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The original description of the large and characteristic belemnite species Arctoteuthis bluethgeni Doyle was based on fragmentary material from a relatively uncertain stratigraphic interval in Kong Karls Land, Svalbard. Recent collection of a belemnite assemblage in the Lower Cretaceous Rurikfjellet Formation on Spitsbergen include numerous complete specimens, allowing a detailed description of the species. With the exception of a specimen reported from Arctic Canada, its distribution is restricted to Svalbard. Its stratigraphic range appears to be restricted to the upper Valanginian – lower Hauterivian from ages obtained from palynostratigraphy. A. bluethgeni is therefore considered to be a useful Lower Cretaceous guide fossil in the Boreal High Arctic.
The diet of most adults is low in fish and, therefore, provides limited quantities of the long-chain, omega-3 fatty acids (LCn-3FAs), eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA, DHA). Since these compounds serve important roles in the brain, we sought to determine if healthy adults with low-LCn-3FA consumption would exhibit improvements in neuropsychological performance and parallel changes in brain morphology following repletion through fish oil supplementation.
In a randomized, controlled trial, 271 mid-life adults (30–54 years of age, 118 men, 153 women) consuming ⩽300 mg/day of LCn-3FAs received 18 weeks of supplementation with fish oil capsules (1400 mg/day of EPA and DHA) or matching placebo. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery examining four cognitive domains: psychomotor speed, executive function, learning/episodic memory, and fluid intelligence. A subset of 122 underwent neuroimaging before and after supplementation to measure whole-brain and subcortical tissue volumes.
Capsule adherence was over 95%, participant blinding was verified, and red blood cell EPA and DHA levels increased as expected. Supplementation did not affect performance in any of the four cognitive domains. Exploratory analyses revealed that, compared to placebo, fish oil supplementation improved executive function in participants with low-baseline DHA levels. No changes were observed in any indicator of brain morphology.
In healthy mid-life adults reporting low-dietary intake, supplementation with LCn-3FAs in moderate dose for moderate duration did not affect neuropsychological performance or brain morphology. Whether salutary effects occur in individuals with particularly low-DHA exposure requires further study.
The Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) is host to a broadband, multimode seismic wavefield that is excited in response to atmospheric, oceanic and solid Earth source processes. A 34-station broadband seismographic network installed on the RIS from late 2014 through early 2017 produced continuous vibrational observations of Earth's largest ice shelf at both floating and grounded locations. We characterize temporal and spatial variations in broadband ambient wavefield power, with a focus on period bands associated with primary (10–20 s) and secondary (5–10 s) microseism signals, and an oceanic source process near the ice front (0.4–4.0 s). Horizontal component signals on floating stations overwhelmingly reflect oceanic excitations year-round due to near-complete isolation from solid Earth shear waves. The spectrum at all periods is shown to be strongly modulated by the concentration of sea ice near the ice shelf front. Contiguous and extensive sea ice damps ocean wave coupling sufficiently so that wintertime background levels can approach or surpass those of land-sited stations in Antarctica.
Early-life environmental and nutritional exposures are considered to contribute to the differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden. Among sub-Saharan African populations, the association between markers of early-life exposures such as leg length and sitting height and CVD risk is yet to be investigated. This study assessed the association between leg length, sitting height, and estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk among Ghanaian-born populations in Europe and Ghana. We constructed sex-specific quintiles for sitting height and leg length for 3250 participants aged 40–70 years (mean age 52 years; men 39.6%; women 60.4%) in the cross-sectional multicenter Research on Diabetes and Obesity among African Migrants study. Ten-year risk of ASCVD was estimated using the Pooled Cohort Equations; risk ≥7.5% was defined as “elevated” CVD risk. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated to determine the associations between sitting height, leg length, and estimated 10-year ASCVD risk. For both men and women, mean sitting height and leg length were highest in Europe and lowest in rural Ghana. Sitting height was inversely associated with 10-year ASCVD risk among all women (PR for 1 standard deviation increase of sitting height: 0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.67, 0.85). Among men, an inverse association between sitting height and 10-year ASCVD risk was significant on adjustment for study site, adult, and parental education but attenuated when further adjusted for height. No association was found between leg length and estimated 10-year ASCVD risk. Early-life and childhood exposures that influence sitting height could be the important determinants of ASCVD risk in this adult population.
