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The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Residual stresses were measured in hardened and tempered specimens after unidirectional plastic extension. X-ray and strain gage-layer removal methods were compared. Anomalous residual stresses were found in extended samples at hardnesses of Rc 32–35. The X-ray method indicated compressive residual stresses of nearly constant magnitude through ⅓ the thickness of flat samples, while the strain gagelayer removal method indicated that no macrostress existed. A constant anomalous residual stress was also seen by X-ray through ⅗ the thickness of a cylindrical specimen deformed uniformly in tension. Little or no anomalous stress was found in an extended specimen at Re 55 or in a specimen at Rc 44 after uniform bending.
We present a model for the force acting to fragment a biofilm-seeded microbial aggregate in shear flow, which we derive by coupling an existing model for the shape and orientation of a deforming ellipsoid with one for the surface force density on a solid ellipsoid. The model can be used to simulate the motion, shape, surface force density, and breakage of colloidal aggregates in shear flow. We apply the model to the case of exhaustive fragmentation of microbial aggregates in order to compute a post-fragmentation density function, indicating the likelihood of a fragmenting aggregate yielding daughter aggregates of a certain size.
A substantial proportion of persons with mental disorders seek treatment from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professionals. However, data on how CAM contacts vary across countries, mental disorders and their severity, and health care settings is largely lacking. The aim was therefore to investigate the prevalence of contacts with CAM providers in a large cross-national sample of persons with 12-month mental disorders.
In the World Mental Health Surveys, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to determine the presence of past 12 month mental disorders in 138 801 participants aged 18–100 derived from representative general population samples. Participants were recruited between 2001 and 2012. Rates of self-reported CAM contacts for each of the 28 surveys across 25 countries and 12 mental disorder groups were calculated for all persons with past 12-month mental disorders. Mental disorders were grouped into mood disorders, anxiety disorders or behavioural disorders, and further divided by severity levels. Satisfaction with conventional care was also compared with CAM contact satisfaction.
An estimated 3.6% (standard error 0.2%) of persons with a past 12-month mental disorder reported a CAM contact, which was two times higher in high-income countries (4.6%; standard error 0.3%) than in low- and middle-income countries (2.3%; standard error 0.2%). CAM contacts were largely comparable for different disorder types, but particularly high in persons receiving conventional care (8.6–17.8%). CAM contacts increased with increasing mental disorder severity. Among persons receiving specialist mental health care, CAM contacts were reported by 14.0% for severe mood disorders, 16.2% for severe anxiety disorders and 22.5% for severe behavioural disorders. Satisfaction with care was comparable with respect to CAM contacts (78.3%) and conventional care (75.6%) in persons that received both.
CAM contacts are common in persons with severe mental disorders, in high-income countries, and in persons receiving conventional care. Our findings support the notion of CAM as largely complementary but are in contrast to suggestions that this concerns person with only mild, transient complaints. There was no indication that persons were less satisfied by CAM visits than by receiving conventional care. We encourage health care professionals in conventional settings to openly discuss the care patients are receiving, whether conventional or not, and their reasons for doing so.
Four key policy challenges, framed here as dichotomies, are commonly associated with attempts to improve the use of natural resources in the socioecological commons. These dichotomies present tradeoffs when addressing market failures and in general seem to suggest the need to settle for second-best outcomes rather than first-best outcomes identified in stylized models. Citing examples, we argue that these models, while illustrating these dichotomies, also suggest means for circumventing them, and perhaps provide a degree of optimism about prospective outcomes in socioecological systems.
Nodal metastasis is an important prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. This study aimed to determine the average nodal basin yield per level of neck dissection, and to investigate if age, gender, body mass index, tumour size, depth of tumour invasion and p16 status influence nodal yield.
A retrospective review of 185 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma generated 240 neck dissection specimens.
The respective mean nodal yields for levels I, II, III, IV and V were 5.27, 9.43, 8.49, 7.43 and 9.02 in non-cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma patients, and 4.2, 7.57, 9.65, 4.33 and 12.29 in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma patients. Multiple regression analysis revealed that p16-positive patients with mucosal squamous cell carcinoma yielded, on average, 2.4 more nodes than their p16-negative peers (p = 0.04, 95 per cent confidence interval = 0.116 to 4.693). This figure was 3.84 (p = 0.008, 95 per cent confidence interval = 1.070 to 6.605) for p16-positive patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.
