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Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5 and H7 can infect poultry causing low pathogenicity (LP) AI, but these LPAIVs may mutate to highly pathogenic AIV in chickens or turkeys causing high mortality, hence H5/H7 subtypes demand statutory intervention. Serological surveillance in the European Union provides evidence of H5/H7 AIV exposure in apparently healthy poultry. To identify the most sensitive screening method as the first step in an algorithm to provide evidence of H5/H7 AIV infection, the standard approach of H5/H7 antibody testing by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) was compared with an ELISA, which detects antibodies to all subtypes. Sera (n = 1055) from 74 commercial chicken flocks were tested by both methods. A Bayesian approach served to estimate diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities, without assuming any ‘gold standard’. Sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA was 97% and 99.8%, and for H5/H7 HI 43% and 99.8%, respectively, although H5/H7 HI sensitivity varied considerably between infected flocks. ELISA therefore provides superior sensitivity for the screening of chicken flocks as part of an algorithm, which subsequently utilises H5/H7 HI to identify infection by these two subtypes. With the calculated sensitivity and specificity, testing nine sera per flock is sufficient to detect a flock seroprevalence of 30% with 95% probability.
This article examines the dynamics of collective behavior in Santiago, Chile every September 11, the date of the 1973 coup that brought General Augusto Pinochet to power. It uses a multiple-method strategy that includes participant observation, personal interviews, and content analysis of three major newspapers during the period 2003–8. The theoretical approach emphasizes time and space coordinates of specified social actors, sociocultural emergence, a limited range of dominant emotions, and dramaturgy to describe the complexity of ritualized commemorations. It shows that incidents occurring on this date are not primarily caused by the actions of social movement organizations. Moreover, the dichotomy of “day and night” used to understand the peaceful and violent commemorations is an oversimplification of a complex network of events, actors, and scenarios that has the effect of denying any legitimacy to actions that fall outside the state-approved practices.
The claims for large biological molecules and for prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the interstellar medium are summarized. These claims are compared with new UV laboratory spectra of numerous specimens. The results are incompatible with these claims.
The Society of Precision Agriculture Australia Inc. (SPAA) is recognised as a leading, grower driven farming group in Australia. As an organisation it provides programs and services to its members and wider industry to promote the development and adoption of Precision Agriculture (PA) technologies as a means of enhancing the profitability and sustainability of agricultural production systems. This is achieved through publishing Australia’s only PA-dedicated magazine, delivering field days, seminars and conducting on-farm PA demonstrations and experiments. SPAA provides farmers with an independent source of advice on new concepts and equipment. The grains industry was the springboard for initial adoption, with winegrapes, horticulture and the sugar industry the focus sectors for further expansion. The purpose of this paper is to share the SPAA experience with a view to assisting the development of similar organisations in other countries
The incidence of childhood respiratory infections in Greenland is among the highest globally. We performed a population-based study of 352 Greenlandic children aged 0–6 years aiming to describe rates and risk factors for carriage of four key bacteria associated with respiratory infections, their antimicrobial susceptibility and inter-bacterial associations. Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae grouped by serotypes included (VT) or not included (NVT) in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, non-typable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. S. pneumoniae was detected from age 2 weeks with a peak carriage rate of 60% in 2-year-olds. Young age and having siblings attending a daycare institution were associated with pneumococcal carriage. Overall co-colonization with ⩾2 of the studied bacteria was 52%. NTHi showed a positive association with NVT pneumococci and M. catarrhalis, respectively, M. catarrhalis was positively associated with S. pneumoniae, particular VT pneumococci, whereas S. aureus were negatively associated with NTHi and M. catarrhalis. Nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage was present unusually early in life and with frequent co-colonization. Domestic crowding increased odds of carriage. Due to important bacterial associations we suggest future surveillance of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine's impact on carriage in Greenland to also include other pathogens.
In studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), some have reported specific brain structure–function relationships among first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, but findings are inconsistent. We aimed to localize the brain regions where cortical thickness (CTh) and surface area (cortical area; CA) relate to neurocognition, by performing an MRI on participants and measuring their neurocognitive performance using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), in order to investigate any significant differences between FEP patients and control subjects (CS).
Exploration of potential correlations between specific cognitive functions and brain structure was performed using CANTAB computer-based neurocognitive testing and a vertex-by-vertex whole-brain MRI analysis of 63 FEP patients and 30 CS.
