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High dietary phosphorus (P), particularly soluble salts, may contribute to chronic kidney disease development in cats. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety of P supplied at 1 g/1000 kcal (4184kJ) from a highly soluble P salt in P-rich dry format feline diets. Seventy-five healthy adult cats (n 25/group) were fed either a low P control (1·4 g/1000 kcal [4184kJ]; Ca:P ratio 0·97) or one of two test diets with 4 g/1000 kcal (4184 kJ); Ca:P 1·04 or 5 g/1000 kcal (4184kJ); Ca:P 1·27, both incorporating 1 g/1000 kcal (4184 kJ) sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) – for a period of 30 weeks in a randomised parallel-group study. Health markers in blood and urine, glomerular filtration rate, renal ultrasound and bone density were assessed at baseline and at regular time points. At the end of the test period, responses following transition to a commercial diet (total P – 2·34 g/1000 kcal [4184kJ], Ca:P 1·3) for a 4-week washout period were also assessed. No adverse effects on general, kidney or bone (skeletal) function and health were observed. P and Ca balance, some serum biochemistry parameters and regulatory hormones were increased in cats fed test diets from week 2 onwards (P ≤ 0·05). Data from the washout period suggest that increased serum creatinine and urea values observed in the two test diet groups were influenced by dietary differences during the test period, and not indicative of changes in renal function. The present data suggest no observed adverse effect level for feline diets containing 1 g P/1000 kcal (4184 kJ) from STPP and total P level of up to 5 g/1000 kcal (4184 kJ) when fed for 30 weeks.
To use Internet search data to compare duration of compliance for various diets.
Using a passive surveillance digital epidemiological approach, we estimated the average duration of diet compliance by examining monthly Internet searches for recipes related to popular diets. We fit a mathematical model to these data to estimate the time spent on a diet by new January dieters (NJD) and to estimate the percentage of dieters dropping out during the American winter holiday season between Thanksgiving and the end of December.
Internet searches in the USA for recipes related to popular diets over a 15-year period from 2004 to 2019.
Individuals in the USA performing Internet searches for recipes related to popular diets.
All diets exhibited significant seasonality in recipe-related Internet searches, with sharp spikes every January followed by a decline in the number of searches and a further decline in the winter holiday season. The Paleo diet had the longest average compliance times among NJD (5.32 ± 0.68 weeks) and the lowest dropout during the winter holiday season (only 14 ± 3 % dropping out in December). The South Beach diet had the shortest compliance time among NJD (3.12 ± 0.64 weeks) and the highest dropout during the holiday season (33 ± 7 % dropping out in December).
The current study is the first of its kind to use passive surveillance data to compare the duration of adherence with different diets and underscores the potential usefulness of digital epidemiological approaches to understanding health behaviours.
Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas (GHG) produced and released by eructation to the atmosphere in large volumes by ruminants. Enteric CH4 contributes significantly to global GHG emissions arising from animal agriculture. It has been contended that tropical grasses produce higher emissions of enteric CH4 than temperate grasses, when they are fed to ruminants. A number of experiments have been performed in respiration chambers and head-boxes to assess the enteric CH4 mitigation potential of foliage and pods of tropical plants, as well as nitrates (NO3−) and vegetable oils in practical rations for cattle. On the basis of individual determinations of enteric CH4 carried out in respiration chambers, the average CH4 yield for cattle fed low-quality tropical grasses (>70% ration DM) was 17.0 g CH4/kg DM intake. Results showed that when foliage and ground pods of tropical trees and shrubs were incorporated in cattle rations, methane yield (g CH4/kg DM intake) was decreased by 10% to 25%, depending on plant species and level of intake of the ration. Incorporation of nitrates and vegetable oils in the ration decreased enteric CH4 yield by ∼6% to ∼20%, respectively. Condensed tannins, saponins and starch contained in foliages, pods and seeds of tropical trees and shrubs, as well as nitrates and vegetable oils, can be fed to cattle to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions under smallholder conditions. Strategies for enteric CH4 mitigation in cattle grazing low-quality tropical forages can effectively increase productivity while decreasing enteric CH4 emissions in absolute terms and per unit of product (e.g. meat, milk), thus reducing the contribution of ruminants to GHG emissions and therefore to climate change.
Community engagement is important for reaching vulnerable populations in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A risk communication framework was implemented by a community-engaged research (CEnR) partnership in Southeast Minnesota to address COVID-19 prevention, testing, and socioeconomic impacts. Bidirectional communication between Communication Leaders and community members within their social networks was used by the partnership to refine messages, leverage resources, and advise policy makers. Over 14 days, messages were delivered by 24 Communication Leaders in 6 languages across 9 electronic platforms to 9882 individuals within their networks. CEnR partnerships may effectively implement crisis and emergency risk communication to vulnerable populations in a pandemic.