In mucosal squamous cell carcinoma, p16-positive status significantly influenced nodal yield, with the impact being more pronounced in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma patients.
Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (LCTEM) provides a unique insight into the dynamics of nanomaterials in solution. Controlling the addition of multiple solutions to the liquid cell remains a key hurdle in our ability to increase throughput and to study processes dependent on solution mixing including chemical reactions. Here, we report that a piezo dispensing technique allows for mixing of multiple solutions directly within the viewing area. This technique permits deposition of 50 pL droplets of various aqueous solutions onto the liquid cell window, before assembly of the cell in a fully controlled manner. This proof-of-concept study highlights the great potential of picoliter dispensing in combination with LCTEM for observing nanoparticle mixing in the solution phase and the creation of chemical gradients.
Periods of rapid growth seen during the early stages of fetal development, including cell proliferation and differentiation, are greatly influenced by the maternal environment. We demonstrate here that over-nutrition, specifically exposure to a high-fat diet in utero, programed the extent of atherosclerosis in the offspring of ApoE*3 Leiden transgenic mice. Pregnant ApoE*3 Leiden mice were fed either a control chow diet (2.8% fat, n=12) or a high-fat, moderate-cholesterol diet (MHF, 19.4% fat, n=12). Dams were fed the chow diet during the suckling period. At 28 days postnatal age wild type and ApoE*3 Leiden offspring from chow or MHF-fed mothers were fed either a control chow diet (n=37) or a diet rich in cocoa butter (15%) and cholesterol (0.25%), for 14 weeks to induce atherosclerosis (n=36). Offspring from MHF-fed mothers had 1.9-fold larger atherosclerotic lesions (P<0.001). There was no direct effect of prenatal diet on plasma triglycerides or cholesterol; however, transgenic ApoE*3 Leiden offspring displayed raised cholesterol when on an atherogenic diet compared with wild-type controls (P=0.031). Lesion size was correlated with plasma lipid parameters after adjustment for genotype, maternal diet and postnatal diet (R2=0.563, P<0.001). ApoE*3 Leiden mothers fed a MHF diet developed hypercholesterolemia (plasma cholesterol two-fold higher than in chow-fed mothers, P=0.011). The data strongly suggest that maternal hypercholesterolemia programs later susceptibility to atherosclerosis. This is consistent with previous observations in humans and animal models.
Gram-negative bacilli frequently cause epidemics in high-risk newborn intensive care units. Recently, an epidemic caused by a multiply-resistant K. pneumoniae, serotype 21, occurred in the Vanderbilt University intensive care nursery. The background of this outbreak included an increasing endemic nosocomial sepsis rate, operation of the facility in excess of rated capacity, and increasingly inadequate nurse-to-patient staffing ratios. The epidemic lasted 11 weeks; 26 (12%) of the 232 infants at risk in the unit became colonized. Five infants developed systemic illness and one died. Cohorting, reinforcement of strict handwashing and isolation procedures, and closure of the unit to outborn admissions resulted in rapid termination of the outbreak. Followup studies performed on infants colonized with the epidemic bacterium demonstrated persistent fecal shedding up to 13 months following discharge from the hospital. This epidemic had a detrimental influence on high-risk newborn and obstetric health care delivery in an area encompassing portions of three states. Under a system of progressively more sophisticated referral units, nosocomial infections occurring at a tertiary center can have an impact on other hospitals within the network.
This study builds on existing research on the prevalence and consequences of mental illness discrimination by investigating and quantifying the relationships between experienced discrimination and costs of healthcare and leisure activities/social participation among secondary mental health service users in England.
We use data from the Mental Illness-Related Investigations on Discrimination (MIRIAD) study (n = 202) and a subsample of the Viewpoint study (n = 190). We examine experiences of discrimination due to mental illness in the domains of personal relationships, community activities, and health care, and how such experienced discrimination relates to patterns of service use and engagement in leisure activities.