In November, 1917, the German sociologist Max Weber delivered a now-famous lecture, “Science as a Vocation,” before an assembly of students and faculty at the University of Munich. “The fate of our times,” he declared, “is characterized by rationalization and intellectualization and, above all, by the ‘disenchantment of the world.’” Weber intended this remark as a global characterization of a modern society in which the natural sciences and bureaucratic rationality had conspired to undermine confidence in religious values and traditional sources of meaning. But we may also take his words as a more general verdict on the condition of modern European thought at the dawn of the twentieth century, when intellectuals from across the continent looked upon the wreckage of the First World War as a turning point in civilization, as a violent end to the nineteenth century and a grim foretaste of the world to come. Weber himself remained in a posture of ambivalence: He feared that the higher ideals of the Enlightenment were “irretrievably lost” and that only the imperative of “economic compulsion” would prevail.
It is something of a truism that each age must work through the legacy of its predecessors. In the case of the nineteenth century, this obvious statement gains poignancy when one considers the novel challenges and possibilities of the eighteenth century, which was, after all, the age of the Enlightenment. In its many guises and national variations, the Enlightenment asserted provocative and epoch-making claims about the role of reason, science, and criticism vis-à-vis the traditional authority of religion, state, and received knowledge. It drew new roadmaps for the conscious and reflexive reform of society and the betterment of people. At its core, it articulated a new emancipatory project – at once philosophical and political – chiefly oriented toward the ideal of individual autonomy. The cultural, social, and political configuration that shaped the Enlightenment came to something of an end in the closing decade of the eighteenth century, partly through processes of internal critique but also, spectacularly, through the political collapse of the Old Regime. In the changed circumstances of the early nineteenth century, the Enlightenment fragmented into a multitude of contests over the meaning of its legacy. What is the status of reason, and what is its proper relationship to other modes of knowledge? What of religion? What is the key discipline or cultural form that will, depending on one’s perspective and priority, advance, hinder, or deepen the impulses of enlightenment? What are the promises and perils of the project of emancipation, and how might it be continued, radicalized, or restrained? Are there limits to the pursuit of individual autonomy? What is the proper relation between the past and the future, tradition and innovation? None of these questions admitted definitive answers, but they fueled creative efforts, debate, and conflict across a great range of intellectual and cultural pursuits.
On November 7, 1917 Max Weber offered his comments on “Science as a Vocation” before an assembly of students and faculty at the University of Munich, declaring that “disenchantment” was an “inescapable condition” and “the fate of our times.” But history tells us that nothing is truly inevitable. Although modern European intellectual history is replete with narratives of disenchantment and religious decline, the fact remains that religious speculation and formal discourses of theology survived well through the end of the twentieth century. For intellectuals who have shed the last remnants of personal faith, the endurance of theology in late modernity may seem perplexing, a symptom of what Nietzsche called Unzeitgemäßigkeit, or a decalibration in time. Already in 1882 Nietzsche’s madman declared that “God is dead. God remains dead. And we have killed him.” But even the madman recognized that he had come “too early.” What he called the “tremendous event” of God’s death was “still on its way”; it had “not yet reached the ears of men.” Critics who harken to the madman’s prophesy may likewise insist that European religious thought is a remnant of an earlier and more pious age.
A wide margin of crop safety is a desirable trait of POST herbicides, and investigation of crop tolerance is a key step in evaluation of new herbicides. Six field experiments were conducted in Ontario, Canada, from 2017 to 2018 to examine the influence of corn (Zea mays L.) hybrid (DKC42-60RIB, DKC43-47RIB, P0094AM, and P9840AM), application rate (1X and 2X), and application timing (PRE, V1, V3, and V5) on the tolerance of field corn to tolpyralate, a new 4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase inhibitor, co-applied with atrazine. Two corn hybrids (DKC42-60RIB and DKC43-47RIB) exhibited slightly greater visible injury from tolpyralate + atrazine, applied POST, than P0094AM and P9840AM at 1 to 2 wk after application (WAA); hybrids responded similarly with respect to height, grain moisture, and yield. Applications of tolpyralate + atrazine at a 2X rate (80 + 2,000 g ai ha−1) induced greater injury (≤31.6%) than the field rate (40 + 1,000 g ha−1) (≤11.6%); the 2X rate applied at V1 or V3 decreased corn height and slightly increased grain moisture at harvest. On average, field rates resulted in marginally higher grain yields than 2X rates. Based on mixed-model multiple stepwise regression analysis, the air temperature at application, time of day, temperature range in the 24 h before application, and precipitation following application were useful predictor variables in estimating crop injury with tolpyralate + atrazine; however, additional environmental variables also affected crop injury. These results demonstrate the margin of corn tolerance with tolpyralate + atrazine, which provides a basis for optimization of application timing, rate, and corn hybrid selection to mitigate the risk of crop injury with this herbicide tank mixture.