitudes, at frequencies of 90, 150, 240 and 410 GHz, with resolution ≳ 10'. The faint structure of the Cosmic Microwave Background at horizon and sub-horizon scales is evident in these maps. These maps compare well to the maps recently obtained at lower frequencies by the WMAP experiment. Here we compare the amplitude and morphology of the structures observed in the two sets of maps. We also outline the polarization sensitive version of BOOMERanG, which was flown early this year to measure the linear polarization of the microwave sky at 150, 240 and 350 GHz.
The Arcminute Cosmology Bolometer Array Receiver (Acbar) is a multifrequency millimeter-wave receiver optimized for observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in clusters of galaxies. Acbar was installed on the 2.1 m Viper telescope at the South Pole in January 2001 and the results presented here incorporate data through July 2002. The power spectrum of the CMB at 150 GHz over the range ℓ = 150 — 3000 measured by Acbar is presented along with estimates for the values of the cosmological parameters within the context of ΛCDM models. The inclusion of ΩΛ greatly improves the fit to the power spectrum. Three-frequency images of the SZ decrement/increment are also presented for the galaxy cluster 1E0657–67.
Two radiocarbon excursions (AD 774–775 and AD 993–994) occurred due to an increase of incoming cosmic rays on a short timescale. The most plausible cause of these events is considered to be extreme solar proton events (SPE). It is possible that there are other annual 14C excursions in the past that have yet to be confirmed. In order to detect more of these events, we measured the 14C contents in bristlecone pine tree-ring samples during the periods when the rate of 14C increase in the IntCal data is large. We analyzed four periods every other year (2479–2455 BC, 4055–4031 BC, 4465–4441 BC, and 4689–4681 BC), and found no anomalous 14C excursions during these periods. This study confirms that it is important to do continuous measurements to find annual cosmic-ray events at other locations in the tree-ring record.
Peat deposits in Greenland and Denmark were investigated to show that high-resolution dating of these archives of atmospheric deposition can be provided for the last 50 years by radiocarbon dating using the atmospheric bomb pulse. 14C was determined in macrofossils from sequential one cm slices using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Values were calibrated with a general-purpose curve derived from annually averaged atmospheric 14CO2 values in the northernmost northern hemisphere (NNH, 30°–90°N). We present a thorough review of 14C bomb-pulse data from the NNH including our own measurements made in tree rings and seeds from Arizona as well as other previously published data. We show that our general-purpose calibration curve is valid for the whole NNH producing accurate dates within 1–2 years. In consequence, 14C AMS can precisely date individual points in recent peat deposits within the range of the bomb-pulse (from the mid-1950s on). Comparing the 14C AMS results with the customary dating method for recent peat profiles by 210Pb, we show that the use of 137Cs to validate and correct 210Pb dates proves to be more problematic than previously supposed.
As a unique example of our technique, we show how this chronometer can be applied to identify temporal changes in Hg concentrations from Danish and Greenland peat cores.
Prom 1973 till 1981 sixteen Ap stars were investigated regarding to short time light variations with the twin telescope of the Zentralinstitut für Astrophysik stationed at the observatory Shemahka of the Academy of Science of Aserbaidshan. Only five of these stars show significant varyations with characteristical times in the region of 0.5 to 5 houres and amplitudes of about 0.01 mag. We will present here a short discussion of these five stars.
Genetic testing in psychiatry promises to improve patient care through
advances in personalised medicine. However, there are few clinically
To determine whether patients with a well-established genetic subtype of
schizophrenia show a different response profile to the antipsychotic
clozapine than those with idiopathic schizophrenia.
We retrospectively studied the long-term safety and efficacy of clozapine
in 40 adults with schizophrenia, half with a 22q11.2 deletion (22q11.2DS
group) and half matched for age and clinical severity but molecularly
confirmed to have no pathogenic copy number variant (idiopathic
Both groups showed similar clinical improvement and significant
reductions in hospitalisations, achieved at a lower median dose for those
in the 22q11.2DS group. Most common side-effects were similarly prevalent
between the two groups, however, half of the 22q11.2DS group experienced
at least one rare serious adverse event compared with none of the
idiopathic group. Many were successfully retried on clozapine.
Individuals with 22q11.2DS-schizophrenia respond as well to clozapine
treatment as those with other forms of schizophrenia, but may represent a
disproportionate number of those with serious adverse events, primarily
seizures. Lower doses and prophylactic (for example anticonvulsant)
management strategies can help ameliorate side-effect risks. This first
systematic evaluation of antipsychotic response in a genetic subtype of
schizophrenia provides a proof-of-principle for personalised medicine and
supports the utility of clinical genetic testing in schizophrenia.