Andalusia is the most highly populated (7,849,799 hab.) region of the Spanish State. It has all the sanitary domains under its own Health Service (Consejería de Salud), and it has undertaken a deep reorganization of the psychiatric services, establishing a new model based on the mental health communitarian alternative that is already completely implanted. Rates of readmission are a method to assess the quality of care and an important tool in the planning of services of mental health.
The aim of this study is to establish if readmission rates are influenced by Human Resources in Psychiatric Community Devices.
Part of FIS Project PI05/90061 ‘Patterns of General Hospital Psychiatric Units Overuse’.
MBDS is a system of hospital register that gathers all the discharges produced in the andalusian hospitals. It is totally trustworthy from 1995, and we have processed data up to 2004.
Our Data Set register 101234 hospital admissions of psychiatric patients.
The number of admissions from patients who enter three times or more throughout the year has been: 22.66%(1995); 24.66% (1996); 31.01%(1997); 30.72%(1998); 34.07%(1999); 35.35%(2000); 36.92%(2001); 32.93%(2002); 31.20%(2003) and 29.36%(2004).
On the other hand, it has been an increase in Mental Health Human Resources Rates: 24.23-100.000 inhab-(1998); 24.19 (1999); 26.01(2000); 28.04(2001); 29.83(2002); 29.16(2003); 29.34(2004) and 29.90(2005).
Increasing human resources in psychiatric community devices do not change revolving-door rates in general hospital acute psychiatric units in a community mental health system.
Although investigation have demonstrated that stimulants are effective medication for the treatment of the symptoms on the ADHD, a commonly described but quite slightly studied side effect of this type of medication, is the effect on the emotional expression of patients.
evaluate the effect of the treatment with Methylphenidate on the affective/emotional expression in children diagnosed with ADHD.
It's a descriptive study of several cases series, from a center and about a unique group, where 'n” will be 15 children diagnosed with ADHD at the University Hospital, who were required beginning treatment with methylphenidate, with a daily dose of at least 0,3mg/Kg. In this study it will be evaluated the emotional expression of the group, according to the scale Expression and Emotion Scale for Children (EESC) making a comparison between the previous moment to the treatment and a subsequent month from its beginning.
The evaluation of the total result of the EESC conducted by the parent didn't show statistically significant differences between scores previously of the treatment and results after a month with it. The dominions (positive emotions, emotional flatness and emotional lability) didn't show differences between both periods of time, nevertheless, the positive emotions showed a tendency of reduction more showy than the rest, without getting to be statistically significant (p=0.0638).
Statistically there haven't been significant changes in the emotional expression of the children caused by the treatment with methylphenidate. Nevertheless, the data show that there is a tendency to an improvement in it.
There is a shortage of psychiatrists worldwide. Within Europe, psychiatric trainees can move between countries, which increases the problem in some countries and alleviates it in others. However, little is known about the reasons psychiatric trainees move to another country.
Survey of psychiatric trainees in 33 European countries, exploring how frequently psychiatric trainees have migrated or want to migrate, their reasons to stay and leave the country, and the countries where they come from and where they move to. A 61-item self-report questionnaire was developed, covering questions about their demographics, experiences of short-term mobility (from 3 months up to 1 year), experiences of long-term migration (of more than 1 year) and their attitudes towards migration.
A total of 2281 psychiatric trainees in Europe participated in the survey, of which 72.0% have ‘ever’ considered to move to a different country in their future, 53.5% were considering it ‘now’, at the time of the survey, and 13.3% had already moved country. For these immigrant trainees, academic was the main reason they gave to move from their country of origin. For all trainees, the overall main reason for which they would leave was financial (34.4%), especially in those with lower (<500€) incomes (58.1%), whereas in those with higher (>2500€) incomes, personal reasons were paramount (44.5%).
A high number of psychiatric trainees considered moving to another country, and their motivation largely reflects the substantial salary differences. These findings suggest tackling financial conditions and academic opportunities.
22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a primary immunodeficiency due to micro-deletion on the large arm of chromosome 22. Patients suffer from several anomalies, including metal illness, that such the case we present, mean a warning sign for further study.
Twenty-one years-old male, with psychotic symptoms, typical of schizophrenia, behavioral disorders and mental confusion, plus epileptic episodes and psychomotor agitation. Two previous incomes with the diagnosis of psychotic disorder not otherwise specified. Treated with anti-psychotics at low doses with inter-episode stability.
We considered the possibility of a neurodevelopmental disorder, with a multidisciplinary approach, resulting in the diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia and velocardiofacial syndrome, which had gone unnoticed. Mean doses of clozapine, haloperidol and topiramate were used. He accepted psychiatry and other specialties follow-up, since it requires a complex and multidisciplinary approach.