Our findings show that the cost of health services used for individuals who reported previous experiences of discrimination in a healthcare setting was almost twice as high as for those who did not report any discrimination during the last 12 months (Relative Risk: 1.73; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.39, 2.17) and this was maintained after controlling for symptoms and functioning. Experienced discrimination in healthcare (Relative Risk: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.84) or in relationships (Relative Risk: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.91), however, was associated with lower participation in, and hence lower costs of, leisure activities. Individuals who reported any discrimination in a healthcare setting had, on average, £434 higher costs associated with health service use while reported discrimination in the community was associated with increased leisure costs of £32.
These findings make an important initial step towards understanding the magnitude of the costs of mental health-related discrimination.
Rotation is a key parameter in the evolution of massive stars, affecting their evolution, chemical yields, ionizing photon budget, and final fate. We determined the projected rotational velocity, υe sin i, of ~330 O-type objects, i.e. ~210 spectroscopic single stars and ~110 primaries in binary systems, in the Tarantula nebula or 30 Doradus (30 Dor) region. The observations were taken using VLT/FLAMES and constitute the largest homogeneous dataset of multi-epoch spectroscopy of O-type stars currently available. The most distinctive feature of the υe sin i distributions of the presumed-single stars and primaries in 30 Dor is a low-velocity peak at around 100 km s−1. Stellar winds are not expected to have spun-down the bulk of the stars significantly since their arrival on the main sequence and therefore the peak in the single star sample is likely to represent the outcome of the formation process. Whereas the spin distribution of presumed-single stars shows a well developed tail of stars rotating more rapidly than 300 km s−1, the sample of primaries does not feature such a high-velocity tail. The tail of the presumed-single star distribution is attributed for the most part – and could potentially be completely due – to spun-up binary products that appear as single stars or that have merged. This would be consistent with the lack of such post-interaction products in the binary sample, that is expected to be dominated by pre-interaction systems. The peak in this distribution is broader and is shifted toward somewhat higher spin rates compared to the distribution of presumed-single stars. Systems displaying large radial velocity variations, typical for short period systems, appear mostly responsible for these differences.
A census of the Critically Endangered Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis was conducted between March and May 2012 on and surrounding the Tonle Sap floodplain in Cambodia, which supports the last extant population of the Indochinese subspecies blandini. We found a decline in the number of displaying males of 44–64% since a comparable estimate from the same sites in 2005 to 2007. The estimated population, including five individuals at one previously unsurveyed site, is now 216 (95% CI 156–275) displaying males, plus potential non-displaying males and an unknown number of females. If numbers continue to be lost at a similar rate, it is possible that blandini would become extinct within 10 years. Although the population faces multiple threats, this critical situation has primarily been caused by the recent, rapid conversion of the florican’s grassland habitat to intensive, industrial-scale, irrigated rice cultivation. To protect the Bengal Florican from extinction in South East Asia, existing Bengal Florican Conservation Areas (BFCAs) need expansion and improvements, including strengthened legal status by prime ministerial sub-decree and better demarcation, patrolling and management. As priorities, both irrigated rice and scrub encroachment within the BFCAs needs to be reversed, local communities better supported, and land outside the BFCAs monitored and strategically managed for florican conservation. Where possible, further BFCAs need to be established. Land purchase may also be an effective conservation measure; leasing land earmarked for cultivation would be cheaper, but less secure.
We report a method for stress measurement and analysis in silicon oxide thin films using optical interference. Effects of design and fabrication on stress have been studied by fabricating submicron-thick slabs of oxide anchored at one end and extending over a reflective surface. Optical interference occurs between reflections from the surface and the oxide slab, giving rise to light and dark fringes that may be imaged with a microscope. Analysis of the interference pattern at different wavelengths gives the radius of curvature and means of stress mapping. The accuracy exceeds non-interferometric profilometry using optical or confocal microscopes, and it can be more quantitative than scanning electron microscopy. This nondestructive profilometry method can aid the stress optimization of silicon oxide or other transparent thin films to achieve specific mechanical characteristics in MEMS devices.