This study aimed to link expression patterns of AQP1, AQP5, Bcl-2 and p16 to clinicopathological characteristics of oro-hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas.
Immunohistochemical expression of AQP1, AQP5, Bcl-2 and p16 was investigated in 107 consecutive oro-hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cases. Molecular interrelationship and correlations with clinicopathological parameters and survival were computed.
AQP1 was expressed exclusively by a subgroup of basaloid-like squamous cell carcinomas. AQP5 was detected in 25.2 per cent of the samples, showing significant association with the absence of p16 and Bcl-2 (p = 0.018; p = 0.010). In multivariate analysis, overexpression of p16 was significantly correlated with favourable overall survival (p = 0.014).
AQP5 defined a subset of patients with Bcl-2-negative and p16-negative tumours with a poor clinical outcome. AQP1 was found to be a marker of a subgroup of aggressive basaloid-like squamous cell carcinomas. These findings suggest that AQP1 and AQP5 are interesting candidates for further studies on risk group classification and personalised treatment of oro-hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas.
Reduced cortical gray-matter volume is commonly observed in patients with psychosis. Cortical volume is a composite measure that includes surface area, thickness and gyrification. These three indices show distinct maturational patterns and may be differentially affected by early adverse events. The study goal was to determine the impact of two distinct obstetrical complications (OCs) on cortical morphology.
A detailed birth history and MRI scans were obtained for 36 patients with first-episode psychosis and 16 healthy volunteers.
Perinatal hypoxia and slow fetal growth were associated with cortical volume (Cohen's d = 0.76 and d = 0.89, respectively) in patients. However, the pattern of associations differed across the three components of cortical volume. Both hypoxia and fetal growth were associated with cortical surface area (d = 0.88 and d = 0.72, respectively), neither of these two OCs was related to cortical thickness, and hypoxia but not fetal growth was associated with gyrification (d = 0.85). No significant associations were found within the control sample.
Cortical dysmorphology was associated with OCs. The use of a global measure of cortical morphology or a global measure of OCs obscured important relationships between these measures. Gyrification is complete before 2 years and its strong relationship with hypoxia suggests an early disruption to brain development. Cortical thickness matures later and, consistent with previous research, we found no association between thickness and OCs. Finally, cortical surface area is largely complete by puberty and the present results suggest that events during childhood do not fully compensate for the effects of early disruptive events.
Biogenic nitrogen (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulations were measured in groundwater, streams and the vadose zone of small agricultural watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic USA. In general, N2 and N2O in excess of atmospheric equilibrium were found in groundwater virtually everywhere that was sampled. Excess N2 in groundwater ranged from undetectable to 616 μmol N2-N/l, the latter representing c. 50% of background N2. The N2O-N concentrations varied from undetectable to 75 μm, and usually greatly exceeded values at atmospheric equilibrium (25–30 nM); however, N2O was generally 1–10% of excess N2. Intermediate levels of deficit and excess N2 in flowing streams (−65 to +250 μmol N2-N/L) resulting from both abiotic and biotic processes were also measured. In vadose zone gases, multiple N2/Ar gas profiles were measured which exhibited seasonal variations with below atmospheric values when the soil was warming in spring/summer and above atmospheric values when groundwater was cooling in fall/winter. Both abiotic and biotic processes contributed to the excess N2 and N2O that was observed. The current data indicate that large concentrations of excess N gases can accumulate within soil, groundwater, and streams of agriculturally dominated watersheds. When excess N gases are exchanged with the atmosphere, the net fluxes to the atmosphere may represent an important loss term for watershed N budgets.
The optical properties of polycrystalline layers of CrSi2, MnSi1.73, β-FeSi2, and Ir3Si5 prepared by single layer and codeposition methods on different substrates are measured over the spectral range from the infrared to 24 eV. The spectral features in the interband region are attributed to transitions between Si p-metal d bonding and antibonding states mediated by energy dependent matrix elements. The IR spectra of CrSi2 and β-FeSi2, exhibiting six phonon modes, are simulated by an oscillator model.
Thin films in the Bi‐Sr‐Ca‐Cu‐O system have been synthesized from liquid ethyl hexanoate precursors by spin pyrolysis. An extensive solid solution range was determined for the two Cu‐layer phase through the study of c‐axis oriented, single‐phase thin films fabricated on single‐crystal MgO (100). Extensive cation non‐stoichiometry was observed in all cases. The variation of important thin film properties with composition within the solid solution range have been described.
Utilising the results from the thin film study together with data relating to liquid formation in mixtures of bulk material a working model describing the formation of the two‐layer phase has been formulated. The two‐layer phase is formed as the result of precipitation from a fugitive liquid at temperatures exceeding 730 *C.