Definition of velocardiofacial Syndrome and lack of consensus on terminology:
– syndrome 22q11.2 DS as genetic subtype of schizophrenia? Opportunity to study the pathogenesis of schizophrenia;
– the importance of a comprehensive approach to early diagnosis, clinical improvement and preventing complications.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Disturbed sleep and activity are prominent features of bipolar disorder type I (BP-I). However, the relationship of sleep and activity characteristics to brain structure and behavior in euthymic BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives is unknown. Additionally, underlying genetic relationships between these traits have not been investigated.
Relationships between sleep and activity phenotypes, assessed using actigraphy, with structural neuroimaging (brain) and cognitive and temperament (behavior) phenotypes were investigated in 558 euthymic individuals from multi-generational pedigrees including at least one member with BP-I. Genetic correlations between actigraphy-brain and actigraphy-behavior associations were assessed, and bivariate linkage analysis was conducted for trait pairs with evidence of shared genetic influences.
More physical activity and longer awake time were significantly associated with increased brain volumes and cortical thickness, better performance on neurocognitive measures of long-term memory and executive function, and less extreme scores on measures of temperament (impulsivity, cyclothymia). These associations did not differ between BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives. For nine activity-brain or activity-behavior pairs there was evidence for shared genetic influence (genetic correlations); of these pairs, a suggestive bivariate quantitative trait locus on chromosome 7 for wake duration and verbal working memory was identified.
Our findings indicate that increased physical activity and more adequate sleep are associated with increased brain size, better cognitive function and more stable temperament in BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives. Additionally, we found evidence for pleiotropy of several actigraphy-behavior and actigraphy-brain phenotypes, suggesting a shared genetic basis for these traits.
With their sizes larger than 0.7 Mpc, Giant Radio Galaxies (GRGs) are the largest individual objects in the Universe. To date, the reason why they reach such enormous extensions is still unclear. One of the proposed scenarios suggests that they are the result of multiple episodes of jet activity. Cross-correlating the INTEGRAL+Swift AGN population with radio catalogues (NVSS, FIRST, SUMSS), we found that 22% of the sources are GRG (a factor four higher than those selected from radio catalogues). Remarkably, all of the sources in the sample show signs of restarting radio activity. The X-ray properties are consistent with this scenario, the sources being in a high-accretion, high-luminosity state with respect to the previous activity responsible for the radio lobes.
The citrus leafminer (CLM), Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton causes injury to citrus and related species in the Rutaceae family. The damage that the CLM larvae can cause is significant in citrus plantations. We tested two citrus cultivars — ‘Kinnow’ (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and ‘Fairchild’ (a hybrid of Citrus reticulata Clementine x Orlando Tangelo) — to quantify CLM larvae infestation and effect on the physiology of the citrus cultivars. We then compared the CLM larval weight with its associated damage. To calculate infestation level, mine area and total leaf area, we used the image analysis technique. The infestation level of CLM was higher in ‘Fairchild’ than in ‘Kinnow’ cultivar of citrus. For both cultivars, larval weight of CLM was directly proportional to the amount of mines generated. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the mines that CLM larvae generate pose significant effect on the net photosynthetic rates and water use efficiency of citrus nursery plants. These results will help improve our understanding of the interaction between CLM and citrus nursery plants and effect of the pest on the yield potential of the crop.
This study investigated the potential application of genomic selection under a multi-breed scheme in the Spanish autochthonous beef cattle populations using a simulation study that replicates the structure of linkage disequilibrium obtained from a sample of 25 triplets of sire/dam/offspring per population and using the BovineHD Beadchip. Purebred and combined reference sets were used for the genomic evaluation and several scenarios of different genetic architecture of the trait were investigated. The single-breed evaluations yielded the highest within-breed accuracies. Across breed accuracies were found low but positive on average confirming the genetic connectedness between the populations. If the same genotyping effort is split in several populations, the accuracies were lower when compared with single-breed evaluation, but showed a small advantage over small-sized purebred reference sets over the accuracies of subsequent generations. Besides, the genetic architecture of the trait did not show any relevant effect on the accuracy with the exception of rare variants, which yielded slightly lower results and higher loss of predictive ability over the generations.