Significant correlations were found between cortical parameters in the frontal, temporal, cingular and occipital brain regions and performance in set-shifting, working memory manipulation, strategy usage and sustained attention tests. These correlations were significantly dissimilar between FEP patients and CS.
Significant correlations between CTh and CA with neurocognitive performance were localized in brain areas known to be involved in cognition. The results also suggested a disrupted structure–function relationship in FEP patients compared with CS.
Research on close binary systems has continued at a high level during the past triennium, although the rate of growth is noticeably slower – probably reflecting the cutbacks in funds to which many of us are subject. There have also been changes of emphasis within the field, which are commented on in the pages that follow. These reflect both changing opportunities for observation and the natural development of the subject. In many areas, the time is ripe for a more critical look at ideas that previously seemed adequate.
The VV Cep close binary system (O8V + M2 lab; P = 20 3 yrs.) is described from published spectral, radial velocity, photometric, and astrometric results. A long-term photometric monitoring program shows intrinsic variability in a red bandpass. Variability exists on several time scales and the longest of these is attributed to tidal distortion of the cool supergiant by the equally massive hot companion. A theoretical “distortion” light curve, when faced against the observations, indicated the radius of the supergiant to be significantly smaller than the accepted value of ~1600R⊙. This conclusion is examined in the context of a pulse of polarized red light occurring near the time of periastron and interpreted as Roche Lobe overflow of the supergiant envelope. It is shown that the photometric and polarimetrie results may be made accordant, not by appeal to a very large level of scattered red light, but rather by invoking the loss of constraint originally imposed by the Roche Lobe geometry.
Here, we report reproducible and accurate measurement of crystallographic parameters using scanning transmission electron microscopy. This is made possible by removing drift and residual scan distortion. We demonstrate real-space lattice parameter measurements with <0.1% error for complex-layered chalcogenides Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and a Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 nanostructured alloy. Pairing the technique with atomic resolution spectroscopy, we connect local structure with chemistry and bonding. Combining these results with density functional theory, we show that the incorporation of Se into Bi2Te3 causes charge redistribution that anomalously increases the van der Waals gap between building blocks of the layered structure. The results show that atomic resolution imaging with electrons can accurately and robustly quantify crystallography at the nanoscale.
Clinical and population-based studies report increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in individuals with anorexia nervosa and in their relatives. No nationwide study has yet been published on co-occurrence of these disorders.
To investigate comorbidity of ASD in individuals with anorexia nervosa, and aggregation of ASD and anorexia nervosa in their relatives.
In Danish registers we identified all individuals born in 1981–2008, their parents, and full and half siblings, and linked them to data on hospital admissions for psychiatric disorders.
Risk of comorbidity of ASD in probands with anorexia nervosa and aggregation of ASD in families of anorexia nervosa probands were increased. However, the risk of comorbid and familial ASD did not differ significantly from comorbid and familial major depression or any psychiatric disorder in anorexia nervosa probands.
We confirm aggregation of ASD in probands with anorexia nervosa and in their relatives; however, the relationship between anorexia nervosa and ASD appears to be non-specific.
The purpose of this study was to use selected Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) tests to examine the dimensional structure of cognitive dysfunction in first episode of psychosis (FEP) patients compared with cognition in healthy subjects.
A total of 109 FEP patients and 96 healthy volunteers were administered eight CANTAB tests of cognitive function. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to estimate dimensionality within the test results. The dimensions identified by the PCA were assumed to reflect underlying cognitive traits. The plausibility of latent factor models was estimated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Multi-group CFA (MGCFA) was used to test for measurement invariance of factors between groups. The nature and severity of cognitive deficits amongst patients as opposed to controls were evaluated using a general linear model.
Amongst subjects PCA identified two underlying cognitive traits: (i) a broad cognitive domain; (ii) attention/memory and executive function domains. Corresponding CFA models were built that fitted data well for both FEP patients and healthy volunteers. As in MGCFA latent variables appeared differently defined in patient and control groups, differences had to be ascribed using subtest scores rather than their aggregates. At subtest score level the patients performed significantly worse than healthy subjects in all comparisons (p < 0.001).
Results of this study demonstrate that the structure of underlying cognitive abilities as measured by a selection of CANTAB tests is not the same for healthy individuals and FEP patients, with patients displaying widespread cognitive impairment.
In this work, we investigate the structural properties of (GaIn)(AsN)/GaAs multiple quantum wells (MQW) grown at low temperature by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. The structural properties, in particular the In- and N-incorporation, the lattice strain (strain modulation), the structural perfection of the metastable (GaIn)(AsN) material system and the structural quality of the (GaIn)(AsN)/GaAs interfaces are investigated by means of high-resolution x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and secondary ion mass spectrometry. We demonstrate that (GaIn)(AsN) layers of high structural quality can be fabricated up to lattice mismatches of 4%. Our experiments reveal that N and In atoms are localized in the quaternary material and no evidences of In-segregation or N-interdiffusion could be found. TEM analyses reveal a low defect density in the highly strained layers, but no clustering or interface undulation could be detected. High-resolution TEM images show that (GaIn)(AsN)/GaAs interfaces are slightly rougher than GaAs/(GaIn)(AsN) ones.
Grain boundaries are known to be able to impede phonon transport in the material. In the thermoelectric application, this phenomenon could help improve the figure-of-merit (ZT) and enhance the thermal to electrical conversion. Bi2Te3 based alloys are renowned for their high ZT around room temperature but still need improvements, in both n- and p-type materials, for the resulting power generation devices to be more competitive. To implement high density of grain boundaries into the bulk materials, a bottom-up approach is employed in this work: consolidations of nanocrystalline powders into bulk disks. Nanocrystalline powders are developed by high energy cryogenic mechanical alloying that produces Bi(Sb)Te(Se) alloy powders with grain size in the range of 7 to 14 nm, which is about 25% finer compared to room temperature mechanical alloying. High density of grain boundaries are preserved from the powders to the bulk materials through optimized high pressure hot pressing. The consolidated bulk materials have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope for their composition and microstructure. They mainly consist of grains in the scale of 100 nm with some distributions of finer grains in both types of materials. Preliminary transport property measurements show that the thermal conductivity is significantly reduced at and around room temperature: about 0.65 W/m-K for the n-type BiTe(Se) and 0.85 W/m-K for the p-type Bi(Sb)Te, which are attributed to increased phonon scattering provided by the nanostructure and therefore enhanced ZT about 1.35 for the n-type and 1.21 for the p-type are observed. Detailed transport properties, such as the electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and power factor as well as the resulting ZT as a function of temperature will be described.
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) from uteroplacental dysfunction causes impaired nephrogenesis and ultimately hypertension, but it is unknown whether IUGR caused by insufficient space for placental development seen in uterine anomalies and/or multifetal gestation exerts the same effects. Fetal renal development and metabolism were studied in an ovine space-restriction model by combining unilateral horn surgical ligation and/or multifetal gestation. Reduced placental attachment sites and placental weight per fetus defined space-restricted (USR) v. control nonrestricted (NSR) fetuses. Space-restricted fetuses exhibited evidence for decreased plasma volume, with higher hematocrit and plasma albumin at gestational day (GD) 120, followed by lower blood pO2, and higher osmolarity and creatinine at GD130, P < 0.05 for all. By combining treatments, fetal kidney weight relative to fetal weight was inversely related to both fetal weight and plasma creatinine levels, P < 0.05 for both. At GD130, space-restricted fetal kidney weights, cortical depths and glomerular generations were decreased, P < 0.05 for all. Space-restricted kidneys underwent an adaptive response by prolonging active nephrogenesis and increasing maculae densa number, P < 0.05 for both. The major renal adaptations in space-restricted IUGR fetuses included immaturity in both development and endocrine function, with evidence for impaired renal excretory function.
In this work, we investigate the structural properties of (GaIn)(AsN)/GaAs multiplequantum wells (MQW) grown at low temperature by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. The structural properties, in particular the In- and N-incorporation, the lattice strain (strain modulation), the structural perfection of the metastable (GaIn)(AsN) material system and the structural quality of the (GaIn)(AsN)/GaAs interfaces are investigated by means of high-resolution x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and secondary ion mass spectrometry. We demonstrate that (GaIn)(AsN) layers of high structural quality can be fabricated up to lattice mismatches of 4%. Our experiments reveal that N and In atoms are localized in the quaternary material and no evidences of In-segregation or N-interdiffusion could be found. TEM analyses reveal a low defect density in the highly strained layers, but no clustering or interface undulation could be detected. High-resolution TEM images show that (GaIn)(AsN)/GaAs interfaces are slightly rougher than GaAs/(GaIn)(AsN) ones.