The aim of the study was to determine whether routine probiotic supplementation (RPS) with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) or Lactobacillus acidophilus +Lactobacillus bifidum is associated with reduced risk of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC)≥Stage II in preterm neonates born at ≤32 weeks’ gestation. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on the effect of probiotic supplementation in very low birth weight infants in our neonatal unit by comparing two periods: before and after supplementation. The incidence of NEC≥Stage II, late-onset sepsis and all-cause mortality was compared for an equal period ‘before’ (Period I) and ‘after’ (Period II) RPS with LGG or L. acidophillus+L. bifidum. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to adjust for relevant confounders. The study population was composed of 261 neonates (Period I v. II: 134 v. 127) with comparable gestation duration and birth weights. In <32 weeks, we observed a significant reduction in NEC≥Stage II (11·3 v. 4·8 %), late-onset sepsis (16 v. 10·5 %) and mortality (19·4 v. 2·3 %). The benefits in neonates aged ≤27 weeks did not reach statistical significance. RPS with LGG or L. acidophillus+L. bifidum is associated with a reduced risk of NEC≥Stage II, late-onset sepsis and mortality in preterm neonates born at ≤32 weeks’ gestation.
The Spanish local beef cattle breeds have most likely common origin followed by a process of differentiation. This particular historical evolution has most probably left detectable signatures in the genome. The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions associated with differentiation processes in seven Spanish autochthonous populations (Asturiana de los Valles (AV), Avileña-Negra Ibérica (ANI), Bruna dels Pirineus (BP), Morucha (Mo), Pirenaica (Pi), Retinta (Re) and Rubia Gallega (RG)). The BovineHD 777K BeadChip was used on 342 individuals (AV, n=50; ANI, n=48; BP, n=50; Mo, n=50; Pi, n=48; Re, n=48; RG, n=48) chosen to be as unrelated as possible. We calculated the fixation index (FST) and performed a Bayesian analysis named SelEstim. The output of both procedures was very similar, although the Bayesian analysis provided a richer inference and allowed us to calculate significance thresholds by generating a pseudo-observed data set from the estimated posterior distributions. We identified a very large number of genomic regions, but when a very restrictive significance threshold was applied these regions were reduced to only 10. Among them, four regions can be highlighted because they comprised a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms and showed extremely high signals (Kullback–Leiber divergence (KLD)>6). They are located in BTA 2 (5 575 950 to 10 152 228 base pairs (bp)), BTA 5 (17 596 734 to 18 850 702 bp), BTA 6 (37 853 912 to 39 441 548 bp) and BTA 18 (13 345 515 to 15 243 838 bp) and harbor, among others, the MSTN (Myostatin), KIT-LG (KIT Ligand), LAP3 (leucine aminopeptidase 3), NAPCG (non-SMC condensing I complex, subunit G), LCORL (ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor-like) and MC1R (Melanocortin 1 receptor) genes. Knowledge on these genomic regions allows to identify potential targets of recent selection and helps to define potential candidate genes associated with traits of interest, such as coat color, muscle development, fertility, growth, carcass and immunological response.
This study aimed to evaluate the embryo development competence, the nuclear maturation and the viability of germinal vesicle (GV) and metaphase II (MII) oocytes vitrified by the Cryotop method. Cumulus–oocyte complexes were derived from bovine ovaries and three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, GV oocytes were vitrified and underwent in vitro maturation (IVM) or not and their nuclear maturation was assessed by orcein staining. In Experiment 2, GV oocytes and MII oocytes were vitrified or not and the viability was assessed by calcein/ethidium homodimer-1 staining. In Experiment 3, MII oocytes matured before or after vitrification were submitted to in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parthenogenetic activation (PA) in order to evaluate embryo development. No difference was found for the nuclear maturation rate in the GV group (50%) and the GV control group (67%; P = 0.23) and for viability rate (56%; 77%; P = 0.055, respectively). However, in the MII group (27%) viability was significantly lower than that of the MII control group (84%; P < 0.0001). The cleavage rate by IVF and PA was similar in the GV group and the MII group. In contrast, vitrified MII oocytes showed no capacity for blastocyst development after IVF or PA and vitrified GV oocytes were able to develop to blastocysts only after PA, but not after IVF. In conclusion, oocyte vitrification by the Cryotop method reduced the capacity for embryo development. Vitrification of GV oocytes, however, did not influence the capacity of meiotic nuclear maturation and they exhibited higher viability following vitrification at the MII stage.
The gastropod Buccinanops globulosus is commonly used as a bioindicator of tributyltin (TBT) contamination due to its high imposex incidence in maritime traffic areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate both oxidative stress in B. globulosus at three sites with different maritime activity, and imposex incidence in Nuevo Gulf, Argentina. Oxidative stress parameters in digestive glands, like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, reduced glutathione levels (GSH), and oxidative damage to lipids, estimated as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) as well as imposex parameters (% imposex and female penis length (FPL)) were measured in females. Gastropods from the harbour area showed 100% imposex, the highest FPL and TBARs content, as well as GSH levels and SOD activity.
The different oxidative stress responses and high imposex incidence at the harbour site may indicate a negative effect on the organism's physiological state due to environmental pollution.